- NAME
- Initializing the library
- Handling GENs
- Global numerical constants
- Iterating over small primes, low-level interface
- Handling the PARI stack
- The PARI heap
- Handling user and temp variables
- Adding functions to PARI
- Globals related to PARI configuration
- NAME
- Level 0 kernel (operations on ulongs)
- Level 1 kernel (operations on longs, integers and reals)
- Creation
- Assignment
- Copy
- Conversions
- Integer parts
- 2-adic valuations and shifts
- From t_INT to bits or digits in base 2^k and back
- Integer valuation
- Generic unary operators
- Comparison operators
- Generic binary operators
- Exact division and divisibility
- Division with integral operands and t_REAL result
- Division with remainder
- Modulo to longs
- Powering, Square root
- GCD, extended GCD and LCM
- Continued fractions and convergents
- Pseudo-random integers
- Modular operations
- Extending functions to vector inputs
- Miscellaneous arithmetic functions

- NAME
- Naming scheme
- Modular arithmetic
- FpC / FpV, FpM
- Flc / Flv, Flm
- F2c / F2v, F2m
- FlxqV, FlxqM
- FpX
- FpXQ, Fq
- FpXQ
- Fq
- FpXX, FpXY
- FpXQX, FqX
- FpXQXQ, FqXQ
- Flx
- FlxV
- FlxT
- Flxq
- FlxX
- FlxqX
- FlxqXQ
- F2x
- F2xq
- F2xqV, F2xqM.
- F2xX.
- F2xXV/F2xXC.
- F2xqX.
- F2xqXQ.
- Functions returning objects with t_INTMOD coefficients
- Chinese remainder theorem over Z
- Rational reconstruction
- Zp
- ZpX
- ZpXQ
- Zq
- ZpXQM
- ZpXQX
- ZqX
- Other p-adic functions
- Conversions involving single precision objects

- Higher arithmetic over Z: primes, factorization
- Integral, rational and generic linear algebra
- Integral, rational and generic polynomial arithmetic
- NAME
- Black box groups
- Black box finite fields
- Black box algebra
- Black box ring
- Black box free Z_p-modules
- NAME
- Assignment
- Conversions
- Constructors
- Integer parts
- Valuation and shift
- Comparison operators
- Miscellaneous Boolean functions
- Sorting
- Divisibility, Euclidean division
- GCD, content and primitive part
- Generic arithmetic operators
- Generic operators: product, powering, factorback
- Matrix and polynomial norms
- Substitution and evaluation
- NAME
- Fractions
- Real numbers
- Complex numbers
- Quadratic numbers and binary quadratic forms
- Polynomials
- Power series
- Functions to handle t_FFELT
- Transcendental functions
- Permutations
- Small groups
- NAME
- Character strings
- Output
- Files
- Errors
- Internal errors, ``system'' errors
- Syntax errors, type errors
- e_DIM arguments submitted to function s have inconsistent dimensions. E.g., when solving a linear system, or trying to compute the determinant of a non-square matrix.
- e_FLAG A flag argument is out of bounds in function s.
- e_NOTFUNC Generated by the PARI evaluator; tried to use a GEN which is not a t_CLOSURE in a function call syntax (as in f = 1; f(2);).
- e_OP Impossible operation between two objects than cannot be typecast to a sensible common domain for deeper reasons than a type mismatch, usually for arithmetic reasons. As in O(2) + O(3)
- e_PRIORITY object o in function s contains variables whose priority is incompatible with the expected operation. E.g. Pol([x,1], 'y)
- e_SYNTAX Syntax error, generated by the PARI parser.
- e_TYPE An argument x of function s had an unexpected type. (As in factor("blah").)
- e_TYPE2 Forbidden operation between two objects than cannot be typecast to a sensible common domain, because their types do not match up. (As in Mod(1,2) + Pi.)
- e_VAR polynomials x and y submitted to function s have inconsistent variables. E.g., considering the algebraic number Mod(t,t^2+1) in nfinit(x^2+1).

- Overflows
- e_COMPONENT Trying to access an inexistent component in a vector/matrix/list in a function
- e_DOMAIN An argument x is not in the function's domain (as in moebius(0) or zeta(1)).
- e_MAXPRIME A function using the precomputed list of prime numbers ran out of primes.
- e_MEM A call to pari_malloc or pari_realloc failed.
- e_OVERFLOW An object in function s becomes too large to be represented within PARI's hardcoded limits. (As in 2^2^2^10 or exp(1e100), which overflow in lg and expo.)
- e_PREC Function s fails because input accuracy is too low. (As in floor(1e100) at default accuracy.)
- e_STACK The PARI stack overflows.

- Errors triggered intentionally
- Mathematical errors
- e_CONSTPOL An argument of function s is a constant polynomial, which does not make sense. (As in galoisinit(Pol(1)).)
- e_COPRIME Function s expected two coprime arguments, and did receive x, y which were not.
- e_INV Tried to invert a non-invertible object x.
- e_IRREDPOL Function s expected an irreducible polynomial, and did not receive one. (As in nfinit(x^2-1).)
- e_MISC Generic uncategorized error.
- e_MODULUS moduli x and y submitted to function s are inconsistent. E.g., considering the algebraic number Mod(t,t^2+1) in nfinit(t^3-2).
- e_PRIME Function s expected a prime number, and did receive p, which was not. (As in idealprimedec(nf, 4).)
- e_ROOTS0 An argument of function s is a zero polynomial, and we need to consider its roots. (As in polroots(0).)
- e_SQRTN Tried to compute an n-th root of x, which does not exist, in function s. (As in sqrt(Mod(-1,3)).)

- Miscellaneous functions

- Hashtables
- Dynamic arrays
- Vectors and Matrices
- Vectors of small integers
- NAME
- Handling closures
- Defaults
- Records and Lazy vectors

libPARI - Technical Reference Guide: the basics

In the following chapters, we describe all public low-level functions of the PARI library. These include specialized functions for handling all the PARI types. Simple higher level functions, such as arithmetic or transcendental functions, are described in Chapter 3 of the GP user's manual; we will eventually see more general or flexible versions in the chapters to come. A general introduction to the major concepts of PARI programming can be found in Chapter 4, which you should really read first.

We shall now study specialized functions, more efficient than the library wrappers, but sloppier on argument checking and damage control; besides speed, their main advantage is to give finer control about the inner workings of generic routines, offering more options to the programmer.

@3**Important advice.** Generic routines eventually call lower level functions. Optimize your algorithms first, not overhead and conversion costs between PARI routines. For generic operations, use generic routines first; do not waste time looking for the most specialized one available unless you identify a genuine bottleneck, or you need some special behavior the generic routine does not offer. The PARI source code is part of the documentation; look for inspiration there.

The type `long`

denotes a `BITS_IN_LONG`

-bit signed long integer (32 or 64 bits). The type `ulong`

is defined as `unsigned long`

. The word *stack* always refer to the PARI stack, allocated through an initial `pari_init`

call. Refer to Chapters 1--2 and 4 for general background.

We shall often refer to the notion of *shallow* function, which means that some components of the result may point to components of the input, which is more efficient than a *deep* copy (full recursive copy of the object tree). Such outputs are not suitable for `gerepileupto`

and particular care must be taken when garbage collecting objects which have been input to shallow functions: corresponding outputs also become invalid and should no longer be accessed.

A function is *not stack clean* if it leaves intermediate data on the stack besides its output, for efficiency reasons.

The following functions enable you to start using the PARI functions in a program, and cleanup without exiting the whole program.

`void `

**pari_init**`(size_t size, ulong maxprime)`

initialize the library, with a stack of `size`

bytes and a prime table up to the maximum of `maxprime`

and `2^{16}`

. Unless otherwise mentioned, no PARI function will function properly before such an initialization.

`void `

**pari_close**`(void)`

stop using the library (assuming it was initialized with `pari_init`

) and frees all allocated objects.

`void `

**pari_init_opts**`(size_t size, ulong maxprime, ulong opts)`

as `pari_init`

, more flexible. `opts`

is a mask of flags among the following:

`INIT_JMPm`

: install PARI error handler. When an exception is raised, the program is terminated with `exit(1)`

.

`INIT_SIGm`

: install PARI signal handler.

`INIT_DFTm`

: initialize the `GP_DATA`

environment structure. This one *must* be enabled once. If you close pari, then restart it, you need not reinitialize `GP_DATA`

; if you do not, then old values are restored.

`INIT_noPRIMEm`

: do not compute the prime table (ignore the `maxprime`

argument). The user *must* call `pari_init_primes`

later.

`INIT_noIMTm`

: (technical, see `pari_mt_init`

in the Developer's Guide for detail). Do not call `pari_mt_init`

to initialize the multi-thread engine. If this flag is set, `pari_mt_init()`

will need to be called manually. See `examples/pari-mt.c`

for an example.

`INIT_noINTGMPm`

: do not install PARI-specific GMP memory functions. This option is ignored when the GMP library is not in use. You may install PARI-specific GMP memory functions later by calling

`void `

**pari_kernel_init**`(void)`

@3and restore the previous values using

`void `

**pari_kernel_close**`(void)`

This option should not be used without a thorough understanding of the problem you are trying to solve. The GMP memory functions are global variables used by the GMP library. If your program is linked with two libraries that require these variables to be set to different values, conflict ensues. To avoid a conflict, the proper solution is to record their values with `mp_get_memory_functions`

and to call `mp_set_memory_functions`

to restore the expected values each time the code switches from using one library to the other. Here is an example:

```
void *(*pari_alloc_ptr) (size_t);
void *(*pari_realloc_ptr) (void *, size_t, size_t);
void (*pari_free_ptr) (void *, size_t);
void *(*otherlib_alloc_ptr) (size_t);
void *(*otherlib_realloc_ptr) (void *, size_t, size_t);
void (*otherlib_free_ptr) (void *, size_t);
void init(void)
{
pari_init(8000000, 500000);
mp_get_memory_functions(&pari_alloc_ptr,&pari_realloc_ptr,
&pari_free_ptr);
otherlib_init();
mp_get_memory_functions(&otherlib_alloc_ptr,&otherlib_realloc_ptr,
&otherlib_free_ptr);
}
void function_that_use_pari(void)
{
mp_set_memory_functions(pari_alloc_ptr,pari_realloc_ptr,
pari_free_ptr);
/*use PARI functions*/
}
void function_that_use_otherlib(void)
{
mp_set_memory_functions(otherlib_alloc_ptr,otherlib_realloc_ptr,
otherlib_free_ptr);
/*use OTHERLIB functions*/
}
```

`void `

**pari_close_opts**`(ulong init_opts)`

as `pari_close`

, for a library initialized with a mask of options using `pari_init_opts`

. `opts`

is a mask of flags among

`INIT_SIGm`

: restore `SIG_DFL`

default action for signals tampered with by PARI signal handler.

`INIT_DFTm`

: frees the `GP_DATA`

environment structure.

`INIT_noIMTm`

: (technical, see `pari_mt_init`

in the Developer's Guide for detail). Do not call `pari_mt_close`

to close the multi-thread engine. `INIT_noINTGMPm`

: do not restore GMP memory functions.

`void `

**pari_sig_init**`(void (*f)(int))`

install the signal handler `f`

(see `signal(2)`

): the signals `SIGBUS`

, `SIGFPE`

, `SIGINT`

, `SIGBREAK`

, `SIGPIPE`

and `SIGSEGV`

are concerned.

`void `

**pari_init_primes**`(ulong maxprime)`

Initialize the PARI primes. This function is called by `pari_init(...,maxprime)`

. It is provided for users calling `pari_init_opts`

with the flag `INIT_noPRIMEm`

.

`void `

**pari_sighandler**`(int signum)`

the actual signal handler that PARI uses. This can be used as argument to `pari_sig_init`

or `signal(2)`

.

`void `

**pari_stackcheck_init**`(void *stackbase)`

controls the system stack exhaustion checking code in the GP interpreter. This should be used when the system stack base address change or when the address seen by `pari_init`

is too far from the base address. If `stackbase`

is `NULL`

, disable the check, else set the base address to `stackbase`

. It is normally used this way

```
int thread_start (...)
{
long first_item_on_the_stack;
...
pari_stackcheck_init(&first_item_on_the_stack);
}
```

`int `

**pari_daemon**`(void)`

forks a PARI daemon, detaching from the main process group. The function returns 1 in the parent, and 0 in the forked son.

`void `

**paristack_setsize**`(size_t rsize, size_t vsize)`

sets the default `parisize`

to `rsize`

and the default `parisizemax`

to `vsize`

, and reallocate the stack to match these value, destroying its content. Generally used just after `pari_init`

.

`void `

**paristack_resize**`(ulong newsize)`

changes the current stack size to `newsize`

(double it if `newsize`

is 0). The new size is clipped to be at least the current stack size and at most `parisizemax`

. The stack content is not affected by this operation.

`void `

**parivstack_reset**`(void)`

resets the current stack to its default size `parisize`

, destroying its content. Used to recover memory after a computation that enlarged the stack.

`void `

**paristack_newrsize**`(ulong newsize)`

*(does not return)*. Library version of

` default(parisize, "newsize")`

@3Set the default `parisize`

to `newsize`

, or double `parisize`

if `newsize`

is equal to 0, then call `cb_pari_err_recover(-1)`

.

`void `

**parivstack_resize**`(ulong newsize)`

*(does not return)*. Library version of

` default(parisizemax, "newsize")`

@3Set the default `parisizemax`

to `newsize`

and call `cb_pari_err_recover(-1)`

.

An `entree`

is the generic object attached to an identifier (a name) in GP's interpreter, be it a built-in or user function, or a variable. For a function, it has at least the following fields:

`char *name`

: the name under which the interpreter knows us.

`void *value`

: a pointer to the C function to call.

`long menu`

: a small integer ` >= 1`

(to which group of function help do we belong, for the `?n`

help menu).

`char *code`

: the prototype code.

`char *help`

: the help text for the function.

A routine in GP is described to the analyzer by an `entree`

structure. Built-in PARI routines are grouped in *modules*, which are arrays of `entree`

structs, the last of which satisfy `name = NULL`

(sentinel). There are currently five modules in PARI/GP:

@3***** general functions (`functions_basic`

, known to `libpari`

),

@3***** gp-specific functions (`functions_gp`

),

@3***** gp-specific highlevel functions (`functions_highlevel`

),

@3and two modules of obsolete functions. The function `pari_init`

initializes the interpreter and declares all symbols in `functions_basic`

. You may declare further functions on a case by case basis or as a whole module using

`void `

**pari_add_function**`(entree *ep)`

adds a single routine to the table of symbols in the interpreter. It assumes `pari_init`

has been called.

`void `

**pari_add_module**`(entree *mod)`

adds all the routines in module `mod`

to the table of symbols in the interpreter. It assumes `pari_init`

has been called.

@3For instance, gp implements a number of private routines, which it adds to the default set via the calls

```
pari_add_module(functions_gp);
pari_add_module(functions_highlevel);
```

A GP `default`

is likewise attached to a helper routine, that is run when the value is consulted, or changed by `default0`

or `setdefault`

. Such routines are grouped in the module `functions_default`

.

`void `

**pari_add_defaults_module**`(entree *mod)`

adds all the defaults in module `mod`

to the interpreter. It assumes that `pari_init`

has been called. From this point on, all defaults in module `mod`

are known to `setdefault`

and friends.

The `gp`

calculator associates elaborate functions (for instance the break loop handler) to the following callbacks, and so can you:

\doc{cb_pari_ask_confirm}{void (*cb_pari_ask_confirm)(const char *s)} initialized to `NULL`

. Called with argument `s`

whenever PARI wants confirmation for action `s`

, for instance in `secure`

mode.

\doc{cb_pari_init_histfile}{void (*cb_pari_init_histfile)(void)} initialized to `NULL`

. Called when the `histfile`

default is changed. The intent is for that callback to read the file content, append it to history in memory, then dump the expanded history to the new `histfile`

.

\doc{cb_pari_is_interactive}{int (*cb_pari_is_interactive)(void)}; initialized to `NULL`

.

\doc{cb_pari_quit}{void (*cb_pari_quit)(long)} initialized to a no-op. Called when `gp`

must evaluate the `quit`

command.

\doc{cb_pari_start_output}{void (*cb_pari_start_output)(void)} initialized to `NULL`

.

\doc{cb_pari_handle_exception}{int (*cb_pari_handle_exception)(long)} initialized to `NULL`

. If not `NULL`

, this routine is called with argument `-1`

on `SIGINT`

, and argument `err`

on error `err`

. If it returns a non-zero value, the error or signal handler returns, in effect further ignoring the error or signal, otherwise it raises a fatal error. A possible simple-minded handler, used by the `gp`

interpreter, is

`int `

**gp_handle_exception**`(long err)`

if the `breakloop`

default is enabled (set to `1`

) and `cb_pari_break_loop`

is not `NULL`

, we call this routine with `err`

argument and return the result.

\doc{cb_pari_err_handle}{int (*cb_pari_err_handle)(GEN)} If not `NULL`

, this routine is called with a `t_ERROR`

argument from `pari_err`

. If it returns a non-zero value, the error returns, in effect further ignoring the error, otherwise it raises a fatal error.

The default behaviour is to print a descriptive error message (display the error), then return 0, thereby raising a fatal error. This differs from `cb_pari_handle_exception`

in that the function is not called on `SIGINT`

(which do not generate a `t_ERROR`

), only from `pari_err`

. Use `cb_pari_sigint`

if you need to handle `SIGINT`

as well.

\doc{cb_pari_break_loop}{int (*cb_pari_break_loop)(int)} initialized to `NULL`

.

\doc{cb_pari_sigint}{void (*cb_pari_sigint)(void)}. Function called when we receive `SIGINT`

. By default, raises

` pari_err(e_MISC, "user interrupt");`

@3A possible simple-minded variant, used by the `gp`

interpreter, is

`void `

**gp_sigint_fun**`(void)`

\doc{cb_pari_pre_recover}{void (*cb_pari_err_recover)(long)} initialized to `NULL`

. If not `NULL`

, this routine is called just before PARI cleans up from an error. It is not required to return. The error number is passed as argument, unless the PARI stack has been destroyed (`allocatemem`

), in which case `-1`

is passed.

\doc{cb_pari_err_recover}{void (*cb_pari_err_recover)(long)} initialized to `pari_exit()`

. This callback must not return. It is called after PARI has cleaned-up from an error. The error number is passed as argument, unless the PARI stack has been destroyed, in which case it is called with argument `-1`

.

\doc{cb_pari_whatnow}{int (*cb_pari_whatnow)(PariOUT *out, const char *s, int flag)} initialized to `NULL`

. If not `NULL`

, must check whether `s`

existed in older versions of `pari`

(the `gp`

callback checks against `pari-1.39.15`

). All output must be done via `out`

methods.

@3***** *flag*` = 0`

: should print verbosely the answer, including help text if available.

@3***** *flag*` = 1`

: must return `0`

if the function did not change, and a non-`0`

result otherwise. May print a help message.

`pari_library_path`

: If set, It should be a path to the libpari library. It is used by the function `gpinstall`

to locate the PARI library when searching for symbols. This should only be useful on Windows.

`void `

**pari_ask_confirm**`(const char *s)`

raise an error if the callback `cb_pari_ask_confirm`

is `NULL`

. Otherwise calls

` cb_pari_ask_confirm(s);`

`char* `

**gp_filter**`(const char *s)`

pre-processor for the GP parser: filter out whitespace and GP comments from `s`

.

`GEN `

**pari_compile_str**`(const char *s)`

low-level form of `compile_str`

: assumes that `s`

does not contain spaces or GP comments and returns the closure attached to the GP expression `s`

. Note that GP metacommands are not recognized.

`int `

**gp_meta**`(const char *s, int ismain)`

low-level component of `gp_read_str`

: assumes that `s`

does not contain spaces or GP comments and try to interpret `s`

as a GP metacommand (e.g. starting by `\`

or `?`

). If successful, execute the metacommand and return `1`

; otherwise return `0`

. The `ismain`

parameter modifies the way `\r`

commands are handled: if non-zero, act as if the file contents were entered via standard input (i.e. call `switchin`

and divert `pari_infile`

); otherwise, simply call `gp_read_file`

.

`void `

**pari_hit_return**`(void)`

wait for the use to enter `\n`

via standard input.

`void `

**gp_load_gprc**`(void)`

read and execute the user's `GPRC`

file.

`void `

**pari_center**`(const char *s)`

print `s`

, centered.

`void `

**pari_print_version**`(void)`

print verbose version information.

`const char* `

**gp_format_time**`(long t)`

format a delay of `t`

ms suitable for `gp`

output, with `timer`

set.

`const char* `

**gp_format_prompt**`(const char *p)`

format a prompt `p`

suitable for `gp`

prompting (includes colors and protecting ANSI escape sequences for readline).

`void `

**pari_alarm**`(long s)`

set an alarm after `s`

seconds (raise an `e_ALARM`

exception).

`void `

**gp_help**`(const char *s, long flag)`

print help for `s`

, depending on the value of *flag*:

@3***** `h_REGULAR`

, basic help (`?`

);

@3***** `h_LONG`

, extended help (`??`

);

@3***** `h_APROPOS`

, a propos help (`??`

).

`const char ** `

**gphelp_keyword_list**`(void)`

return a `NULL`

-terminated array a strings, containing keywords known to `gphelp`

besides GP functions (e.g. `modulus`

or `operator`

). Used by the online help system and the contextual completion engine.

`void `

**gp_echo_and_log**`(const char *p, const char *s)`

given a prompt `p`

and attached input command `s`

, update logfile and possibly print on standard output if `echo`

is set and we are not in interactive mode. The callback `cb_pari_is_interactive`

must be set to a sensible value.

`void `

**gp_alarm_handler**`(int sig)`

the `SIGALRM`

handler set by the `gp`

interpreter.

`void `

**print_fun_list**`(char **list, long n)`

print all elements of `list`

in columns, pausing (hit return) every `n`

lines. `list`

is `NULL`

terminated.

`void `

**gp_context_save**`(struct gp_context* rec)`

save the current GP context.

`void `

**gp_context_restore**`(struct gp_context* rec)`

restore a GP context. The new context must be an ancestor of the current context.

These functions allow to control the GP history (the `%`

operator).

`void `

**pari_add_hist**`(GEN x, long t)`

adds `x`

as the last history entry; `t`

is the time we used to compute it.

`GEN `

**pari_get_hist**`(long p)`

, if `p > 0`

returns entry of index `p`

(i.e. `%p`

), else returns entry of index `n+p`

where `n`

is the index of the last entry (used for `%`

, `%``

, `%```

, etc.).

`long `

**pari_get_histtime**`(long p)`

as `pari_get_hist`

, returning the time used to compute the history entry, instead of the entry itself.

`ulong `

**pari_nb_hist**`(void)`

return the index of the last entry.

`GEN`

s@3Almost all these functions are either macros or inlined. Unless mentioned otherwise, they do not evaluate their arguments twice. Most of them are specific to a set of types, although no consistency checks are made: e.g. one may access the `sign`

of a `t_PADIC`

, but the result is meaningless.

`GEN `

**cgetg**`(long l, long t)`

allocates (the root of) a `GEN`

of type `t`

and length `l`

. Sets `z[0]`

.

`GEN `

**cgeti**`(long l)`

allocates a `t_INT`

of length `l`

(including the 2 codewords). Sets `z[0]`

only.

`GEN `

**cgetr**`(long l)`

allocates a `t_REAL`

of length `l`

(including the 2 codewords). Sets `z[0]`

only.

`GEN `

**cgetc**`(long prec)`

allocates a `t_COMPLEX`

whose real and imaginary parts are `t_REAL`

s of length `prec`

.

`GEN `

**cgetg_copy**`(GEN x, long *lx)`

fast version of `cgetg`

: allocate a `GEN`

with the same type and length as `x`

, setting `*lx`

to `lg(x)`

as a side-effect. (Only sets the first codeword.) This is a little faster than `cgetg`

since we may reuse the bitmask in `x[0]`

instead of recomputing it, and we do not need to check that the length does not overflow the possibilities of the implementation (since an object with that length already exists). Note that `cgetg`

with arguments known at compile time, as in

` cgetg(3, t_INTMOD)`

@3will be even faster since the compiler will directly perform all computations and checks.

`GEN `

**vectrunc_init**`(long l)`

perform `cgetg(l,t_VEC)`

, then set the length to `1`

and return the result. This is used to implement vectors whose final length is easily bounded at creation time, that we intend to fill gradually using:

`void `

**vectrunc_append**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

assuming `x`

was allocated using `vectrunc_init`

, appends `y`

as the last element of `x`

, which grows in the process. The function is shallow: we append `y`

, not a copy; it is equivalent to

` long lx = lg(x); gel(x,lx) = y; setlg(x, lx+1);`

Beware that the maximal size of `x`

(the `l`

argument to `vectrunc_init`

) is unknown, hence unchecked, and stack corruption will occur if we append more than `l-1`

elements to `x`

. Use the safer (but slower) `shallowconcat`

when `l`

is not easy to bound in advance.

An other possibility is simply to allocate using `cgetg(l, t)`

then fill the components as they become available: this time the downside is that we do not obtain a correct `GEN`

until the vector is complete. Almost no PARI function will be able to operate on it.

`void `

**vectrunc_append_batch**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

successively apply

` vectrunc_append(x, gel(y, i))`

for all elements of the vector `y`

.

`GEN `

**vecsmalltrunc_init**`(long l)`

`void `

**vecsmalltrunc_append**`(GEN x, long t)`

analog to the above for a `t_VECSMALL`

container.

These routines convert a non-negative length to different units. Their behavior is undefined at negative integers.

`long `

**ndec2nlong**`(long x)`

converts a number of decimal digits to a number of words. Returns ` 1 + floor(x x BIL `

*log* `_2 10)`

.

`long `

**ndec2prec**`(long x)`

converts a number of decimal digits to a number of codewords. This is equal to 2 + `ndec2nlong(x)`

.

`long `

**ndec2nbits**`(long x)`

convers a number of decimal digits to a number of bits.

`long `

**prec2ndec**`(long x)`

converts a number of codewords to a number of decimal digits.

`long `

**nbits2nlong**`(long x)`

converts a number of bits to a number of words. Returns the smallest word count containing `x`

bits, i.e ` ceil(x / BIL)`

.

`long `

**nbits2ndec**`(long x)`

converts a number of bits to a number of decimal digits.

`long `

**nbits2lg**`(long x)`

converts a number of bits to a length in code words. Currently an alias for `nbits2nlong`

.

`long `

**nbits2prec**`(long x)`

converts a number of bits to a number of codewords. This is equal to 2 + `nbits2nlong(x)`

.

`long `

**nbits2extraprec**`(long x)`

converts a number of bits to the mantissa length of a `t_REAL`

in codewords. This is currently an alias to `nbits2nlong(x)`

.

`long `

**nchar2nlong**`(long x)`

converts a number of bytes to number of words. Returns the smallest word count containing `x`

bytes, i.e `ceil(x / sizeof(long))`

.

`long `

**prec2nbits**`(long x)`

converts a `t_REAL`

length into a number of significant bits; returns `(x - 2)BIL`

.

`double `

**prec2nbits_mul**`(long x, double y)`

returns `prec2nbits`

`(x) x y`

.

`long `

**bit_accuracy**`(long x)`

converts a length into a number of significant bits; currently an alias for `prec2nbits`

.

`double `

**bit_accuracy_mul**`(long x, double y)`

returns `bit_accuracy`

`(x) x y`

.

`long `

**realprec**`(GEN x)`

length of a `t_REAL`

in words; currently an alias for `lg`

.

`long `

**bit_prec**`(GEN x)`

length of a `t_REAL`

in bits.

`long `

**precdbl**`(long prec)`

given a length in words corresponding to a `t_REAL`

precision, return the length corresponding to doubling the precision. Due to the presence of 2 code words, this is `2(prec - 2) + 2`

.

`long `

**typ**`(GEN x)`

returns the type number of `x`

. The header files included through `pari.h`

define symbolic constants for the `GEN`

types: `t_INT`

etc. Never use their actual numerical values. E.g to determine whether `x`

is a `t_INT`

, simply check

` if (typ(x) == t_INT) { }`

The types are internally ordered and this simplifies the implementation of commutative binary operations (e.g addition, gcd). Avoid using the ordering directly, as it may change in the future; use type grouping functions instead ("Label se:typegroup").

`const char* `

**type_name**`(long t)`

given a type number `t`

this routine returns a string containing its symbolic name. E.g `type_name(t_INT)`

returns `"t_INT"`

. The return value is read-only.

`long `

**lg**`(GEN x)`

returns the length of `x`

in `BIL`

-bit words.

`long `

**lgefint**`(GEN x)`

returns the effective length of the `t_INT`

`x`

in `BIL`

-bit words.

`long `

**signe**`(GEN x)`

returns the sign (`-1`

, 0 or 1) of `x`

. Can be used for `t_INT`

, `t_REAL`

, `t_POL`

and `t_SER`

(for the last two types, only 0 or 1 are possible).

`long `

**gsigne**`(GEN x)`

returns the sign of a real number `x`

, valid for `t_INT`

, `t_REAL`

as `signe`

, but also for `t_FRAC`

and `t_QUAD`

of positive discriminants. Raise a type error if `typ(x)`

is not among those.

`long `

**expi**`(GEN x)`

returns the binary exponent of the real number equal to the `t_INT`

`x`

. This is a special case of `gexpo`

.

`long `

**expo**`(GEN x)`

returns the binary exponent of the `t_REAL`

`x`

.

`long `

**mpexpo**`(GEN x)`

returns the binary exponent of the `t_INT`

or `t_REAL`

`x`

.

`long `

**gexpo**`(GEN x)`

same as `expo`

, but also valid when `x`

is not a `t_REAL`

(returns the largest exponent found among the components of `x`

). When `x`

is an exact 0, this returns `-HIGHEXPOBIT`

, which is lower than any valid exponent.

`long `

**valp**`(GEN x)`

returns the `p`

-adic valuation (for a `t_PADIC`

) or `X`

-adic valuation (for a `t_SER`

, taken with respect to the main variable) of `x`

.

`long `

**precp**`(GEN x)`

returns the precision of the `t_PADIC`

`x`

.

`long `

**varn**`(GEN x)`

returns the variable number of the `t_POL`

or `t_SER`

`x`

(between 0 and `MAXVARN`

).

`long `

**gvar**`(GEN x)`

returns the main variable number when any variable at all occurs in the composite object `x`

(the smallest variable number which occurs), and `NO_VARIABLE`

otherwise.

`long `

**gvar2**`(GEN x)`

returns the variable number for the ring over which `x`

is defined, e.g. if `x\in `

**Z**`[a][b]`

return (the variable number for) `a`

. Return `NO_VARIABLE`

if `x`

has no variable or is not defined over a polynomial ring.

`long `

**degpol**`(GEN x)`

is a simple macro returning `lg(x) - 3`

. This is the degree of the `t_POL`

`x`

with respect to its main variable, *if* its leading coefficient is non-zero (a rational `0`

is impossible, but an inexact `0`

is allowed, as well as an exact modular `0`

, e.g. `Mod(0,2)`

). If `x`

has no coefficients (rational `0`

polynomial), its length is `2`

and we return the expected `-1`

.

`long `

**lgpol**`(GEN x)`

is equal to `degpol(x) + 1`

. Used to loop over the coefficients of a `t_POL`

in the following situation:

```
GEN xd = x + 2;
long i, l = lgpol(x);
for (i = 0; i < l; i++) foo( xd[i] ).
```

`long `

**precision**`(GEN x)`

If `x`

is of type `t_REAL`

, returns the precision of `x`

, namely the length of `x`

in `BIL`

-bit words if `x`

is not zero, and a reasonable quantity obtained from the exponent of `x`

if `x`

is numerically equal to zero. If `x`

is of type `t_COMPLEX`

, returns the minimum of the precisions of the real and imaginary part. Otherwise, returns 0 (which stands for infinite precision).

`long `

**lgcols**`(GEN x)`

is equal to `lg(gel(x,1))`

. This is the length of the columns of a `t_MAT`

with at least one column.

`long `

**nbrows**`(GEN x)`

is equal to `lg(gel(x,1))-1`

. This is the number of rows of a `t_MAT`

with at least one column.

`long `

**gprecision**`(GEN x)`

as `precision`

for scalars. Returns the lowest precision encountered among the components otherwise.

`long `

**sizedigit**`(GEN x)`

returns 0 if `x`

is exactly 0. Otherwise, returns **gexpo**`(x)`

multiplied by *log* `_{10}(2)`

. This gives a crude estimate for the maximal number of decimal digits of the components of `x`

.

These routines convert type-dependent information to bitmask to fill the codewords of `GEN`

objects (see "Label se:impl"). E.g for a `t_REAL`

`z`

:

` z[1] = evalsigne(-1) | evalexpo(2)`

Compatible components of a codeword for a given type can be OR-ed as above.

`ulong `

**evaltyp**`(long x)`

convert type `x`

to bitmask (first codeword of all `GEN`

s)

`long `

**evallg**`(long x)`

convert length `x`

to bitmask (first codeword of all `GEN`

s). Raise overflow error if `x`

is so large that the corresponding length cannot be represented

`long `

**_evallg**`(long x)`

as `evallg`

*without* the overflow check.

`ulong `

**evalvarn**`(long x)`

convert variable number `x`

to bitmask (second codeword of `t_POL`

and `t_SER`

)

`long `

**evalsigne**`(long x)`

convert sign `x`

(in `-1,0,1`

) to bitmask (second codeword of `t_INT`

, `t_REAL`

, `t_POL`

, `t_SER`

)

`long `

**evalprecp**`(long x)`

convert `p`

-adic (`X`

-adic) precision `x`

to bitmask (second codeword of `t_PADIC`

, `t_SER`

). Raise overflow error if `x`

is so large that the corresponding precision cannot be represented.

`long `

**_evalprecp**`(long x)`

same as `evalprecp`

*without* the overflow check.

`long `

**evalvalp**`(long x)`

convert `p`

-adic (`X`

-adic) valuation `x`

to bitmask (second codeword of `t_PADIC`

, `t_SER`

). Raise overflow error if `x`

is so large that the corresponding valuation cannot be represented.

`long `

**_evalvalp**`(long x)`

same as `evalvalp`

*without* the overflow check.

`long `

**evalexpo**`(long x)`

convert exponent `x`

to bitmask (second codeword of `t_REAL`

). Raise overflow error if `x`

is so large that the corresponding exponent cannot be represented

`long `

**_evalexpo**`(long x)`

same as `evalexpo`

*without* the overflow check.

`long `

**evallgefint**`(long x)`

convert effective length `x`

to bitmask (second codeword `t_INT`

). This should be less or equal than the length of the `t_INT`

, hence there is no overflow check for the effective length.

Use these functions and macros with extreme care since usually the corresponding information is set otherwise, and the components and further codeword fields (which are left unchanged) may not be compatible with the new information.

`void `

**settyp**`(GEN x, long s)`

sets the type number of `x`

to `s`

.

`void `

**setlg**`(GEN x, long s)`

sets the length of `x`

to `s`

. This is an efficient way of truncating vectors, matrices or polynomials.

`void `

**setlgefint**`(GEN x, long s)`

sets the effective length of the `t_INT`

`x`

to `s`

. The number `s`

must be less than or equal to the length of `x`

.

`void `

**setsigne**`(GEN x, long s)`

sets the sign of `x`

to `s`

. If `x`

is a `t_INT`

or `t_REAL`

, `s`

must be equal to `-1`

, 0 or 1, and if `x`

is a `t_POL`

or `t_SER`

, `s`

must be equal to 0 or 1. No sanity check is made; in particular, setting the sign of a `0`

`t_INT`

to

creates an invalid object.*+-*1

`void `

**togglesign**`(GEN x)`

sets the sign `s`

of `x`

to `-s`

, in place.

`void `

**togglesign_safe**`(GEN *x)`

sets the `s`

sign of `*x`

to `-s`

, in place, unless `*x`

is one of the integer universal constants in which case replace `*x`

by its negation (e.g. replace `gen_1`

by `gen_m1`

).

`void `

**setabssign**`(GEN x)`

sets the sign `s`

of `x`

to `|s|`

, in place.

`void `

**affectsign**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

shortcut for `setsigne(y, signe(x))`

. No sanity check is made; in particular, setting the sign of a `0`

`t_INT`

to

creates an invalid object.*+-*1

`void `

**affectsign_safe**`(GEN x, GEN *y)`

sets the sign of `*y`

to that of `x`

, in place, unless `*y`

is one of the integer universal constants in which case replace `*y`

by its negation if needed (e.g. replace `gen_1`

by `gen_m1`

if `x`

is negative). No other sanity check is made; in particular, setting the sign of a `0`

`t_INT`

to

creates an invalid object.*+-*1

`void `

**normalize_frac**`(GEN z)`

assuming `z`

is of the form `mkfrac(a,b)`

with `b != 0`

, make sure that `b > 0`

by changing the sign of `a`

in place if needed (use `togglesign`

).

`void `

**setexpo**`(GEN x, long s)`

sets the binary exponent of the `t_REAL`

`x`

to `s`

. The value `s`

must be a 24-bit signed number.

`void `

**setvalp**`(GEN x, long s)`

sets the `p`

-adic or `X`

-adic valuation of `x`

to `s`

, if `x`

is a `t_PADIC`

or a `t_SER`

, respectively.

`void `

**setprecp**`(GEN x, long s)`

sets the `p`

-adic precision of the `t_PADIC`

`x`

to `s`

.

`void `

**setvarn**`(GEN x, long s)`

sets the variable number of the `t_POL`

or `t_SER`

`x`

to `s`

(where `0 <= s <= MAXVARN`

).

In the following functions, `t`

denotes the type of a `GEN`

. They used to be implemented as macros, which could evaluate their argument twice; *no longer*: it is not inefficient to write

` is_intreal_t(typ(x))`

`int `

**is_recursive_t**`(long t)`

`true`

iff `t`

is a recursive type (the non-recursive types are `t_INT`

, `t_REAL`

, `t_STR`

, `t_VECSMALL`

). Somewhat contrary to intuition, `t_LIST`

is also non-recursive, ; see the Developer's guide for details.

`int `

**is_intreal_t**`(long t)`

`true`

iff `t`

is `t_INT`

or `t_REAL`

.

`int `

**is_rational_t**`(long t)`

`true`

iff `t`

is `t_INT`

or `t_FRAC`

.

`int `

**is_real_t**`(long t)`

`true`

iff `t`

is `t_INT`

or `t_REAL`

or `t_FRAC`

.

`int `

**is_vec_t**`(long t)`

`true`

iff `t`

is `t_VEC`

or `t_COL`

.

`int `

**is_matvec_t**`(long t)`

`true`

iff `t`

is `t_MAT`

, `t_VEC`

or `t_COL`

.

`int `

**is_scalar_t**`(long t)`

`true`

iff `t`

is a scalar, i.e a `t_INT`

, a `t_REAL`

, a `t_INTMOD`

, a `t_FRAC`

, a `t_COMPLEX`

, a `t_PADIC`

, a `t_QUAD`

, or a `t_POLMOD`

.

`int `

**is_extscalar_t**`(long t)`

`true`

iff `t`

is a scalar (see `is_scalar_t`

) or `t`

is `t_POL`

.

`int `

**is_const_t**`(long t)`

`true`

iff `t`

is a scalar which is not `t_POLMOD`

.

`int `

**is_noncalc_t**`(long t)`

true if generic operations (`gadd`

, `gmul`

) do not make sense for `t`

: corresponds to types `t_LIST`

, `t_STR`

, `t_VECSMALL`

, `t_CLOSURE`

The first two functions return `GEN`

components as copies on the stack:

`GEN `

**compo**`(GEN x, long n)`

creates a copy of the `n`

-th true component (i.e. not counting the codewords) of the object `x`

.

`GEN `

**truecoeff**`(GEN x, long n)`

creates a copy of the coefficient of degree `n`

of `x`

if `x`

is a scalar, `t_POL`

or `t_SER`

, and otherwise of the `n`

-th component of `x`

.

@3On the contrary, the following routines return the address of a `GEN`

component. No copy is made on the stack:

`GEN `

**constant_coeff**`(GEN x)`

returns the address of the constant coefficient of `t_POL`

`x`

. By convention, a `0`

polynomial (whose `sign`

is `0`

) has `gen_0`

constant term.

`GEN `

**leading_coeff**`(GEN x)`

returns the address of the leading coefficient of `t_POL`

`x`

, i.e. the coefficient of largest index stored in the array representing `x`

. This may be an inexact `0`

. By convention, return `gen_0`

if the coefficient array is empty.

`GEN `

**gel**`(GEN x, long i)`

returns the address of the `x[i]`

entry of `x`

. (`el`

stands for element.)

`GEN `

**gcoeff**`(GEN x, long i, long j)`

returns the address of the `x[i,j]`

entry of `t_MAT`

`x`

, i.e. the coefficient at row `i`

and column `j`

.

`GEN `

**gmael**`(GEN x, long i, long j)`

returns the address of the `x[i][j]`

entry of `x`

. (`mael`

stands for multidimensional array element.)

`GEN `

**gmael2**`(GEN A, long x1, long x2)`

is an alias for `gmael`

. Similar macros `gmael3`

, `gmael4`

, `gmael5`

are available.

These are defined in the various public PARI headers.

@3`long`

`BITS_IN_LONG = 2^{TWOPOTBITS_IN_LONG}`

: number of bits in a `long`

(32 or 64).

@3`long`

`BITS_IN_HALFULONG`

: `BITS_IN_LONG`

divided by `2`

.

@3`long`

`LONG_MAX`

: the largest positive `long`

.

@3`ulong`

`ULONG_MAX`

: the largest `ulong`

.

@3`long`

`DEFAULTPREC`

: the length (`lg`

) of a `t_REAL`

with 64 bits of accuracy

@3`long`

`MEDDEFAULTPREC`

: the length (`lg`

) of a `t_REAL`

with 128 bits of accuracy

@3`long`

`BIGDEFAULTPREC`

: the length (`lg`

) of a `t_REAL`

with 192 bits of accuracy

@3`ulong`

`HIGHBIT`

: the largest power of `2`

fitting in an `ulong`

.

@3`ulong`

`LOWMASK`

: bitmask yielding the least significant bits.

@3`ulong`

`HIGHMASK`

: bitmask yielding the most significant bits.

@3The last two are used to implement the following convenience macros, returning half the bits of their operand:

`ulong `

**LOWWORD**`(ulong a)`

returns least significant bits.

`ulong `

**HIGHWORD**`(ulong a)`

returns most significant bits.

@3Finally

`long `

**divsBIL**`(long n)`

returns the Euclidean quotient of `n`

by `BITS_IN_LONG`

(with non-negative remainder).

`long `

**remsBIL**`(n)`

returns the (non-negative) Euclidean remainder of `n`

by `BITS_IN_LONG`

`long `

**dvmdsBIL**`(long n, long *r)`

`ulong `

**dvmduBIL**`(ulong n, ulong *r)`

sets `r`

to `remsBIL(n)`

and returns `divsBIL(n)`

.

`GEN`

typeThese constants are used by higher level macros, like `typ`

or `lg`

:

@3`EXPOnumBITS`

, `LGnumBITS`

, `SIGNnumBITS`

, `TYPnumBITS`

, `VALPnumBITS`

, `VARNnumBITS`

: number of bits used to encode `expo`

, `lg`

, `signe`

, `typ`

, `valp`

, `varn`

.

@3`PRECPSHIFT`

, `SIGNSHIFT`

, `TYPSHIFT`

, `VARNSHIFT`

: shifts used to recover or encode `precp`

, `varn`

, `typ`

, `signe`

@3`CLONEBIT`

, `EXPOBITS`

, `LGBITS`

, `PRECPBITS`

, `SIGNBITS`

, `TYPBITS`

, `VALPBITS`

, `VARNBITS`

: bitmasks used to extract `isclone`

, `expo`

, `lg`

, `precp`

, `signe`

, `typ`

, `valp`

, `varn`

from `GEN`

codewords.

@3`MAXVARN`

: the largest possible variable number.

@3`NO_VARIABLE`

: sentinel returned by `gvar(x)`

when `x`

does not contain any polynomial; has a lower priority than any valid variable number.

@3`HIGHEXPOBIT`

: a power of `2`

, one more that the largest possible exponent for a `t_REAL`

.

@3`HIGHVALPBIT`

: a power of `2`

, one more that the largest possible valuation for a `t_PADIC`

or a `t_SER`

.

` 2`

, These are `double`

approximations to useful constants:

@3`LOG2`

: *log* ` 2`

.

@3`LOG10_2`

: *log* ` 2 / `

*log* ` 10`

.

@3`LOG2_10`

: *log* ` 10 / `

*log* ` 2`

.

@3`M_PI`

: *pi*.

One of the methods used by the high-level prime iterator (see "Label se:primeiter"), is a precomputed table. Its direct use is deprecated, but documented here.

After `pari_init(size, maxprime)`

, a ``prime table'' is initialized with the successive *differences* of primes up to (possibly just a little beyond) `maxprime`

. The prime table occupies roughly `maxprime/`

*log* `(maxprime)`

bytes in memory, so be sensible when choosing `maxprime`

; it is `500000`

by default under `gp`

and there is no real benefit in choosing a much larger value: the high-level iterator provide *fast* access to primes up to the *square* of `maxprime`

. In any case, the implementation requires that `maxprime < 2^{BIL} - 2048`

, whatever memory is available.

PARI currently guarantees that the first 6547 primes, up to and including 65557, are present in the table, even if you set `maxprime`

to zero. in the `pari_init`

call.

@3Some convenience functions:

`ulong `

**maxprime**`()`

the largest prime computable using our prime table.

`void `

**maxprime_check**`(ulong B)`

raise an error if `maxprime()`

is ` < B`

.

After the following initializations (the names `p`

and *ptr* are arbitrary of course)

```
byteptr ptr = diffptr;
ulong p = 0;
```

@3calling the macro `NEXT_PRIME_VIADIFF_CHECK`

`(p, `

*ptr*`)`

repeatedly will assign the successive prime numbers to `p`

. Overrunning the prime table boundary will raise the error `e_MAXPRIME`

, which just prints the error message:

`*** not enough precomputed primes, need primelimit ~ c`

@3(for some numerical value `c`

), then the macro aborts the computation. The alternative macro `NEXT_PRIME_VIADIFF`

operates in the same way, but will omit that check, and is slightly faster. It should be used in the following way:

```
byteptr ptr = diffptr;
ulong p = 0;
if (maxprime() < goal) pari_err_MAXPRIME(goal); /* not enough primes */
while (p <= goal) /* run through all primes up to C<goal> */
{
NEXT_PRIME_VIADIFF(p, ptr);
...
}
```

@3 Here, we use the general error handling function `pari_err`

(see "Label se:err"), with the codeword `e_MAXPRIME`

, raising the ``not enough primes'' error. This could be rewritten as

```
maxprime_check(goal);
while (p <= goal) /* run through all primes up to C<goal> */
{
NEXT_PRIME_VIADIFF(p, ptr);
...
}
```

`bytepr `

**initprimes**`(ulong maxprime, long *L, ulong *lastp)`

computes a (malloc'ed) ``prime table'', in fact a table of all prime differences for `p < maxprime`

(and possibly a little beyond). Set `L`

to the table length (argument to `malloc`

), and *lastp* to the last prime in the table.

`void `

**initprimetable**`(ulong maxprime)`

computes a prime table (of all prime differences for `p < maxprime`

) and assign it to the global variable `diffptr`

. Don't change `diffptr`

directly, call this function instead. This calls `initprimes`

and updates internal data recording the table size.

`ulong `

**init_primepointer_geq**`(ulong a, byteptr *pd)`

returns the smallest prime `p >= a`

, and sets `*pd`

to the proper offset of `diffptr`

so that `NEXT_PRIME_VIADIFF(p, *pd)`

correctly returns `unextprime(p + 1)`

.

`ulong `

**init_primepointer_gt**`(ulong a, byteptr *pd)`

returns the smallest prime `p > a`

.

`ulong `

**init_primepointer_leq**`(ulong a, byteptr *pd)`

returns the largest prime `p <= a`

.

`ulong `

**init_primepointer_lt**`(ulong a, byteptr *pd)`

returns the largest prime `p < a`

.

`GEN `

**cgetg**`(long n, long t)`

allocates memory on the stack for an object of length `n`

and type `t`

, and initializes its first codeword.

`GEN `

**cgeti**`(long n)`

allocates memory on the stack for a `t_INT`

of length `n`

, and initializes its first codeword. Identical to `cgetg(n,t_INT)`

.

`GEN `

**cgetr**`(long n)`

allocates memory on the stack for a `t_REAL`

of length `n`

, and initializes its first codeword. Identical to `cgetg(n,t_REAL)`

.

`GEN `

**cgetc**`(long n)`

allocates memory on the stack for a `t_COMPLEX`

, whose real and imaginary parts are `t_REAL`

s of length `n`

.

`GEN `

**cgetp**`(GEN x)`

creates space sufficient to hold the `t_PADIC`

`x`

, and sets the prime `p`

and the `p`

-adic precision to those of `x`

, but does not copy (the `p`

-adic unit or zero representative and the modulus of) `x`

.

`GEN `

**new_chunk**`(size_t n)`

allocates a `GEN`

with `n`

components, *without* filling the required code words. This is the low-level constructor underlying `cgetg`

, which calls `new_chunk`

then sets the first code word. It works by simply returning the address `((GEN)avma) - n`

, after checking that it is larger than `(GEN)bot`

.

`void `

**new_chunk_resize**`(size_t x)`

this function is called by `new_chunk`

when the PARI stack overflows. There is no need to call it manually. It will either extend the stack or report an `e_STACK`

error.

`char* `

**stack_malloc**`(size_t n)`

allocates memory on the stack for `n`

chars (*not* `n`

`GEN`

s). This is faster than using `malloc`

, and easier to use in most situations when temporary storage is needed. In particular there is no need to `free`

individually all variables thus allocated: a simple `avma = oldavma`

might be enough. On the other hand, beware that this is not permanent independent storage, but part of the stack.

`char* `

**stack_calloc**`(size_t n)`

as `stack_malloc`

, setting the memory to zero.

@3Objects allocated through these last three functions cannot be `gerepile`

'd, since they are not yet valid `GEN`

s: their codewords must be filled first.

`GEN `

**cgetalloc**`(long t, size_t l)`

, same as `cgetg(t, l)`

, except that the result is allocated using `pari_malloc`

instead of the PARI stack. The resulting `GEN`

is now impervious to garbage collecting routines, but should be freed using `pari_free`

.

`GENbin* `

**copy_bin**`(GEN x)`

copies `x`

into a malloc'ed structure suitable for stack-independent binary transmission or storage. The object obtained is architecture independent provided, `sizeof(long)`

remains the same on all PARI instances involved, as well as the multiprecision kernel (either native or GMP).

`GENbin* `

**copy_bin_canon**`(GEN x)`

as `copy_bin`

, ensuring furthermore that the binary object is independent of the multiprecision kernel. Slower than `copy_bin`

.

`GEN `

**bin_copy**`(GENbin *p)`

assuming `p`

was created by `copy_bin(x)`

(not necessarily by the same PARI instance: transmission or external storage may be involved), restores `x`

on the PARI stack.

@3The routine `bin_copy`

transparently encapsulate the following functions:

`GEN `

**GENbinbase**`(GENbin *p)`

the `GEN`

data actually stored in `p`

. All addresses are stored as offsets with respect to a common reference point, so the resulting `GEN`

is unusable unless it is a non-recursive type; private low-level routines must be called first to restore absolute addresses.

`void `

**shiftaddress**`(GEN x, long dec)`

converts relative addresses to absolute ones.

`void `

**shiftaddress_canon**`(GEN x, long dec)`

converts relative addresses to absolute ones, and converts leaves from a canonical form to the one specific to the multiprecision kernel in use. The `GENbin`

type stores whether leaves are stored in canonical form, so `bin_copy`

can call the right variant.

@3Objects containing closures are harder to e.g. copy and save to disk, since closures contain pointers to libpari functions that will not be valid in another gp instance: there is little chance for them to be loaded at the exact same address in memory. Such objects must be saved along with a linking table.

`GEN `

**copybin_unlink**`(GEN C)`

returns a linking table allowing to safely store and transmit `t_CLOSURE`

objects in `C`

. If `C = NULL`

return a linking table corresponding to the content of all gp variables. `C`

may then be dumped to disk in binary form, for instance.

`void `

**bincopy_relink**`(GEN C, GEN V)`

given a binary object `C`

, as dumped by writebin and read back into a session, and a linking table `V`

, restore all closures contained in `C`

(function pointers are translated to their current value).

See "Label se:garbage" for a detailed explanation and many examples.

`void `

**cgiv**`(GEN x)`

frees object `x`

, assuming it is the last created on the stack.

`GEN `

**gerepile**`(pari_sp p, pari_sp q, GEN x)`

general garbage collector for the stack.

`void `

**gerepileall**`(pari_sp av, int n, ...)`

cleans up the stack from `av`

on (i.e from `avma`

to `av`

), preserving the `n`

objects which follow in the argument list (of type `GEN*`

). For instance, `gerepileall(av, 2, &x, &y)`

preserves `x`

and `y`

.

`void `

**gerepileallsp**`(pari_sp av, pari_sp ltop, int n, ...)`

cleans up the stack between `av`

and `ltop`

, updating the `n`

elements which follow `n`

in the argument list (of type `GEN*`

). Check that the elements of `g`

have no component between `av`

and `ltop`

, and assumes that no garbage is present between `avma`

and `ltop`

. Analogous to (but faster than) `gerepileall`

otherwise.

`GEN `

**gerepilecopy**`(pari_sp av, GEN x)`

cleans up the stack from `av`

on, preserving the object `x`

. Special case of `gerepileall`

(case `n = 1`

), except that the routine returns the preserved `GEN`

instead of updating its address through a pointer.

`void `

**gerepilemany**`(pari_sp av, GEN* g[], int n)`

alternative interface to `gerepileall`

. The preserved `GEN`

s are the elements of the array `g`

of length `n`

: `g[0]`

, `g[1]`

,..., `g[n-1]`

. Obsolete: no more efficient than `gerepileall`

, error-prone, and clumsy (need to declare an extra `GEN *g`

).

`void `

**gerepilemanysp**`(pari_sp av, pari_sp ltop, GEN* g[], int n)`

alternative interface to `gerepileallsp`

. Obsolete.

`void `

**gerepilecoeffs**`(pari_sp av, GEN x, int n)`

cleans up the stack from `av`

on, preserving `x[0]`

,..., `x[n-1]`

(which are `GEN`

s).

`void `

**gerepilecoeffssp**`(pari_sp av, pari_sp ltop, GEN x, int n)`

cleans up the stack from `av`

to `ltop`

, preserving `x[0]`

, ..., `x[n-1]`

(which are `GEN`

s). Same assumptions as in `gerepilemanysp`

, of which this is a variant. For instance

```
z = cgetg(3, t_COMPLEX);
av = avma; garbage(); ltop = avma;
z[1] = fun1();
z[2] = fun2();
gerepilecoeffssp(av, ltop, z + 1, 2);
return z;
```

cleans up the garbage between `av`

and `ltop`

, and connects `z`

and its two components. This is marginally more efficient than the standard

```
av = avma; garbage(); ltop = avma;
z = cgetg(3, t_COMPLEX);
z[1] = fun1();
z[2] = fun2(); return gerepile(av, ltop, z);
```

`GEN `

**gerepileupto**`(pari_sp av, GEN q)`

analogous to (but faster than) `gerepilecopy`

. Assumes that `q`

is connected and that its root was created before any component. If `q`

is not on the stack, this is equivalent to `avma = av`

; in particular, sentinels which are not even proper `GEN`

s such as `q = NULL`

are allowed.

`GEN `

**gerepileuptoint**`(pari_sp av, GEN q)`

analogous to (but faster than) `gerepileupto`

. Assumes further that `q`

is a `t_INT`

. The length and effective length of the resulting `t_INT`

are equal.

`GEN `

**gerepileuptoleaf**`(pari_sp av, GEN q)`

analogous to (but faster than) `gerepileupto`

. Assumes further that `q`

is a leaf, i.e a non-recursive type (`is_recursive_t(typ(q))`

is non-zero). Contrary to `gerepileuptoint`

and `gerepileupto`

, `gerepileuptoleaf`

leaves length and effective length of a `t_INT`

unchanged.

`void `

**stackdummy**`(pari_sp av, pari_sp ltop)`

inhibits the memory area between `av`

*included* and `ltop`

*excluded* with respect to `gerepile`

, in order to avoid a call to `gerepile(av, ltop,...)`

. The stack space is not reclaimed though.

More precisely, this routine assumes that `av`

is recorded earlier than `ltop`

, then marks the specified stack segment as a non-recursive type of the correct length. Thus gerepile will not inspect the zone, at most copy it. To be used in the following situation:

```
av0 = avma; z = cgetg(t_VEC, 3);
gel(z,1) = HUGE(); av = avma; garbage(); ltop = avma;
gel(z,2) = HUGE(); stackdummy(av, ltop);
```

Compared to the orthodox

` gel(z,2) = gerepile(av, ltop, gel(z,2));`

or even more wasteful

` z = gerepilecopy(av0, z);`

we temporarily lose `(av - ltop)`

words but save a costly `gerepile`

. In principle, a garbage collection higher up the call chain should reclaim this later anyway.

Without the `stackdummy`

, if the `[av, ltop]`

zone is arbitrary (not even valid `GEN`

s as could happen after direct truncation via `setlg`

), we would leave dangerous data in the middle of `z`

, which would be a problem for a later

` gerepile(..., ... , z);`

And even if it were made of valid `GEN`

s, inhibiting the area makes sure `gerepile`

will not inspect their components, saving time.

Another natural use in low-level routines is to ``shorten'' an existing `GEN`

`z`

to its first `n-1`

components:

```
setlg(z, n);
stackdummy((pari_sp)(z + lg(z)), (pari_sp)(z + n));
```

or to its last `n`

components:

```
long L = lg(z) - n, tz = typ(z);
stackdummy((pari_sp)(z + L), (pari_sp)z);
z += L; z[0] = evaltyp(tz) | evallg(L);
```

The first scenario (safe shortening an existing `GEN`

) is in fact so common, that we provide a function for this:

`void `

**fixlg**`(GEN z, long ly)`

a safe variant of `setlg(z, ly)`

. If `ly`

is larger than `lg(z)`

do nothing. Otherwise, shorten `z`

in place, using `stackdummy`

to avoid later `gerepile`

problems.

`GEN `

**gcopy_avma**`(GEN x, pari_sp *AVMA)`

return a copy of `x`

as from `gcopy`

, except that we pretend that initially `avma`

is `*AVMA`

, and that `*AVMA`

is updated accordingly (so that the total size of `x`

is the difference between the two successive values of `*AVMA`

). It is not necessary for `*AVMA`

to initially point on the stack: `gclone`

is implemented using this mechanism.

`GEN `

**icopy_avma**`(GEN x, pari_sp av)`

analogous to `gcopy_avma`

but simpler: assume `x`

is a `t_INT`

and return a copy allocated as if initially we had `avma`

equal to `av`

. There is no need to pass a pointer and update the value of the second argument: the new (fictitious) `avma`

is just the return value (typecast to `pari_sp`

).

`int `

**chk_gerepileupto**`(GEN x)`

returns 1 if `x`

is suitable for `gerepileupto`

, and 0 otherwise. In the latter case, print a warning explaining the problem.

`void `

**dbg_gerepile**`(pari_sp ltop)`

outputs the list of all objects on the stack between `avma`

and `ltop`

, i.e. the ones that would be inspected in a call to `gerepile(...,ltop,...)`

.

`void `

**dbg_gerepileupto**`(GEN q)`

outputs the list of all objects on the stack that would be inspected in a call to `gerepileupto(...,q)`

.

`GEN `

**gcopy**`(GEN x)`

creates a new copy of `x`

on the stack.

`GEN `

**gcopy_lg**`(GEN x, long l)`

creates a new copy of `x`

on the stack, pretending that `lg(x)`

is `l`

, which must be less than or equal to `lg(x)`

. If equal, the function is equivalent to `gcopy(x)`

.

`int `

**isonstack**`(GEN x)`

`true`

iff `x`

belongs to the stack.

`void `

**copyifstack**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

sets `y = gcopy(x)`

if `x`

belongs to the stack, and `y = x`

otherwise. This macro evaluates its arguments once, contrary to

` y = isonstack(x)? gcopy(x): x;`

`void `

**icopyifstack**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

as `copyifstack`

assuming `x`

is a `t_INT`

.

`GEN `

**simplify**`(GEN x)`

you should not need that function in library mode. One rather uses:

`GEN `

**simplify_shallow**`(GEN x)`

shallow, faster, version of `simplify`

.

It is implemented as a doubly-linked list of `malloc`

'ed blocks of memory, equipped with reference counts. Each block has type `GEN`

but need not be a valid `GEN`

: it is a chunk of data preceded by a hidden header (meaning that we allocate `x`

and return `x + header size`

). A *clone*, created by `gclone`

, is a block which is a valid `GEN`

and whose *clone bit* is set.

`GEN `

**newblock**`(size_t n)`

allocates a block of `n`

*words* (not bytes).

`void `

**killblock**`(GEN x)`

deletes the block `x`

created by `newblock`

. Fatal error if `x`

not a block.

`GEN `

**gclone**`(GEN x)`

creates a new permanent copy of `x`

on the heap (allocated using `newblock`

). The *clone bit* of the result is set.

`GEN `

**gcloneref**`(GEN x)`

if `x`

is not a clone, clone it and return the result; otherwise, increase the clone reference count and return `x`

.

`void `

**gunclone**`(GEN x)`

deletes a clone. Deletion at first only decreases the reference count by `1`

. If the count remains positive, no further action is taken; if the count becomes zero, then the clone is actually deleted. In the current implementation, this is an alias for `killblock`

, but it is cleaner to kill clones (valid `GEN`

s) using this function, and other blocks using `killblock`

.

`void `

**gunclone_deep**`(GEN x)`

is only useful in the context of the GP interpreter which may replace arbitrary components of container types (`t_VEC`

, `t_COL`

, `t_MAT`

, `t_LIST`

) by clones. If `x`

is such a container, the function recursively deletes all clones among the components of `x`

, then unclones `x`

. Useless in library mode: simply use `gunclone`

.

`void `

**traverseheap**`(void(*f)(GEN, void *), void *data)`

this applies `f(x, data)`

to each object `x`

on the PARI heap, most recent first. Mostly for debugging purposes.

`GEN `

**getheap**`()`

a simple wrapper around `traverseheap`

. Returns a two-component row vector giving the number of objects on the heap and the amount of memory they occupy in long words.

`GEN `

**cgetg_block**`(long x, long y)`

as `cgetg(x,y)`

, creating the return value as a `block`

, not on the PARI stack.

`GEN `

**cgetr_block**`(long prec)`

as `cgetr(prec)`

, creating the return value as a `block`

, not on the PARI stack.

The hidden block header is manipulated using the following private functions:

`void* `

**bl_base**`(GEN x)`

returns the pointer that was actually allocated by `malloc`

(can be freed).

`long `

**bl_refc**`(GEN x)`

the reference count of `x`

: the number of pointers to this block. Decremented in `killblock`

, incremented by the private function `void `

**gclone_refc**`(GEN x)`

; block is freed when the reference count reaches `0`

.

`long `

**bl_num**`(GEN x)`

the index of this block in the list of all blocks allocated so far (including freed blocks). Uniquely identifies a block until `2^BIL`

blocks have been allocated and this wraps around.

`GEN `

**bl_next**`(GEN x)`

the block *after* `x`

in the linked list of blocks (`NULL`

if `x`

is the last block allocated not yet killed).

`GEN `

**bl_prev**`(GEN x)`

the block allocated *before* `x`

(never `NULL`

).

We documented the last four routines as functions for clarity (and type checking) but they are actually macros yielding valid lvalues. It is allowed to write `bl_refc(x)++`

for instance.

Low-level implementation of user / temporary variables is liable to change. We describe it nevertheless for completeness. Currently variables are implemented by a single array of values divided in 3 zones: 0--`nvar`

(user variables), `max_avail`

--`MAXVARN`

(temporary variables), and `nvar+1`

--`max_avail-1`

(pool of free variable numbers).

`void `

**pari_var_init**`()`

: a small part of `pari_init`

. Resets variable counters `nvar`

and `max_avail`

, notwithstanding existing variables! In effect, this even deletes `x`

. Don't use it.

`void `

**pari_var_close**`(void)`

attached destructor, called by `pari_close`

.

`long `

**pari_var_next**`()`

: returns `nvar`

, the number of the next user variable we can create.

`long `

**pari_var_next_temp**`()`

returns `max_avail`

, the number of the next temp variable we can create.

`long `

**pari_var_create**`(entree *ep)`

low-level initialization of an `EpVAR`

. Return the attached (new) variable number.

`GEN `

**vars_sort_inplace**`(GEN z)`

given a `t_VECSMALL`

`z`

of variable numbers, sort `z`

in place according to variable priorities (highest priority comes first).

`GEN `

**vars_to_RgXV**`(GEN h)`

given a `t_VECSMALL`

`z`

of variable numbers, return the `t_VEC`

of `pol_x`

`(z[i])`

.

`long `

**fetch_user_var**`(char *s)`

returns a user variable whose name is `s`

, creating it is needed (and using an existing variable otherwise). Returns its variable number.

`GEN `

**fetch_var_value**`(long v)`

returns a shallow copy of the current value of the variable numbered `v`

. Return `NULL`

for a temporary variable.

`entree* `

**is_entry**`(const char *s)`

returns the `entree*`

attached to an identifier `s`

(variable or function), from the interpreter hashtables. Return `NULL`

is the identifier is unknown.

`long `

**fetch_var**`(void)`

returns the number of a new temporary variable (decreasing `max_avail`

).

`long `

**delete_var**`(void)`

delete latest temp variable created and return the number of previous one.

`void `

**name_var**`(long n, char *s)`

rename temporary variable number `n`

to `s`

; mostly useful for nicer printout. Error when trying to rename a user variable.

As mentioned in the `COPYING`

file, modified versions of the PARI package can be distributed under the conditions of the GNU General Public License. If you do modify PARI, however, it is certainly for a good reason, and we would like to know about it, so that everyone can benefit from your changes. There is then a good chance that your improvements are incorporated into the next release.

We classify changes to PARI into four rough classes, where changes of the first three types are almost certain to be accepted. The first type includes all improvements to the documentation, in a broad sense. This includes correcting typos or inaccuracies of course, but also items which are not really covered in this document, e.g. if you happen to write a tutorial, or pieces of code exemplifying fine points unduly omitted in the present manual.

The second type is to expand or modify the configuration routines and skeleton files (the `Configure`

script and anything in the `config/`

subdirectory) so that compilation is possible (or easier, or more efficient) on an operating system previously not catered for. This includes discovering and removing idiosyncrasies in the code that would hinder its portability.

The third type is to modify existing (mathematical) code, either to correct bugs, to add new functionality to existing functions, or to improve their efficiency.

Finally the last type is to add new functions to PARI. We explain here how to do this, so that in particular the new function can be called from `gp`

.

Code your function in a file of its own, using as a guide other functions in the PARI sources. One important thing to remember is to clean the stack before exiting your main function, since otherwise successive calls to the function clutters the stack with unnecessary garbage, and stack overflow occurs sooner. Also, if it returns a `GEN`

and you want it to be accessible to `gp`

, you have to make sure this `GEN`

is suitable for `gerepileupto`

(see "Label se:garbage").

If error messages or warnings are to be generated in your function, use `pari_err`

and `pari_warn`

respectively. Recall that `pari_err`

does not return but ends with a `longjmp`

statement. As well, instead of explicit `printf`

/ `fprintf`

statements, use the following encapsulated variants:

`void `

**pari_putc**`(char c)`

: write character `c`

to the output stream.

`void `

**pari_puts**`(char *s)`

: write `s`

to the output stream.

`void `

**pari_printf**`(const char *fmt, ...)`

: write following arguments to the output stream, according to the conversion specifications in format `fmt`

(see `printf`

).

`void `

**err_printf**`(const char *fmt, ...)`

: as `pari_printf`

, writing to PARI's current error stream.

`void `

**err_flush**`(void)`

flush error stream.

Declare all public functions in an appropriate header file, if you want to access them from C. The other functions should be declared `static`

in your file.

Your function is now ready to be used in library mode after compilation and creation of the library. If possible, compile it as a shared library (see the `Makefile`

coming with the `extgcd`

example in the distribution). It is however still inaccessible from `gp`

.

A *GP prototype* is a character string describing all the GP parser needs to know about the function prototype. It contains a sequence of the following atoms:

@3***** Return type: `GEN`

by default (must be valid for `gerepileupto`

), otherwise the following can appear as the *first* char of the code string:

`i`

return `int`

`l`

return `long`

`u`

return `ulong`

`v`

return `void`

`m`

return a `GEN`

which is not `gerepile`

-safe.

The `m`

code is used for member functions, to avoid unnecessary copies. A copy opcode is generated by the compiler if the result needs to be kept safe for later use.

@3***** Mandatory arguments, appearing in the same order as the input arguments they describe:

`G`

`GEN`

`&`

`*GEN`

`L`

`long`

(we implicitly typecast `int`

to `long`

)

`U`

`ulong`

`V`

loop variable

`n`

variable, expects a variable number (a `long`

, not an `*entree`

)

`W`

a `GEN`

which is a lvalue to be modified in place (for `t_LIST`

)

`r`

raw input (treated as a string without quotes). Quoted args are copied as strings

Stops at first unquoted `')'`

or `','`

. Special chars can be quoted using `'\'`

Example: `aa"b\n)"c`

yields the string `"aab\n)c"`

`s`

expanded string. Example: `Pi"x"2`

yields `"3.142x2"`

Unquoted components can be of any PARI type, converted to string following

current output format

`I`

closure whose value is ignored, as in `for`

loops,

to be processed by `void `

**closure_evalvoid**`(GEN C)`

`E`

closure whose value is used, as in `sum`

loops,

to be processed by `void `

**closure_evalgen**`(GEN C)`

`J`

implicit function of arity `1`

, as in `parsum`

loops,

to be processed by `void `

**closure_callgen1**`(GEN C)`

@3A *closure* is a GP function in compiled (bytecode) form. It can be efficiently evaluated using the `closure_eval`

`xxx`

functions.

@3***** Automatic arguments:

`f`

Fake `*long`

. C function requires a pointer but we do not use the resulting `long`

`b`

current real precision in bits

`p`

current real precision in words

`P`

series precision (default `seriesprecision`

, global variable `precdl`

for the library)

`C`

lexical context (internal, for `eval`

, see `localvars_read_str`

)

@3***** Syntax requirements, used by functions like `for`

, `sum`

, etc.:

` = `

separator ` = `

required at this point (between two arguments)

@3***** Optional arguments and default values:

`E*`

any number of expressions, possibly 0 (see `E`

)

`s*`

any number of strings, possibly 0 (see `s`

)

`D`

*xxx* argument can be omitted and has a default value

The `E*`

code reads all remaining arguments in closure context and passes them as a single `t_VEC`

. The `s*`

code reads all remaining arguments in *string context* and passes the list of strings as a single `t_VEC`

. The automatic concatenation rules in string context are implemented so that adjacent strings are read as different arguments, as if they had been comma-separated. For instance, if the remaining argument sequence is: `"xx" 1, "yy"`

, the `s*`

atom sends `[a, b, c]`

, where `a`

, `b`

, `c`

are `GEN`

s of type `t_STR`

(content `"xx"`

), `t_INT`

(equal to `1`

) and `t_STR`

(content `"yy"`

).

The format to indicate a default value (atom starts with a `D`

) is ```D`

*value*`,`

*type*`,`

'', where *type* is the code for any mandatory atom (previous group), *value* is any valid GP expression which is converted according to *type*, and the ending comma is mandatory. For instance `D0,L,`

stands for ``this optional argument is converted to a `long`

, and is `0`

by default''. So if the user-given argument reads `1 + 3`

at this point, `4L`

is sent to the function; and `0L`

if the argument is omitted. The following special notations are available:

`DG`

optional `GEN`

, send `NULL`

if argument omitted.

`D&`

optional `*GEN`

, send `NULL`

if argument omitted.

The argument must be prefixed by `&`

.

`DI`

, `DE`

optional closure, send `NULL`

if argument omitted.

`DP`

optional `long`

, send `precdl`

if argument omitted.

`DV`

optional `*entree`

, send `NULL`

if argument omitted.

`Dn`

optional variable number, `-1`

if omitted.

`Dr`

optional raw string, send `NULL`

if argument omitted.

`Ds`

optional `char *`

, send `NULL`

if argument omitted.

@3**Hardcoded limit.** C functions using more than 20 arguments are not supported. Use vectors if you really need that many parameters.

When the function is called under `gp`

, the prototype is scanned and each time an atom corresponding to a mandatory argument is met, a user-given argument is read (`gp`

outputs an error message it the argument was missing). Each time an optional atom is met, a default value is inserted if the user omits the argument. The ``automatic'' atoms fill in the argument list transparently, supplying the current value of the corresponding variable (or a dummy pointer).

For instance, here is how you would code the following prototypes, which do not involve default values:

```
GEN f(GEN x, GEN y, long prec) ----> "GGp"
void f(GEN x, GEN y, long prec) ----> "vGGp"
void f(GEN x, long y, long prec) ----> "vGLp"
long f(GEN x) ----> "lG"
int f(long x) ----> "iL"
```

If you want more examples, `gp`

gives you easy access to the parser codes attached to all GP functions: just type `\h `

*function*. You can then compare with the C prototypes as they stand in `paridecl.h`

.

@3**Remark.** If you need to implement complicated control statements (probably for some improved summation functions), you need to know how the parser implements closures and lexicals and how the evaluator lets you deal with them, in particular the `push_lex`

and `pop_lex`

functions. Check their descriptions and adapt the source code in `language/sumiter.c`

and `language/intnum.c`

.

`gp`

as a shared moduleIn this section we assume that your Operating System is supported by `install`

. You have written a function in C following the guidelines is "Label se:coding_guidelines"; in case the function returns a `GEN`

, it must satisfy `gerepileupto`

assumptions (see "Label se:garbage").

You then succeeded in building it as part of a shared library and want to finally tell `gp`

about your function. First, find a name for it. It does not have to match the one used in library mode, but consistency is nice. It has to be a valid GP identifier, i.e. use only alphabetic characters, digits and the underscore character (`_`

), the first character being alphabetic.

Then figure out the correct parser code corresponding to the function prototype (as explained in "Label se:gp.interface") and write a GP script like the following:

```
install(libname, code, gpname, library)
addhelp(gpname, "some help text")
```

@3The addhelp part is not mandatory, but very useful if you want others to use your module. `libname`

is how the function is named in the library, usually the same name as one visible from C.

Read that file from your `gp`

session, for instance from your preferences file (or `gprc`

), and that's it. You can now use the new function *gpname* under `gp`

, and we would very much like to hear about it!

@3**Example.** A complete description could look like this:

```
{
install(bnfinit0, "GD0,L,DGp", ClassGroupInit, "libpari.so");
addhelp(ClassGroupInit, "ClassGroupInit(P,{flag=0},{data=[]}):
compute the necessary data for ...");
}
```

@3which means we have a function `ClassGroupInit`

under `gp`

, which calls the library function `bnfinit0`

. The function has one mandatory argument, and possibly two more (two `'D'`

in the code), plus the current real precision. More precisely, the first argument is a `GEN`

, the second one is converted to a `long`

using `itos`

(`0`

is passed if it is omitted), and the third one is also a `GEN`

, but we pass `NULL`

if no argument was supplied by the user. This matches the C prototype (from `paridecl.h`

):

` GEN bnfinit0(GEN P, long flag, GEN data, long prec)`

This function is in fact coded in `basemath/buch2.c`

, and is in this case completely identical to the GP function `bnfinit`

but `gp`

does not need to know about this, only that it can be found somewhere in the shared library `libpari.so`

.

@3**Important note.** You see in this example that it is the function's responsibility to correctly interpret its operands: `data = NULL`

is interpreted *by the function* as an empty vector. Note that since `NULL`

is never a valid `GEN`

pointer, this trick always enables you to distinguish between a default value and actual input: the user could explicitly supply an empty vector!

`install`

There is a corresponding library interface for this `install`

functionality, letting you expand the GP parser/evaluator available in the library with new functions from your C source code. Functions such as `gp_read_str`

may then evaluate a GP expression sequence involving calls to these new function!

`entree * `

**install**`(void *f, const char *gpname, const char *code)`

@3where `f`

is the (address of the) function (cast to `void*`

), `gpname`

is the name by which you want to access your function from within your GP expressions, and `code`

is as above.

`gp`

If `install`

is not available, and installing Linux or a BSD operating system is not an option (why?), you have to hardcode your function in the `gp`

binary. Here is what needs to be done:

@3***** Fetch the complete sources of the PARI distribution.

@3***** Drop the function source code module in an appropriate directory (a priori `src/modules`

), and declare all public functions in `src/headers/paridecl.h`

.

@3***** Choose a help section and add a file `src/functions/`

*section*`/`

*gpname* containing the following, keeping the notation above:

```
Function: I<gpname>
Section: I<section>
C-Name: I<libname>
Prototype: I<code>
Help: I<some help text>
```

(If the help text does not fit on a single line, continuation lines must start by a whitespace character.) Two GP2C-related fields (`Description`

and `Wrapper`

) are also available to improve the code GP2C generates when compiling scripts involving your function. See the GP2C documentation for details.

@3***** Launch `Configure`

, which should pick up your C files and build an appropriate `Makefile`

. At this point you can recompile `gp`

, which will first rebuild the functions database.

@3**Example.** We reuse the `ClassGroupInit`

/ `bnfinit0`

from the preceding section. Since the C source code is already part of PARI, we only need to add a file

`functions/number_fields/ClassGroupInit`

@3containing the following:

```
Function: ClassGroupInit
Section: number_fields
C-Name: bnfinit0
Prototype: GD0,L,DGp
Help: ClassGroupInit(P,{flag=0},{tech=[]}): this routine does ...
```

and recompile `gp`

.

@3`paricfg_version_code`

encodes in a single `long`

, the Major and minor version numbers as well as the patchlevel.

`long `

**PARI_VERSION**`(long M, long m, long p)`

produces the version code attached to release `M.m.p`

. Each code identifies a unique PARI release, and corresponds to the natural total order on the set of releases (bigger code number means more recent release).

@3`PARI_VERSION_SHIFT`

is the number of bits used to store each of the integers `M`

, `m`

, `p`

in the version code.

@3`paricfg_vcsversion`

is a version string related to the revision control system used to handle your sources, if any. For instance `git-`

*commit hash* if compiled from a git repository.

The two character strings `paricfg_version`

and `paricfg_buildinfo`

, correspond to the first two lines printed by `gp`

just before the Copyright message. The character string `paricfg_compiledate`

is the date of compilation which appears on the next line. The character string `paricfg_mt_engine`

is the name of the threading engine on the next line.

`GEN `

**pari_version**`()`

returns the version number as a PARI object, a `t_VEC`

with three `t_INT`

and one `t_STR`

components.

`paricfg_datadir`

: character string. The location of PARI's `datadir`

.

\newpage

libPARI - Arithmetic kernel: Level 0 and 1

The Level 0 kernel simulates basic operations of the 68020 processor on which PARI was originally implemented. They need ``global'' `ulong`

variables `overflow`

(which will contain only 0 or 1) and `hiremainder`

to function properly. A routine using one of these lowest-level functions where the description mentions either `hiremainder`

or `overflow`

must declare the corresponding

```
LOCAL_HIREMAINDER; /* provides 'hiremainder' */
LOCAL_OVERFLOW; /* provides 'overflow' */
```

in a declaration block. Variables `hiremainder`

and `overflow`

then become available in the enclosing block. For instance a loop over the powers of an `ulong`

`p`

protected from overflows could read

```
while (pk < lim)
{
LOCAL_HIREMAINDER;
...
pk = mulll(pk, p); if (hiremainder) break;
}
```

For most architectures, the functions mentioned below are really chunks of inlined assembler code, and the above `global' variables are actually local register values.

`ulong `

**addll**`(ulong x, ulong y)`

adds `x`

and `y`

, returns the lower `BIL`

bits and puts the carry bit into `overflow`

.

`ulong `

**addllx**`(ulong x, ulong y)`

adds `overflow`

to the sum of the `x`

and `y`

, returns the lower `BIL`

bits and puts the carry bit into `overflow`

.

`ulong `

**subll**`(ulong x, ulong y)`

subtracts `x`

and `y`

, returns the lower `BIL`

bits and put the carry (borrow) bit into `overflow`

.

`ulong `

**subllx**`(ulong x, ulong y)`

subtracts `overflow`

from the difference of `x`

and `y`

, returns the lower `BIL`

bits and puts the carry (borrow) bit into `overflow`

.

`int `

**bfffo**`(ulong x)`

returns the number of leading zero bits in `x`

. That is, the number of bit positions by which it would have to be shifted left until its leftmost bit first becomes equal to 1, which can be between 0 and `BIL-1`

for nonzero `x`

. When `x`

is 0, the result is undefined.

`ulong `

**mulll**`(ulong x, ulong y)`

multiplies `x`

by `y`

, returns the lower `BIL`

bits and stores the high-order `BIL`

bits into `hiremainder`

.

`ulong `

**addmul**`(ulong x, ulong y)`

adds `hiremainder`

to the product of `x`

and `y`

, returns the lower `BIL`

bits and stores the high-order `BIL`

bits into `hiremainder`

.

`ulong `

**divll**`(ulong x, ulong y)`

returns the quotient of ` (hiremainder * 2^{BIL}) + x `

by `y`

and stores the remainder into `hiremainder`

. An error occurs if the quotient cannot be represented by an `ulong`

, i.e. if initially `hiremainder >= y`

.

@3**Obsolete routines.** Those functions are awkward and no longer used; they are only provided for backward compatibility:

`ulong `

**shiftl**`(ulong x, ulong y)`

returns `x`

shifted left by `y`

bits, i.e. `x << y`

, where we assume that `0 <= y <= BIL`

. The global variable `hiremainder`

receives the bits that were shifted out, i.e. `x >> (BIL - y)`

.

`ulong `

**shiftlr**`(ulong x, ulong y)`

returns `x`

shifted right by `y`

bits, i.e. `x >> y`

, where we assume that `0 <= y <= BIL`

. The global variable `hiremainder`

receives the bits that were shifted out, i.e. `x << (BIL - y)`

.

The following routines are not part of the level 0 kernel per se, but implement modular operations on words in terms of the above. They are written so that no overflow may occur. Let `m >= 1`

be the modulus; all operands representing classes modulo `m`

are assumed to belong to `[0,m-1]`

. The result may be wrong for a number of reasons otherwise: it may not be reduced, overflow can occur, etc.

`int `

**odd**`(ulong x)`

returns 1 if `x`

is odd, and 0 otherwise.

`int `

**both_odd**`(ulong x, ulong y)`

returns 1 if `x`

and `y`

are both odd, and 0 otherwise.

`ulong `

**invmod2BIL**`(ulong x)`

returns the smallest positive representative of `x^{-1}`

mod `2^BIL`

, assuming `x`

is odd.

`ulong `

**Fl_add**`(ulong x, ulong y, ulong m)`

returns the smallest positive representative of `x + y`

modulo `m`

.

`ulong `

**Fl_neg**`(ulong x, ulong m)`

returns the smallest positive representative of `-x`

modulo `m`

.

`ulong `

**Fl_sub**`(ulong x, ulong y, ulong m)`

returns the smallest positive representative of `x - y`

modulo `m`

.

`long `

**Fl_center**`(ulong x, ulong m, ulong mo2)`

returns the representative in `]-m/2,m/2]`

of `x`

modulo `m`

. Assume `0 <= x < m`

and `mo2 = m >> 1`

.

`ulong `

**Fl_mul**`(ulong x, ulong y, ulong m)`

returns the smallest positive representative of `x y`

modulo `m`

.

`ulong `

**Fl_double**`(ulong x, ulong m)`

returns `2x`

modulo `m`

.

`ulong `

**Fl_triple**`(ulong x, ulong m)`

returns `3x`

modulo `m`

.

`ulong `

**Fl_halve**`(ulong x, ulong m)`

returns `z`

such that `2 z = x`

modulo `m`

assuming such `z`

exists.

`ulong `

**Fl_sqr**`(ulong x, ulong m)`

returns the smallest positive representative of `x^2`

modulo `m`

.

`ulong `

**Fl_inv**`(ulong x, ulong m)`

returns the smallest positive representative of `x^{-1}`

modulo `m`

. If `x`

is not invertible mod `m`

, raise an exception.

`ulong `

**Fl_invsafe**`(ulong x, ulong m)`

returns the smallest positive representative of `x^{-1}`

modulo `m`

. If `x`

is not invertible mod `m`

, return `0`

(which is ambiguous if `m = 1`

).

`ulong `

**Fl_invgen**`(ulong x, ulong m, ulong *pg)`

set `*pg`

to `g = `

*gcd* `(x,m)`

and return `u`

(invertible) such that `x u = g`

modulo `m`

. We have `g = 1`

if and only if `x`

is invertible, and in this case `u`

is its inverse.

`ulong `

**Fl_div**`(ulong x, ulong y, ulong m)`

returns the smallest positive representative of `x y^{-1}`

modulo `m`

. If `y`

is not invertible mod `m`

, raise an exception.

`ulong `

**Fl_powu**`(ulong x, ulong n, ulong m)`

returns the smallest positive representative of `x^n`

modulo `m`

.

`GEN `

**Fl_powers**`(ulong x, long n, ulong p)`

returns `[x^0,..., x^n]`

modulo `m`

, as a `t_VECSMALL`

.

`ulong `

**Fl_sqrt**`(ulong x, ulong p)`

returns the square root of `x`

modulo `p`

(smallest positive representative). Assumes `p`

to be prime, and `x`

to be a square modulo `p`

.

`ulong `

**Fl_sqrtl**`(ulong x, ulong l, ulong p)`

returns a `l`

-the root of `x`

modulo `p`

. Assumes `p`

to be prime and `p = 1 (mod l)`

, and `x`

to be a `l`

-th power modulo `p`

.

`ulong `

**Fl_order**`(ulong a, ulong o, ulong p)`

returns the order of the `Fp`

`a`

. It is assumed that `o`

is a multiple of the order of `a`

, `0`

being allowed (no non-trivial information).

`ulong `

**random_Fl**`(ulong p)`

returns a pseudo-random integer uniformly distributed in `0, 1,...p-1`

.

`ulong `

**pgener_Fl**`(ulong p)`

returns the smallest primitive root modulo `p`

, assuming `p`

is prime.

`ulong `

**pgener_Zl**`(ulong p)`

returns the smallest primitive root modulo `p^k`

, `k > 1`

, assuming `p`

is an odd prime.

`ulong `

**pgener_Fl_local**`(ulong p, GEN L)`

, see `gener_Fp_local`

, `L`

is an `Flv`

.

This is based on an algorithm by T. Grandlund and N. Möller in ``Improved division by invariant integers'' http://gmplib.org/~tege/division-paper.pdf.

In the following, we set `B = BIL`

.

`ulong `

**get_Fl_red**`(ulong p)`

returns a pseudo inverse *pi* for `p`

`ulong `

**divll_pre**`(ulong x, ulong p, ulong yi)`

as divll, where `yi`

is the pseudo inverse of `y`

.

`ulong `

**remll_pre**`(ulong u1, ulong u0, ulong p, ulong pi)`

returns the Euclidean remainder of `u_1 2^B+u_0`

modulo `p`

, assuming `pi`

is the pseudo inverse of `p`

. This function is faster if `u_1 < p`

.

`ulong `

**remlll_pre**`(ulong u2, ulong u1, ulong u0, ulong p, ulong pi)`

returns the Euclidean remainder of `u_2 2^{2 B}+u_1 2^{B}+u_0`

modulo `p`

, assuming `pi`

is the pseudo inverse of `p`

.

`ulong `

**Fl_sqr_pre**`(ulong x, ulong p, ulong pi)`

returns `x^2`

modulo `p`

, assuming `pi`

is the pseudo inverse of `p`

.

`ulong `

**Fl_mul_pre**`(ulong x, ulong y, ulong p, ulong pi)`

returns `x y`

modulo `p`

, assuming `pi`

is the pseudo inverse of `p`

.

`ulong `

**Fl_addmul_pre**`(ulong a, ulong b, ulong c, ulong p, ulong pi)`

returns `a b+c`

modulo `p`

, assuming `pi`

is the pseudo inverse of `p`

.

`ulong `

**Fl_addmulmul_pre**`(ulong a,ulong b, ulong c,ulong d, ulong p, ulong pi)`

returns `a b+c d`

modulo `p`

, assuming `pi`

is the pseudo inverse of `p`

.

`ulong `

**Fl_powu_pre**`(ulong x, ulong n, ulong p, ulong pi)`

returns `x^n`

modulo `p`

, assuming `pi`

is the pseudo inverse of `p`

.

`GEN `

**Fl_powers_pre**`(ulong x, long n, ulong p, ulong pi)`

returns the vector (`t_VECSMALL`

) `(x^0,..., x^n)`

, assuming `pi`

is the pseudo inverse of `p`

.

`ulong `

**Fl_sqrt_pre**`(ulong x, ulong p, ulong pi)`

returns a square root of `x`

modulo `p`

, assuming `pi`

is the pseudo inverse of `p`

. See `Fl_sqrt`

.

`ulong `

**Fl_sqrtl_pre**`(ulong x, ulong l, ulong p, ulong pi)`

returns a `l`

-the root of `x`

modulo `p`

, assuming `pi`

is the pseudo inverse of `p`

, `p`

prime and `p = 1 (mod l)`

, and `x`

to be a `l`

-th power modulo `p`

.

Even though the `Fl_xxx`

routines are efficient, they are slower than ordinary `long`

operations, using the standard `+`

, `%`

, etc. operators. The following macro is used to choose in a portable way the most efficient functions for given operands:

`int `

**SMALL_ULONG**`(ulong p)`

true if `2p^2 < 2^BIL`

. In that case, it is possible to use ordinary operators efficiently. If `p < 2^BIL`

, one may still use the `Fl_xxx`

routines. Otherwise, one must use generic routines. For instance, the scalar product of the `GEN`

s `x`

and `y`

mod `p`

could be computed as follows.

```
long i, l = lg(x);
if (lgefint(p) > 3)
{ /* arbitrary */
GEN s = gen_0;
for (i = 1; i < l; i++) s = addii(s, mulii(gel(x,i), gel(y,i)));
return modii(s, p).
}
else
{
ulong s = 0, pp = itou(p);
x = ZV_to_Flv(x, pp);
y = ZV_to_Flv(y, pp);
if (SMALL_ULONG(pp))
{ /* very small */
for (i = 1; i < l; i++)
{
s += x[i] * y[i];
if (s & HIGHBIT) s %= pp;
}
s %= pp;
}
else
{ /* small */
for (i = 1; i < l; i++)
s = Fl_add(s, Fl_mul(x[i], y[i], pp), pp);
}
return utoi(s);
}
```

In effect, we have three versions of the same code: very small, small, and arbitrary inputs. The very small and arbitrary variants use lazy reduction and reduce only when it becomes necessary: when overflow might occur (very small), and at the very end (very small, arbitrary).

@3**Note.** Some functions consist of an elementary operation, immediately followed by an assignment statement. They will be introduced as in the following example:

`GEN `

**gadd[z]**`(GEN x, GEN y[, GEN z])`

followed by the explicit description of the function

`GEN `

**gadd**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

@3which creates its result on the stack, returning a `GEN`

pointer to it, and the parts in brackets indicate that there exists also a function

`void `

**gaddz**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN z)`

@3which assigns its result to the pre-existing object `z`

, leaving the stack unchanged. These assignment variants are kept for backward compatibility but are inefficient: don't use them.

`GEN `

**cgeti**`(long n)`

allocates memory on the PARI stack for a `t_INT`

of length `n`

, and initializes its first codeword. Identical to `cgetg(n,t_INT)`

.

`GEN `

**cgetipos**`(long n)`

allocates memory on the PARI stack for a `t_INT`

of length `n`

, and initializes its two codewords. The sign of `n`

is set to `1`

.

`GEN `

**cgetineg**`(long n)`

allocates memory on the PARI stack for a negative `t_INT`

of length `n`

, and initializes its two codewords. The sign of `n`

is set to `-1`

.

`GEN `

**cgetr**`(long n)`

allocates memory on the PARI stack for a `t_REAL`

of length `n`

, and initializes its first codeword. Identical to `cgetg(n,t_REAL)`

.

`GEN `

**cgetc**`(long n)`

allocates memory on the PARI stack for a `t_COMPLEX`

, whose real and imaginary parts are `t_REAL`

s of length `n`

.

`GEN `

**real_1**`(long prec)`

create a `t_REAL`

equal to `1`

to `prec`

words of accuracy.

`GEN `

**real_1_bit**`(long bitprec)`

create a `t_REAL`

equal to `1`

to `bitprec`

bits of accuracy.

`GEN `

**real_m1**`(long prec)`

create a `t_REAL`

equal to `-1`

to `prec`

words of accuracy.

`GEN `

**real_0_bit**`(long bit)`

create a `t_REAL`

equal to `0`

with exponent `-bit`

.

`GEN `

**real_0**`(long prec)`

is a shorthand for

` real_0_bit( -prec2nbits(prec) )`

`GEN `

**int2n**`(long n)`

creates a `t_INT`

equal to `1 << n`

(i.e `2^n`

if `n >= 0`

, and `0`

otherwise).

`GEN `

**int2u**`(ulong n)`

creates a `t_INT`

equal to `2^n`

.

`GEN `

**real2n**`(long n, long prec)`

create a `t_REAL`

equal to `2^n`

to `prec`

words of accuracy.

`GEN `

**real_m2n**`(long n, long prec)`

create a `t_REAL`

equal to `-2^n`

to `prec`

words of accuracy.

`GEN `

**strtoi**`(char *s)`

convert the character string `s`

to a non-negative `t_INT`

. Decimal numbers, hexadecimal numbers prefixed by `0x`

and binary numbers prefixed by `0b`

are allowed. The string `s`

consists exclusively of digits: no leading sign, no whitespace. Leading zeroes are discarded.

`GEN `

**strtor**`(char *s, long prec)`

convert the character string `s`

to a non-negative `t_REAL`

of precision `prec`

. The string `s`

consists exclusively of digits and optional decimal point and exponent (`e`

or `E`

): no leading sign, no whitespace. Leading zeroes are discarded.

In this section, the `z`

argument in the `z`

-functions must be of type `t_INT`

or `t_REAL`

.

`void `

**mpaff**`(GEN x, GEN z)`

assigns `x`

into `z`

(where `x`

and `z`

are `t_INT`

or `t_REAL`

). Assumes that `lg(z) > 2`

.

`void `

**affii**`(GEN x, GEN z)`

assigns the `t_INT`

`x`

into the `t_INT`

`z`

.

`void `

**affir**`(GEN x, GEN z)`

assigns the `t_INT`

`x`

into the `t_REAL`

`z`

. Assumes that `lg(z) > 2`

.

`void `

**affiz**`(GEN x, GEN z)`

assigns `t_INT`

`x`

into `t_INT`

or `t_REAL`

`z`

. Assumes that `lg(z) > 2`

.

`void `

**affsi**`(long s, GEN z)`

assigns the `long`

`s`

into the `t_INT`

`z`

. Assumes that `lg(z) > 2`

.

`void `

**affsr**`(long s, GEN z)`

assigns the `long`

`s`

into the `t_REAL`

`z`

. Assumes that `lg(z) > 2`

.

`void `

**affsz**`(long s, GEN z)`

assigns the `long`

`s`

into the `t_INT`

or `t_REAL`

`z`

. Assumes that `lg(z) > 2`

.

`void `

**affui**`(ulong u, GEN z)`

assigns the `ulong`

`u`

into the `t_INT`

`z`

. Assumes that `lg(z) > 2`

.

`void `

**affur**`(ulong u, GEN z)`

assigns the `ulong`

`u`

into the `t_REAL`

`z`

. Assumes that `lg(z) > 2`

.

`void `

**affrr**`(GEN x, GEN z)`

assigns the `t_REAL`

`x`

into the `t_REAL`

`z`

.

`void `

**affgr**`(GEN x, GEN z)`

assigns the scalar `x`

into the `t_REAL`

`z`

, if possible.

@3The function `affrs`

and `affri`

do not exist. So don't use them.

`void `

**affrr_fixlg**`(GEN y, GEN z)`

a variant of `affrr`

. First shorten `z`

so that it is no longer than `y`

, then assigns `y`

to `z`

. This is used in the following scenario: room is reserved for the result but, due to cancellation, fewer words of accuracy are available than had been anticipated; instead of appending meaningless `0`

s to the mantissa, we store what was actually computed.

Note that shortening `z`

is not quite straightforward, since `setlg(z, ly)`

would leave garbage on the stack, which `gerepile`

might later inspect. It is done using

`void `

**fixlg**`(GEN z, long ly)`

see `stackdummy`

and the examples that follow.

`GEN `

**icopy**`(GEN x)`

copy relevant words of the `t_INT`

`x`

on the stack: the length and effective length of the copy are equal.

`GEN `

**rcopy**`(GEN x)`

copy the `t_REAL`

`x`

on the stack.

`GEN `

**leafcopy**`(GEN x)`

copy the leaf `x`

on the stack (works in particular for `t_INT`

s and `t_REAL`

s). Contrary to `icopy`

, `leafcopy`

preserves the original length of a `t_INT`

. The obsolete form `GEN `

**mpcopy**`(GEN x)`

is still provided for backward compatibility.

This function also works on recursive types, copying them as if they were leaves, i.e. making a shallow copy in that case: the components of the copy point to the same data as the component of the source; see also `shallowcopy`

.

`GEN `

**leafcopy_avma**`(GEN x, pari_sp av)`

analogous to `gcopy_avma`

but simpler: assume `x`

is a leaf and return a copy allocated as if initially we had `avma`

equal to `av`

. There is no need to pass a pointer and update the value of the second argument: the new (fictitious) `avma`

is just the return value (typecast to `pari_sp`

).

`GEN `

**icopyspec**`(GEN x, long nx)`

copy the `nx`

words `x[2]`

,..., `x[nx+1]`

to make up a new `t_INT`

. Set the sign to `1`

.

`GEN `

**itor**`(GEN x, long prec)`

converts the `t_INT`

`x`

to a `t_REAL`

of length `prec`

and return the latter. Assumes that `prec > 2`

.

`long `

**itos**`(GEN x)`

converts the `t_INT`

`x`

to a `long`

if possible, otherwise raise an exception. We consider the conversion to be possible if and only if `|x| <= LONG_MAX`

, i.e. `|x| < 2^{63}`

on a 64-bit architecture. Since the range is symetric, the output of `itos`

can safely be negated.

`long `

**itos_or_0**`(GEN x)`

converts the `t_INT`

`x`

to a `long`

if possible, otherwise return `0`

.

`int `

**is_bigint**`(GEN n)`

true if `itos(n)`

would give an error.

`ulong `

**itou**`(GEN x)`

converts the `t_INT`

`|x|`

to an `ulong`

if possible, otherwise raise an exception. The conversion is possible if and only if `lgefint(x) <= 3`

.

`long `

**itou_or_0**`(GEN x)`

converts the `t_INT`

`|x|`

to an `ulong`

if possible, otherwise return `0`

.

`GEN `

**stoi**`(long s)`

creates the `t_INT`

corresponding to the `long`

`s`

.

`GEN `

**stor**`(long s, long prec)`

converts the `long`

`s`

into a `t_REAL`

of length `prec`

and return the latter. Assumes that `prec > 2`

.

`GEN `

**utoi**`(ulong s)`

converts the `ulong`

`s`

into a `t_INT`

and return the latter.

`GEN `

**utoipos**`(ulong s)`

converts the *non-zero* `ulong`

`s`

into a `t_INT`

and return the latter.

`GEN `

**utoineg**`(ulong s)`

converts the *non-zero* `ulong`

`s`

into the `t_INT`

`-s`

and return the latter.

`GEN `

**utor**`(ulong s, long prec)`

converts the `ulong`

`s`

into a `t_REAL`

of length `prec`

and return the latter. Assumes that `prec > 2`

.

`GEN `

**rtor**`(GEN x, long prec)`

converts the `t_REAL`

`x`

to a `t_REAL`

of length `prec`

and return the latter. If `prec < lg(x)`

, round properly. If `prec > lg(x)`

, pad with zeroes. Assumes that `prec > 2`

.

@3The following function is also available as a special case of `mkintn`

:

`GEN `

**uu32toi**`(ulong a, ulong b)`

returns the `GEN`

equal to `2^{32} a + b`

, *assuming* that `a,b < 2^{32}`

. This does not depend on `sizeof(long)`

: the behavior is as above on both `32`

and `64`

-bit machines.

`GEN `

**uutoi**`(ulong a, ulong b)`

returns the `GEN`

equal to `2^{BIL} a + b`

.

`GEN `

**uutoineg**`(ulong a, ulong b)`

returns the `GEN`

equal to `-(2^{BIL} a + b)`

.

The following four functions implement the conversion from `t_REAL`

to `t_INT`

using standard rounding modes. Contrary to usual semantics (complement the mantissa with an infinite number of 0), they will raise an error *precision loss in truncation* if the `t_REAL`

represents a range containing more than one integer.

`GEN `

**ceilr**`(GEN x)`

smallest integer larger or equal to the `t_REAL`

`x`

(i.e. the `ceil`

function).

`GEN `

**floorr**`(GEN x)`

largest integer smaller or equal to the `t_REAL`

`x`

(i.e. the `floor`

function).

`GEN `

**roundr**`(GEN x)`

rounds the `t_REAL`

`x`

to the nearest integer (towards `+ oo `

in case of tie).

`GEN `

**truncr**`(GEN x)`

truncates the `t_REAL`

`x`

(not the same as `floorr`

if `x`

is negative).

The following four function are analogous, but can also treat the trivial case when the argument is a `t_INT`

:

`GEN `

**mpceil**`(GEN x)`

as `ceilr`

except that `x`

may be a `t_INT`

.

`GEN `

**mpfloor**`(GEN x)`

as `floorr`

except that `x`

may be a `t_INT`

.

`GEN `

**mpround**`(GEN x)`

as `roundr`

except that `x`

may be a `t_INT`

.

`GEN `

**mptrunc**`(GEN x)`

as `truncr`

except that `x`

may be a `t_INT`

.

`GEN `

**diviiround**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

if `x`

and `y`

are `t_INT`

s, returns the quotient `x/y`

of `x`

and `y`

, rounded to the nearest integer. If `x/y`

falls exactly halfway between two consecutive integers, then it is rounded towards `+ oo `

(as for `roundr`

).

`GEN `

**ceil_safe**`(GEN x)`

, `x`

being a real number (not necessarily a `t_REAL`

) returns the smallest integer which is larger than any possible incarnation of `x`

. (Recall that a `t_REAL`

represents an interval of possible values.) Note that `gceil`

raises an exception if the input accuracy is too low compared to its magnitude.

`GEN `

**floor_safe**`(GEN x)`

, `x`

being a real number (not necessarily a `t_REAL`

) returns the largest integer which is smaller than any possible incarnation of `x`

. (Recall that a `t_REAL`

represents an interval of possible values.) Note that `gfloor`

raises an exception if the input accuracy is too low compared to its magnitude.

`GEN `

**trunc_safe**`(GEN x)`

, `x`

being a real number (not necessarily a `t_REAL`

) returns the integer with the largest absolute value, which is closer to `0`

than any possible incarnation of `x`

. (Recall that a `t_REAL`

represents an interval of possible values.)

`GEN `

**roundr_safe**`(GEN x)`

rounds the `t_REAL`

`x`

to the nearest integer (towards `+ oo `

). Complement the mantissa with an infinite number of `0`

before rounding, hence never raise an exception.

`2`

-adic valuations and shifts`long `

**vals**`(long s)`

2-adic valuation of the `long`

`s`

. Returns `-1`

if `s`

is equal to 0.

`long `

**vali**`(GEN x)`

2-adic valuation of the `t_INT`

`x`

. Returns `-1`

if `x`

is equal to 0.

`GEN `

**mpshift**`(GEN x, long n)`

shifts the `t_INT`

or `t_REAL`

`x`

by `n`

. If `n`

is positive, this is a left shift, i.e. multiplication by `2^{n}`

. If `n`

is negative, it is a right shift by `-n`

, which amounts to the truncation of the quotient of `x`

by `2^{-n}`

.

`GEN `

**shifti**`(GEN x, long n)`

shifts the `t_INT`

`x`

by `n`

.

`GEN `

**shiftr**`(GEN x, long n)`

shifts the `t_REAL`

`x`

by `n`

.

`void `

**shiftr_inplace**`(GEN x, long n)`

shifts the `t_REAL`

`x`

by `n`

, in place.

`GEN `

**trunc2nr**`(GEN x, long n)`

given a `t_REAL`

`x`

, returns `truncr(shiftr(x,n))`

, but faster, without leaving garbage on the stack and never raising a *precision loss in truncation* error. Called by `gtrunc2n`

.

`GEN `

**trunc2nr_lg**`(GEN x, long lx, long n)`

given a `t_REAL`

`x`

, returns `trunc2nr(x,n)`

, pretending that the length of `x`

is `lx`

, which must be ` <= lg(x)`

.

`GEN `

**mantissa2nr**`(GEN x, long n)`

given a `t_REAL`

`x`

, returns the mantissa of `x 2^n`

(disregards the exponent of `x`

). Equivalent to

` trunc2nr(x, n-expo(x)+bit_prec(x)-1)`

`GEN `

**mantissa_real**`(GEN z, long *e)`

returns the mantissa `m`

of `z`

, and sets `*e`

to the exponent `bit_accuracy(lg(z))-1-expo(z)`

, so that `z = m / 2^e`

.

@3**Low-level.** In the following two functions, `s`

(ource) and `t`

(arget) need not be valid `GEN`

s (in practice, they usually point to some part of a `t_REAL`

mantissa): they are considered as arrays of words representing some mantissa, and we shift globally `s`

by `n > 0`

bits, storing the result in `t`

. We assume that `m <= M`

and only access `s[m], s[m+1],...s[M]`

(read) and likewise for `t`

(write); we may have `s = t`

but more general overlaps are not allowed. The word `f`

is concatenated to `s`

to supply extra bits.

`void `

**shift_left**`(GEN t, GEN s, long m, long M, ulong f, ulong n)`

shifts the mantissa

`s[m], s[m+1],...s[M], f`

left by `n`

bits.

`void `

**shift_right**`(GEN t, GEN s, long m, long M, ulong f, ulong n)`

shifts the mantissa

`f, s[m], s[m+1],...s[M]`

right by `n`

bits.

`t_INT`

to bits or digits in base `2^k`

and back`GEN `

**binary_zv**`(GEN x)`

given a `t_INT`

`x`

, return a `t_VECSMALL`

of bits, from most significant to least significant.

`GEN `

**binary_2k**`(GEN x, long k)`

given a `t_INT`

`x`

, and `k > 0`

, return a `t_VEC`

of digits of `x`

in base `2^k`

, as `t_INT`

s, from most significant to least significant.

`GEN `

**binary_2k_nv**`(GEN x, long k)`

given a `t_INT`

`x`

, and `0 < k < BITS_IN_LONG`

, return a `t_VECSMALL`

of digits of `x`

in base `2^k`

, as `ulong`

s, from most significant to least significant.

`GEN `

**bits_to_int**`(GEN x, long l)`

given a vector `x`

of `l`

bits (as a `t_VECSMALL`

or even a pointer to a part of a larger vector, so not a proper `GEN`

), return the integer *sum*`_{i = 1}^l x[i] 2^{l-i}`

, as a `t_INT`

.

`ulong `

**bits_to_u**`(GEN v, long l)`

same as `bits_to_int`

, where `l < BITS_IN_LONG`

, so we can return an `ulong`

.

`GEN `

**fromdigitsu**`(GEN x, GEN B)`

given a `t_VECSMALL`

`x`

of length `l`

and a `t_INT`

`B`

, return the integer *sum*`_{i = 1}^l x[i] B^{i-1}`

, as a `t_INT`

, where the `x[i]`

are seen as unsigned integers.

`GEN `

**fromdigits_2k**`(GEN x, long k)`

converse of `binary_2k`

; given a `t_VEC`

`x`

of length `l`

and a positive `long`

`k`

, where each `x[i]`

is a `t_INT`

with `0 <= x[i] < 2^k`

, return the integer *sum*`_{i = 1}^l x[i] 2^{k(l-i)}`

, as a `t_INT`

.

`GEN `

**nv_fromdigits_2k**`(GEN x, long k)`

as `fromdigits_2k`

, but with `x`

being a `t_VECSMALL`

and each `x[i]`

being a `ulong`

with `0 <= x[i] < 2^{`

*min* `{k,BITS_IN_LONG}}`

. Here `k`

may be any positive `long`

, and the `x[i]`

are regarded as `k`

-bit integers by truncating or extending with zeroes.

For integers `x`

and `p`

, such that `x != 0`

and `|p| > 1`

, we define `v_p(x)`

to be the largest integer exponent `e`

such that `p^e`

divides `x`

. If `p`

is prime, this is the ordinary valuation of `x`

at `p`

.

`long `

**Z_pvalrem**`(GEN x, GEN p, GEN *r)`

applied to `t_INT`

s `x != 0`

and `p`

, `|p| > 1`

, returns `e := v_p(x)`

The quotient `x/p^e`

is returned in `*r`

. If `|p|`

is a prime, `*r`

is the prime-to-`p`

part of `x`

.

`long `

**Z_pval**`(GEN x, GEN p)`

as `Z_pvalrem`

but only returns `v_p(x)`

.

`long `

**Z_lvalrem**`(GEN x, ulong p, GEN *r)`

as `Z_pvalrem`

, except that `p`

is an `ulong`

(`p > 1`

).

`long `

**Z_lvalrem_stop**`(GEN *x, ulong p, int *stop)`

returns `e := v_p(x)`

and replaces `x`

by `x / p^e`

. Set `stop`

to `1`

if the new value of `x`

is ` < p^2`

(and `0`

otherwise). To be used when trial dividing `x`

by successive primes: the `stop`

condition is cheaply tested while testing whether `p`

divides `x`

(is the quotient less than `p`

?), and allows to decide that `n`

is prime if no prime ` < p`

divides `n`

. Not memory-clean.

`long `

**Z_lval**`(GEN x, ulong p)`

as `Z_pval`

, except that `p`

is an `ulong`

(`p > 1`

).

`long `

**u_lvalrem**`(ulong x, ulong p, ulong *r)`

as `Z_pvalrem`

, except the inputs/outputs are now `ulong`

s.

`long `

**u_lvalrem_stop**`(ulong *n, ulong p, int *stop)`

as `Z_pvalrem_stop`

.

`long `

**u_pvalrem**`(ulong x, GEN p, ulong *r)`

as `Z_pvalrem`

, except `x`

and `r`

are now `ulong`

s.

`long `

**u_lval**`(ulong x, ulong p)`

as `Z_pval`

, except the inputs are now `ulong`

s.

`long `

**u_pval**`(ulong x, GEN p)`

as `Z_pval`

, except `x`

is now an `ulong`

.

`long `

**z_lval**`(long x, ulong p)`

as `u_lval`

, for signed `x`

.

`long `

**z_lvalrem**`(long x, ulong p)`

as `u_lvalrem`

, for signed `x`

.

`long `

**z_pval**`(long x, GEN p)`

as `Z_pval`

, except `x`

is now a `long`

.

`long `

**z_pvalrem**`(long x, GEN p)`

as `Z_pvalrem`

, except `x`

is now a `long`

.

`long `

**Q_pval**`(GEN x, GEN p)`

valuation at the `t_INT`

`p`

of the `t_INT`

or `t_FRAC`

`x`

.

`long `

**factorial_lval**`(ulong n, ulong p)`

returns `v_p(n!)`

, assuming `p`

is prime.

The following convenience functions generalize `Z_pval`

and its variants to ``containers'' (`ZV`

and `ZX`

):

`long `

**ZV_pvalrem**`(GEN x, GEN p, GEN *r)`

`x`

being a `ZV`

(a vector of `t_INT`

s), return the min `v`

of the valuations of its components and set `*r`

to `x/p^v`

. Infinite loop if `x`

is the zero vector. This function is not stack clean.

`long `

**ZV_pval**`(GEN x, GEN p)`

as `ZV_pvalrem`

but only returns the ``valuation''.

`int `

**ZV_Z_dvd**`(GEN x, GEN p)`

returns `1`

if `p`

divides all components of `x`

and `0`

otherwise. Faster than testing `ZV_pval(x,p) >= 1`

.

`long `

**ZV_lvalrem**`(GEN x, ulong p, GEN *px)`

as `ZV_pvalrem`

, except that `p`

is an `ulong`

(`p > 1`

). This function is not stack-clean.

`long `

**ZV_lval**`(GEN x, ulong p)`

as `ZV_pval`

, except that `p`

is an `ulong`

(`p > 1`

).

`long `

**ZX_pvalrem**`(GEN x, GEN p, GEN *r)`

as `ZV_pvalrem`

, for a `ZX`

`x`

(a `t_POL`

with `t_INT`

coefficients). This function is not stack-clean.

`long `

**ZX_pval**`(GEN x, GEN p)`

as `ZV_pval`

for a `ZX`

`x`

.

`long `

**ZX_lvalrem**`(GEN x, ulong p, GEN *px)`

as `ZV_lvalrem`

, a `ZX`

`x`

. This function is not stack-clean.

`long `

**ZX_lval**`(GEN x, ulong p)`

as `ZX_pval`

, except that `p`

is an `ulong`

(`p > 1`

).

Let ``*op*'' be a unary operation among

@3***** **neg**: negation (`-x`

).

@3***** **abs**: absolute value (`|x|`

).

@3***** **sqr**: square (`x^2`

).

@3The names and prototypes of the low-level functions corresponding to *op* are as follows. The result is of the same type as `x`

.

@3`GEN `

*op***i**`(GEN x)`

creates the result of *op* applied to the `t_INT`

`x`

.

@3`GEN `

*op***r**`(GEN x)`

creates the result of *op* applied to the `t_REAL`

`x`

.

@3`GEN `

**mp***op*`(GEN x)`

creates the result of *op* applied to the `t_INT`

or `t_REAL`

`x`

.

@3Complete list of available functions:

`GEN `

**absi**`(GEN x)`

, `GEN `

**absr**`(GEN x)`

, `GEN `

**mpabs**`(GEN x)`

`GEN `

**negi**`(GEN x)`

, `GEN `

**negr**`(GEN x)`

, `GEN `

**mpneg**`(GEN x)`

`GEN `

**sqri**`(GEN x)`

, `GEN `

**sqrr**`(GEN x)`

, `GEN `

**mpsqr**`(GEN x)`

`GEN `

**absi_shallow**`(GEN x)`

`x`

being a `t_INT`

, returns a shallow copy of `|x|`

, in particular returns `x`

itself when `x >= 0`

, and `negi(x)`

otherwise.

`GEN `

**mpabs_shallow**`(GEN x)`

`x`

being a `t_INT`

or a `t_REAL`

, returns a shallow copy of `|x|`

, in particular returns `x`

itself when `x >= 0`

, and `mpneg(x)`

otherwise.

@3Some miscellaneous routines:

`GEN `

**sqrs**`(long x)`

returns `x^2`

.

`GEN `

**sqru**`(ulong x)`

returns `x^2`

.

`long `

**minss**`(long x, long y)`

`ulong `

**minuu**`(ulong x, ulong y)`

`double `

**mindd**`(double x, double y)`

returns the `min`

of `x`

and `y`

.

`long `

**maxss**`(long x, long y)`

`ulong `

**maxuu**`(ulong x, ulong y)`

`double `

**maxdd**`(double x, double y)`

returns the `max`

of `x`

and `y`

.

`int `

**mpcmp**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

compares the `t_INT`

or `t_REAL`

`x`

to the `t_INT`

or `t_REAL`

`y`

. The result is the sign of `x-y`

.

`int `

**cmpii**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

compares the `t_INT`

`x`

to the `t_INT`

`y`

.

`int `

**cmpir**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

compares the `t_INT`

`x`

to the `t_REAL`

`y`

.

`int `

**cmpis**`(GEN x, long s)`

compares the `t_INT`

`x`

to the `long`

`s`

.

`int `

**cmpsi**`(long s, GEN x)`

compares the `long`

`s`

to the `t_INT`

`x`

.

`int `

**cmpsr**`(long s, GEN x)`

compares the `long`

`s`

to the `t_REAL`

`x`

.

`int `

**cmpri**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

compares the `t_REAL`

`x`

to the `t_INT`

`y`

.

`int `

**cmprr**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

compares the `t_REAL`

`x`

to the `t_REAL`

`y`

.

`int `

**cmprs**`(GEN x, long s)`

compares the `t_REAL`

`x`

to the `long`

`s`

.

`int `

**equalii**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

compares the `t_INT`

s `x`

and `y`

. The result is `1`

if `x = y`

, `0`

otherwise.

`int `

**equalrr**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

compares the `t_REAL`

s `x`

and `y`

. The result is `1`

if `x = y`

, `0`

otherwise. Equality is decided according to the following rules: all real zeroes are equal, and different from a non-zero real; two non-zero reals are equal if all their digits coincide up to the length of the shortest of the two, and the remaining words in the mantissa of the longest are all `0`

.

`int `

**equalsi**`(long s, GEN x)`

`int `

**equalis**`(GEN x, long s)`

compare the `t_INT`

`x`

and the `long`

`s`

. The result is `1`

if `x = y`

, `0`

otherwise.

The remaining comparison operators disregard the sign of their operands

`int `

**absequaliu**`(GEN x, ulong u)`

compare the absolute value of the `t_INT`

`x`

and the `ulong`

`s`

. The result is `1`

if `|x |= y`

, `0`

otherwise. This is marginally more efficient than `equalis`

even when `x`

is known to be non-negative.

`int `

**absequalui**`(ulong u, GEN x)`

`int `

**abscmpiu**`(GEN x, ulong u)`

compare the absolute value of the `t_INT`

`x`

and the `ulong`

`u`

.

`int `

**abscmpui**`(ulong u, GEN x)`

`int `

**abscmpii**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

compares the `t_INT`

s `x`

and `y`

. The result is the sign of `|x| - |y|`

.

`int `

**absequalii**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

compares the `t_INT`

s `x`

and `y`

. The result is `1`

if `|x |= |y|`

, `0`

otherwise.

`int `

**abscmprr**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

compares the `t_REAL`

s `x`

and `y`

. The result is the sign of `|x| - |y|`

.

`int `

**absrnz_equal2n**`(GEN x)`

tests whether a non-zero `t_REAL`

`x`

is equal to

for some integer *+-* 2^e`e`

.

`int `

**absrnz_equal1**`(GEN x)`

tests whether a non-zero `t_REAL`

`x`

is equal to

.*+-* 1

The operators in this section have arguments of C-type `GEN`

, `long`

, and `ulong`

, and only `t_INT`

and `t_REAL`

`GEN`

s are allowed. We say an argument is a real type if it is a `t_REAL`

`GEN`

, and an integer type otherwise. The result is always a `t_REAL`

unless both `x`

and `y`

are integer types.

Let ``*op*'' be a binary operation among

@3***** **add**: addition (`x + y`

).

@3***** **sub**: subtraction (`x - y`

).

@3***** **mul**: multiplication (`x * y`

).

@3***** **div**: division (`x / y`

). In the case where `x`

and `y`

are both integer types, the result is the Euclidean quotient, where the remainder has the same sign as the dividend `x`

. It is the ordinary division otherwise. A division-by-`0`

error occurs if `y`

is equal to `0`

.

The last two generic operations are defined only when arguments have integer types; and the result is a `t_INT`

:

@3***** **rem**: remainder (```x % y`

''). The result is the Euclidean remainder corresponding to `div`

, i.e. its sign is that of the dividend `x`

.

@3***** **mod**: true remainder (`x % y`

). The result is the true Euclidean remainder, i.e. non-negative and less than the absolute value of `y`

.

@3**Important technical note.** The rules given above fixing the output type (to `t_REAL`

unless both inputs are integer types) are subtly incompatible with the general rules obeyed by PARI's generic functions, such as `gmul`

or `gdiv`

for instance: the latter return a result containing as much information as could be deduced from the inputs, so it is not true that if `x`

is a `t_INT`

and `y`

a `t_REAL`

, then `gmul(x,y)`

is always the same as `mulir(x,y)`

. The exception is `x = 0`

, in that case we can deduce that the result is an exact `0`

, so `gmul`

returns `gen_0`

, while `mulir`

returns a `t_REAL`

`0`

. Specifically, the one resulting from the conversion of `gen_0`

to a `t_REAL`

of precision `precision(y)`

, multiplied by `y`

; this determines the exponent of the real `0`

we obtain.

The reason for the discrepancy between the two rules is that we use the two sets of functions in different contexts: generic functions allow to write high-level code forgetting about types, letting PARI return results which are sensible and as simple as possible; type specific functions are used in kernel programming, where we do care about types and need to maintain strict consistency: it is much easier to compute the types of results when they are determined from the types of the inputs only (without taking into account further arithmetic properties, like being non-0).

The names and prototypes of the low-level functions corresponding to *op* are as follows. In this section, the `z`

argument in the `z`

-functions must be of type `t_INT`

when no `r`

or `mp`

appears in the argument code (no `t_REAL`

operand is involved, only integer types), and of type `t_REAL`

otherwise.

@3`GEN `

**mp***op***[z]**`(GEN x, GEN y[, GEN z])`

applies *op* to the `t_INT`

or `t_REAL`

`x`

and `y`

. The function `mpdivz`

does not exist (its semantic would change drastically depending on the type of the `z`

argument), and neither do `mprem[z]`

nor `mpmod[z]`

(specific to integers).

@3`GEN `

*op***si[z]**`(long s, GEN x[, GEN z])`

applies *op* to the `long`

`s`

and the `t_INT`

`x`

. These functions always return the global constant `gen_0`

(not a copy) when the sign of the result is `0`

.

@3`GEN `

*op***sr[z]**`(long s, GEN x[, GEN z])`

applies *op* to the `long`

`s`

and the `t_REAL`

`x`

.

@3`GEN `

*op***ss[z]**`(long s, long t[, GEN z])`

applies *op* to the longs `s`

and `t`

. These functions always return the global constant `gen_0`

(not a copy) when the sign of the result is `0`

.

@3`GEN `

*op***ii[z]**`(GEN x, GEN y[, GEN z])`

applies *op* to the `t_INT`

s `x`

and `y`

. These functions always return the global constant `gen_0`

(not a copy) when the sign of the result is `0`

.

@3`GEN `

*op***ir[z]**`(GEN x, GEN y[, GEN z])`

applies *op* to the `t_INT`

`x`

and the `t_REAL`

`y`

.

@3`GEN `

*op***is[z]**`(GEN x, long s[, GEN z])`

applies *op* to the `t_INT`

`x`

and the `long`

`s`

. These functions always return the global constant `gen_0`

(not a copy) when the sign of the result is `0`

.

@3`GEN `

*op***ri[z]**`(GEN x, GEN y[, GEN z])`

applies *op* to the `t_REAL`

`x`

and the `t_INT`

`y`

.

@3`GEN `

*op***rr[z]**`(GEN x, GEN y[, GEN z])`

applies *op* to the `t_REAL`

s `x`

and `y`

.

@3`GEN `

*op***rs[z]**`(GEN x, long s[, GEN z])`

applies *op* to the `t_REAL`

`x`

and the `long`

`s`

.

@3Some miscellaneous routines:

`long `

**expu**`(ulong x)`

assuming `x > 0`

, returns the binary exponent of the real number equal to `x`

. This is a special case of `gexpo`

.

`GEN `

**adduu**`(ulong x, ulong y)`

`GEN `

**addiu**`(GEN x, ulong y)`

`GEN `

**addui**`(ulong x, GEN y)`

adds `x`

and `y`

.

`GEN `

**subuu**`(ulong x, ulong y)`

`GEN `

**subiu**`(GEN x, ulong y)`

`GEN `

**subui**`(ulong x, GEN y)`

subtracts `x`

by `y`

.

`GEN `

**muluu**`(ulong x, ulong y)`

multiplies `x`

by `y`

.

`GEN `

**mului**`(ulong x, GEN y)`

multiplies `x`

by `y`

.

`GEN `

**muluui**`(ulong x, ulong y, GEN z)`

return `xyz`

.

`GEN `

**muliu**`(GEN x, ulong y)`

multiplies `x`

by `y`

.

`void `

**addumului**`(ulong a, ulong b, GEN x)`

return `a + b|X|`

.

`GEN `

**addmuliu**`(GEN x, GEN y, ulong u)`

returns `x +yu`

.

`GEN `

**addmulii**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN z)`

returns `x + yz`

.

`GEN `

**addmulii_inplace**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN z)`

returns `x + yz`

, but returns `x`

itself and not a copy if `yz = 0`

. Not suitable for `gerepile`

or `gerepileupto`

.

`GEN `

**addmuliu_inplace**`(GEN x, GEN y, ulong u)`

returns `x +yu`

, but returns `x`

itself and not a copy if `yu = 0`

. Not suitable for `gerepile`

or `gerepileupto`

.

`GEN `

**submuliu_inplace**`(GEN x, GEN y, ulong u)`

returns `x- yu`

, but returns `x`

itself and not a copy if `yu = 0`

. Not suitable for `gerepile`

or `gerepileupto`

.

`GEN `

**lincombii**`(GEN u, GEN v, GEN x, GEN y)`

returns `ux + vy`

.

`GEN `

**mulsubii**`(GEN y, GEN z, GEN x)`

returns `yz - x`

.

`GEN `

**submulii**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN z)`

returns `x - yz`

.

`GEN `

**submuliu**`(GEN x, GEN y, ulong u)`

returns `x -yu`

.

`GEN `

**mulu_interval**`(ulong a, ulong b)`

returns `a(a+1)...b`

, assuming that `a <= b`

.

`GEN `

**muls_interval**`(long a, long b)`

returns `a(a+1)...b`

, assuming that `a <= b`

.

`GEN `

**invr**`(GEN x)`

returns the inverse of the non-zero `t_REAL`

`x`

.

`GEN `

**truedivii**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

returns the true Euclidean quotient (with non-negative remainder less than `|y|`

).

`GEN `

**truedivis**`(GEN x, long y)`

returns the true Euclidean quotient (with non-negative remainder less than `|y|`

).

`GEN `

**truedivsi**`(long x, GEN y)`

returns the true Euclidean quotient (with non-negative remainder less than `|y|`

).

`GEN `

**centermodii**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN y2)`

, given `t_INT`

s `x`

, `y`

, returns `z`

congruent to `x`

modulo `y`

, such that `-y/2 <= z < y/2`

. The function requires an extra argument `y2`

, such that `y2 = shifti(y, -1)`

. (In most cases, `y`

is constant for many reductions and `y2`

need only be computed once.)

`GEN `

**remi2n**`(GEN x, long n)`

returns `x`

mod `2^n`

.

`GEN `

**addii_sign**`(GEN x, long sx, GEN y, long sy)`

add the `t_INT`

s `x`

and `y`

as if their signs were `sx`

and `sy`

.

`GEN `

**addir_sign**`(GEN x, long sx, GEN y, long sy)`

add the `t_INT`

`x`

and the `t_REAL`

`y`

as if their signs were `sx`

and `sy`

.

`GEN `

**addrr_sign**`(GEN x, long sx, GEN y, long sy)`

add the `t_REAL`

s `x`

and `y`

as if their signs were `sx`

and `sy`

.

`GEN `

**addsi_sign**`(long x, GEN y, long sy)`

add `x`

and the `t_INT`

`y`

as if its sign was `sy`

.

`GEN `

**addui_sign**`(ulong x, GEN y, long sy)`

add `x`

and the `t_INT`

`y`

as if its sign was `sy`

.

`GEN `

**diviiexact**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

returns the Euclidean quotient `x / y`

, assuming `y`

divides `x`

. Uses Jebelean algorithm (Jebelean-Krandick bidirectional exact division is not implemented).

`GEN `

**diviuexact**`(GEN x, ulong y)`

returns the Euclidean quotient `x / y`

, assuming `y`

divides `x`

and `y`

is non-zero.

`GEN `

**diviuuexact**`(GEN x, ulong y, ulong z)`

returns the Euclidean quotient `x/(yz)`

, assuming `yz`

divides `x`

and `yz != 0`

.

The following routines return 1 (true) if `y`

divides `x`

, and 0 otherwise. (Error if `y`

is `0`

, even if `x`

is `0`

.) All `GEN`

are assumed to be `t_INT`

s:

`int `

**dvdii**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

, `int `

**dvdis**`(GEN x, long y)`

, `int `

**dvdiu**`(GEN x, ulong y)`

,

`int `

**dvdsi**`(long x, GEN y)`

, `int `

**dvdui**`(ulong x, GEN y)`

.

The following routines return 1 (true) if `y`

divides `x`

, and in that case assign the quotient to `z`

; otherwise they return 0. All `GEN`

are assumed to be `t_INT`

s:

`int `

**dvdiiz**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN z)`

, `int `

**dvdisz**`(GEN x, long y, GEN z)`

.

`int `

**dvdiuz**`(GEN x, ulong y, GEN z)`

if `y`

divides `x`

, assigns the quotient `|x|/y`

to `z`

and returns 1 (true), otherwise returns 0 (false).

`t_REAL`

result`GEN `

**rdivii**`(GEN x, GEN y, long prec)`

, assuming `x`

and `y`

are both of type `t_INT`

, return the quotient `x/y`

as a `t_REAL`

of precision `prec`

.

`GEN `

**rdiviiz**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN z)`

, assuming `x`

and `y`

are both of type `t_INT`

, and `z`

is a `t_REAL`

, assign the quotient `x/y`

to `z`

.

`GEN `

**rdivis**`(GEN x, long y, long prec)`

, assuming `x`

is of type `t_INT`

, return the quotient x/y as a `t_REAL`

of precision `prec`

.

`GEN `

**rdivsi**`(long x, GEN y, long prec)`

, assuming `y`

is of type `t_INT`

, return the quotient x/y as a `t_REAL`

of precision `prec`

.

`GEN `

**rdivss**`(long x, long y, long prec)`

, return the quotient x/y as a `t_REAL`

of precision `prec`

.

The following functions return two objects, unless specifically asked for only one of them --- a quotient and a remainder. The quotient is returned and the remainder is returned through the variable whose address is passed as the `r`

argument. The term *true Euclidean remainder* refers to the non-negative one (`mod`

), and *Euclidean remainder* by itself to the one with the same sign as the dividend (`rem`

). All `GEN`

s, whether returned directly or through a pointer, are created on the stack.

`GEN `

**dvmdii**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN *r)`

returns the Euclidean quotient of the `t_INT`

`x`

by a `t_INT`

`y`

and puts the remainder into `*r`

. If `r`

is equal to `NULL`

, the remainder is not created, and if `r`

is equal to `ONLY_REM`

, only the remainder is created and returned. In the generic case, the remainder is created after the quotient and can be disposed of individually with a `cgiv(r)`

. The remainder is always of the sign of the dividend `x`

. If the remainder is `0`

set `r = gen_0`

.

`void `

**dvmdiiz**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN z, GEN t)`

assigns the Euclidean quotient of the `t_INT`

s `x`

and `y`

into the `t_INT`

`z`

, and the Euclidean remainder into the `t_INT`

`t`

.

@3Analogous routines `dvmdis`

`[z]`

, `dvmdsi`

`[z]`

, `dvmdss`

`[z]`

are available, where `s`

denotes a `long`

argument. But the following routines are in general more flexible:

`long `

**sdivss_rem**`(long s, long t, long *r)`

computes the Euclidean quotient and remainder of the longs `s`

and `t`

. Puts the remainder into `*r`

, and returns the quotient. The remainder is of the sign of the dividend `s`

, and has strictly smaller absolute value than `t`

.

`long `

**sdivsi_rem**`(long s, GEN x, long *r)`

computes the Euclidean quotient and remainder of the `long`

`s`

by the `t_INT`

`x`

. As `sdivss_rem`

otherwise.

`long `

**sdivsi**`(long s, GEN x)`

as `sdivsi_rem`

, without remainder.

`GEN `

**divis_rem**`(GEN x, long s, long *r)`

computes the Euclidean quotient and remainder of the `t_INT`

`x`

by the `long`

`s`

. As `sdivss_rem`

otherwise.

`GEN `

**diviu_rem**`(GEN x, ulong s, ulong *r)`

computes the Euclidean quotient and remainder of *absolute value* of the `t_INT`

`x`

by the `ulong`

`s`

. As `sdivss_rem`

otherwise.

`ulong `

**udiviu_rem**`(GEN n, ulong d, ulong *r)`

as `diviu_rem`

, assuming that `|n|/d`

fits into an `ulong`

.

`ulong `

**udivui_rem**`(ulong x, GEN y, ulong *rem)`

computes the Euclidean quotient and remainder of `x`

by `y`

. As `sdivss_rem`

otherwise.

`ulong `

**udivuu_rem**`(ulong x, ulong y, ulong *rem)`

computes the Euclidean quotient and remainder of `x`

by `y`

. As `sdivss_rem`

otherwise.

`ulong `

**ceildivuu**`(ulong x, ulong y)`

return the ceiling of `x / y`

.

`GEN `

**divsi_rem**`(long s, GEN y, long *r)`

computes the Euclidean quotient and remainder of the `long`

`s`

by the `GEN`

`y`

. As `sdivss_rem`

otherwise.

`GEN `

**divss_rem**`(long x, long y, long *r)`

computes the Euclidean quotient and remainder of the `long`

`x`

by the `long`

`y`

. As `sdivss_rem`

otherwise.

`GEN `

**truedvmdii**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN *r)`

, as `dvmdii`

but with a non-negative remainder.

`GEN `

**truedvmdis**`(GEN x, long y, GEN *z)`

, as `dvmdis`

but with a non-negative remainder.

`GEN `

**truedvmdsi**`(long x, GEN y, GEN *z)`

, as `dvmdsi`

but with a non-negative remainder.

The following variants of `modii`

do not clutter the stack:

`long `

**smodis**`(GEN x, long y)`

computes the true Euclidean remainder of the `t_INT`

`x`

by the `long`

`y`

. This is the non-negative remainder, not the one whose sign is the sign of `x`

as in the `div`

functions.

`long `

**smodss**`(long x, long y)`

computes the true Euclidean remainder of the `long`

`x`

by a `long`

`y`

.

`ulong `

**umodsu**`(long x, ulong y)`

computes the true Euclidean remainder of the `long`

`x`

by a `ulong`

`y`

.

`ulong `

**umodiu**`(GEN x, ulong y)`

computes the true Euclidean remainder of the `t_INT`

`x`

by the `ulong`

`y`

.

`ulong `

**umodui**`(ulong x, GEN y)`

computes the true Euclidean remainder of the `ulong`

`x`

by the `t_INT`

`|y|`

.

The routine `smodsi`

does not exist, since it would not always be defined: for a *negative* `x`

, if the quotient is

, the result *+-*1`x + |y|`

would in general not fit into a `long`

. Use either `umodui`

or `modsi`

.

These functions directly access the binary data and are thus much faster than the generic modulo functions:

`int `

**mpodd**`(GEN x)`

which is 1 if `x`

is odd, and 0 otherwise.

`ulong `

**Mod2**`(GEN x)`

`ulong `

**Mod4**`(GEN x)`

`ulong `

**Mod8**`(GEN x)`

`ulong `

**Mod16**`(GEN x)`

`ulong `

**Mod32**`(GEN x)`

`ulong `

**Mod64**`(GEN x)`

give the residue class of `x`

modulo the corresponding power of `2`

.

`ulong `

**umodi2n**`(GEN x, long n)`

give the residue class of `x`

modulo `2^n`

, `0 <= n < BITS_IN_LONG`

.

The following functions assume that `x != 0`

and in fact disregard the sign of `x`

. There are about `10%`

faster than the safer variants above:

`long `

**mod2**`(GEN x)`

`long `

**mod4**`(GEN x)`

`long `

**mod8**`(GEN x)`

`long `

**mod16**`(GEN x)`

`long `

**mod32**`(GEN x)`

`long `

**mod64**`(GEN x)`

give the residue class of `|x|`

modulo the corresponding power of 2, for *non-zero* `x`

. As well,

`ulong `

**mod2BIL**`(GEN x)`

returns the least significant word of `|x|`

, still assuming that `x != 0`

.

`GEN `

**powii**`(GEN x, GEN n)`

, assumes `x`

and `n`

are `t_INT`

s and returns `x^n`

.

`GEN `

**powuu**`(ulong x, ulong n)`

, returns `x^n`

.

`GEN `

**powiu**`(GEN x, ulong n)`

, assumes `x`

is a `t_INT`

and returns `x^n`

.

`GEN `

**powis**`(GEN x, long n)`

, assumes `x`

is a `t_INT`

and returns `x^n`

(possibly a `t_FRAC`

if `n < 0`

).

`GEN `

**powrs**`(GEN x, long n)`

, assumes `x`

is a `t_REAL`

and returns `x^n`

. This is considered as a sequence of `mulrr`

, possibly empty: as such the result has type `t_REAL`

, even if `n = 0`

. Note that the generic function `gpowgs(x,0)`

would return `gen_1`

, see the technical note in "Label se:genbinop".

`GEN `

**powru**`(GEN x, ulong n)`

, assumes `x`

is a `t_REAL`

and returns `x^n`

(always a `t_REAL`

, even if `n = 0`

).

`GEN `

**powersr**`(GEN e, long n)`

. Given a `t_REAL`

`e`

, return the vector `v`

of all `e^i`

, `0 <= i <= n`

, where `v[i] = e^{i-1}`

.

`GEN `

**powrshalf**`(GEN x, long n)`

, assumes `x`

is a `t_REAL`

and returns `x^{n/2}`

(always a `t_REAL`

, even if `n = 0`

).

`GEN `

**powruhalf**`(GEN x, ulong n)`

, assumes `x`

is a `t_REAL`

and returns `x^{n/2}`

(always a `t_REAL`

, even if `n = 0`

).

`GEN `

**powrfrac**`(GEN x, long n, long d)`

, assumes `x`

is a `t_REAL`

and returns `x^{n/d}`

(always a `t_REAL`

, even if `n = 0`

).

`GEN `

**powIs**`(long n)`

returns `I^n\in{1,I,-1,-I}`

(`t_INT`

for even `n`

, `t_COMPLEX`

otherwise).

`ulong `

**upowuu**`(ulong x, ulong n)`

, returns `x^n`

when ` < 2^BIL`

, and `0`

otherwise (overflow).

`GEN `

**sqrtremi**`(GEN N, GEN *r)`

, returns the integer square root `S`

of the non-negative `t_INT`

`N`

(rounded towards 0) and puts the remainder `R`

into `*r`

. Precisely, `N = S^2 + R`

with `0 <= R <= 2S`

. If `r`

is equal to `NULL`

, the remainder is not created. In the generic case, the remainder is created after the quotient and can be disposed of individually with `cgiv(R)`

. If the remainder is `0`

set `R = gen_0`

.

Uses a divide and conquer algorithm (discrete variant of Newton iteration) due to Paul Zimmermann (``Karatsuba Square Root'', INRIA Research Report 3805 (1999)).

`GEN `

**sqrti**`(GEN N)`

, returns the integer square root `S`

of the non-negative `t_INT`

`N`

(rounded towards 0). This is identical to `sqrtremi(N, NULL)`

.

`long `

**logintall**`(GEN B, GEN y, GEN *ptq)`

returns the floor `e`

of *log* `_y B`

, where `B > 0`

and `y > 1`

are integers. If `ptq`

is not `NULL`

, set it to `y^e`

. (Analogous to `logint0`

, whithout sanity checks.)

`long `

**logint**`(GEN B, GEN y)`

returns the floor `e`

of *log* `_y B`

, where `B > 0`

and `y > 1`

are integers.

`long `

**cgcd**`(long x, long y)`

returns the GCD of `x`

and `y`

.

`ulong `

**ugcd**`(ulong x, ulong y)`

returns the GCD of `x`

and `y`

.

`long `

**clcm**`(long x, long y)`

returns the LCM of `x`

and `y`

, provided it fits into a `long`

. Silently overflows otherwise.

`GEN `

**gcdii**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

, returns the GCD of the `t_INT`

s `x`

and `y`

.

`GEN `

**lcmii**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

, returns the LCM of the `t_INT`

s `x`

and `y`

.

`GEN `

**bezout**`(GEN a,GEN b, GEN *u,GEN *v)`

, returns the GCD `d`

of `t_INT`

s `a`

and `b`

and sets `u`

, `v`

to the Bezout coefficients such that `au + bv = d`

.

`long `

**cbezout**`(long a,long b, long *u,long *v)`

, returns the GCD `d`

of `a`

and `b`

and sets `u`

, `v`

to the Bezout coefficients such that `au + bv = d`

.

`GEN `

**ZV_extgcd**`(GEN A)`

given a vector of `n`

integers `A`

, returns `[d, U]`

, where `d`

is the GCD of the `A[i]`

and `U`

is a matrix in `GL_n(`

**Z**`)`

such that `AU = [0,...,0,D]`

.

`GEN `

**ZV_allpnqn**`(GEN x)`

given `x = [a_0, ..., a_n]`

a continued fraction from `gboundcf`

, `n >= 0`

, return all convergents as `[P,Q]`

, where `P = [p_0,...,p_n]`

and `Q = [q_0,...,q_n]`

.

These routine return pseudo-random integers uniformly distributed in some interval. The all use the same underlying generator which can be seeded and restarted using `getrand`

and `setrand`

.

`void `

**setrand**`(GEN seed)`

reseeds the random number generator using the seed `n`

. The seed is either a technical array output by `getrand`

or a small positive integer, used to generate deterministically a suitable state array. For instance, running a randomized computation starting by `setrand(1)`

twice will generate the exact same output.

`GEN `

**getrand**`(void)`

returns the current value of the seed used by the pseudo-random number generator `random`

. Useful mainly for debugging purposes, to reproduce a specific chain of computations. The returned value is technical (reproduces an internal state array of type `t_VECSMALL`

), and can only be used as an argument to `setrand`

.

`ulong `

**pari_rand**`(void)`

returns a random `0 <= x < 2^BIL`

.

`long `

**random_bits**`(long k)`

returns a random `0 <= x < 2^k`

. Assumes that `0 <= k <= BIL`

.

`ulong `

**random_Fl**`(ulong p)`

returns a pseudo-random integer in `0, 1,...p-1`

.

`GEN `

**randomi**`(GEN n)`

returns a random `t_INT`

between `0`

and `n - 1`

.

`GEN `

**randomr**`(long prec)`

returns a random `t_REAL`

in `[0,1[`

, with precision `prec`

.

In this subsection, all `GEN`

s are `t_INT`

.

`GEN `

**Fp_red**`(GEN a, GEN m)`

returns `a`

modulo `m`

(smallest non-negative residue). (This is identical to modii).

`GEN `

**Fp_neg**`(GEN a, GEN m)`

returns `-`

`a`

modulo `m`

(smallest non-negative residue).

`GEN `

**Fp_add**`(GEN a, GEN b, GEN m)`

returns the sum of `a`

and `b`

modulo `m`

(smallest non-negative residue).

`GEN `

**Fp_sub**`(GEN a, GEN b, GEN m)`

returns the difference of `a`

and `b`

modulo `m`

(smallest non-negative residue).

`GEN `

**Fp_center**`(GEN a, GEN p, GEN pov2)`

assuming that `pov2`

is `shifti(p,-1)`

and that `a`

is between `0`

and `p - 1`

and, returns the representative of `a`

in the symmetric residue system.

`GEN `

**Fp_mul**`(GEN a, GEN b, GEN m)`

returns the product of `a`

by `b`

modulo `m`

(smallest non-negative residue).

`GEN `

**Fp_addmul**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN z, GEN p)`

returns `x + yz`

.

`GEN `

**Fp_mulu**`(GEN a, ulong b, GEN m)`

returns the product of `a`

by `b`

modulo `m`

(smallest non-negative residue).

`GEN `

**Fp_muls**`(GEN a, long b, GEN m)`

returns the product of `a`

by `b`

modulo `m`

(smallest non-negative residue).

`GEN `

**Fp_halve**`(GEN x, GEN m)`

returns `z`

such that `2 z = x`

modulo `m`

assuming such `z`

exists.

`GEN `

**Fp_sqr**`(GEN a, GEN m)`

returns `a^2`

modulo `m`

(smallest non-negative residue).

`ulong `

**Fp_powu**`(GEN x, ulong n, GEN m)`

raises `x`

to the `n`

-th power modulo `m`

(smallest non-negative residue). Not memory-clean, but suitable for `gerepileupto`

.

`ulong `

**Fp_pows**`(GEN x, long n, GEN m)`

raises `x`

to the `n`

-th power modulo `m`

(smallest non-negative residue). A negative `n`

is allowed Not memory-clean, but suitable for `gerepileupto`

.

`GEN `

**Fp_pow**`(GEN x, GEN n, GEN m)`

returns `x^n`

modulo `m`

(smallest non-negative residue).

`GEN `

**Fp_powers**`(GEN x, long n, GEN m)`

returns `[x^0,..., x^n]`

modulo `m`

as a `t_VEC`

(smallest non-negative residue).

`GEN `

**Fp_inv**`(GEN a, GEN m)`

returns an inverse of `a`

modulo `m`

(smallest non-negative residue). Raise an error if `a`

is not invertible.

`GEN `

**Fp_invsafe**`(GEN a, GEN m)`

as `Fp_inv`

, but return `NULL`

if `a`

is not invertible.

`GEN `

**FpV_inv**`(GEN x, GEN m)`

`x`

being a vector of `t_INT`

s, return the vector of inverses of the `x[i]`

mod `m`

. The routine uses Montgomery's trick, and involves a single inversion mod `m`

, plus `3(N-1)`

multiplications for `N`

entries. The routine is not stack-clean: `2N`

integers mod `m`

are left on stack, besides the `N`

in the result.

`GEN `

**Fp_div**`(GEN a, GEN b, GEN m)`

returns the quotient of `a`

by `b`

modulo `m`

(smallest non-negative residue). Raise an error if `b`

is not invertible.

`int `

**invmod**`(GEN a, GEN m, GEN *g)`

, return `1`

if `a`

modulo `m`

is invertible, else return `0`

and set `g = `

*gcd* `(a,m)`

.

In the following three functions the integer parameter `ord`

can be given either as a positive `t_INT`

`N`

, or as its factorization matrix *faN*, or as a pair `[N,`

*faN*`]`

. The parameter may be omitted by setting it to `NULL`

(the value is then `p-1`

).

`GEN `

**Fp_log**`(GEN a, GEN g, GEN ord, GEN p)`

Let `g`

such that `g^{ord} = 1 (mod p)`

. Return an integer `e`

such that `a^e = g (mod p)`

. If `e`

does not exist, the result is undefined.

`GEN `

**Fp_order**`(GEN a, GEN ord, GEN p)`

returns the order of the `Fp`

`a`

. Assume that `ord`

is a multiple of the order of `a`

.

`GEN `

**Fp_factored_order**`(GEN a, GEN ord, GEN p)`

returns `[o,F]`

, where `o`

is the multiplicative order of the `Fp`

`a`

in **F**`_p^*`

, and `F`

is the factorization of `o`

. Assume that `ord`

is a multiple of the order of `a`

.

`int `

**Fp_issquare**`(GEN x, GEN p)`

returns `1`

if `x`

is a square modulo `p`

, and `0`

otherwise.

`int `

**Fp_ispower**`(GEN x, GEN n, GEN p)`

returns `1`

if `x`

is an `n`

-th power modulo `p`

, and `0`

otherwise.

`GEN `

**Fp_sqrt**`(GEN x, GEN p)`

returns a square root of `x`

modulo `p`

(the smallest non-negative residue), where `x`

, `p`

are `t_INT`

s, and `p`

is assumed to be prime. Return `NULL`

if `x`

is not a quadratic residue modulo `p`

.

`GEN `

**Fp_sqrtn**`(GEN a, GEN n, GEN p, GEN *zn)`

returns `NULL`

if `a`

is not an `n`

-th power residue mod `p`

. Otherwise, returns an `n`

-th root of `a`

; if `zn`

is non-`NULL`

set it to a primitive `m`

-th root of 1, `m = `

*gcd* `(p-1,n)`

allowing to compute all `m`

solutions in **F**`_p`

of the equation `x^n = a`

.

`GEN `

**Zn_sqrt**`(GEN x, GEN n)`

returns one of the square roots of `x`

modulo `n`

(possibly not prime), where `x`

is a `t_INT`

and `n`

is either a `t_INT`

or is given by its factorisation matrix. Return `NULL`

if no such square root exist.

`long `

**kross**`(long x, long y)`

returns the Kronecker symbol `(x|y)`

, i.e.`-1`

, `0`

or `1`

. If `y`

is an odd prime, this is the Legendre symbol. (Contrary to `krouu`

, `kross`

also supports `y = 0`

)

`long `

**krouu**`(ulong x, ulong y)`

returns the Kronecker symbol `(x|y)`

, i.e. `-1`

, `0`

or `1`

. Assumes `y`

is non-zero. If `y`

is an odd prime, this is the Legendre symbol.

`long `

**krois**`(GEN x, long y)`

returns the Kronecker symbol `(x|y)`

of `t_INT`

x and `long`

`y`

. As `kross`

otherwise.

`long `

**kroiu**`(GEN x, ulong y)`

returns the Kronecker symbol `(x|y)`

of `t_INT`

x and non-zero `ulong`

`y`

. As `krouu`

otherwise.

`long `

**krosi**`(long x, GEN y)`

returns the Kronecker symbol `(x|y)`

of `long`

x and `t_INT`

`y`

. As `kross`

otherwise.

`long `

**kroui**`(ulong x, GEN y)`

returns the Kronecker symbol `(x|y)`

of `long`

x and `t_INT`

`y`

. As `kross`

otherwise.

`long `

**kronecker**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

returns the Kronecker symbol `(x|y)`

of `t_INT`

s x and `y`

. As `kross`

otherwise.

`GEN `

**pgener_Fp**`(GEN p)`

returns the smallest primitive root modulo `p`

, assuming `p`

is prime.

`GEN `

**pgener_Zp**`(GEN p)`

returns the smallest primitive root modulo `p^k`

, `k > 1`

, assuming `p`

is an odd prime.

`long `

**Zp_issquare**`(GEN x, GEN p)`

returns 1 if the `t_INT`

`x`

is a `p`

-adic square, `0`

otherwise.

`long `

**Zn_issquare**`(GEN x, GEN n)`

returns 1 if `t_INT`

`x`

is a square modulo `n`

(possibly not prime), where `n`

is either a `t_INT`

or is given by its factorisation matrix. Return `0`

otherwise.

`long `

**Zn_ispower**`(GEN x, GEN n, GEN K, GEN *py)`

returns 1 if `t_INT`

`x`

is a `K`

-th power modulo `n`

(possibly not prime), where `n`

is either a `t_INT`

or is given by its factorisation matrix. Return `0`

otherwise. If `py`

is not `NULL`

, set it to `y`

such that `y^K = x`

modulo `n`

.

`GEN `

**pgener_Fp_local**`(GEN p, GEN L)`

, `L`

being a vector of primes dividing `p - 1`

, returns the smallest integer `x > 1`

which is a generator of the *ell*-Sylow of **F**`_p^*`

for every *ell* in `L`

. In other words, `x^{(p-1)/`

*ell*`} != 1`

for all such *ell*. In particular, returns `pgener_Fp(p)`

if `L`

contains all primes dividing `p - 1`

. It is not necessary, and in fact slightly inefficient, to include *ell*` = 2`

, since 2 is treated separately in any case, i.e. the generator obtained is never a square.

`GEN `

**rootsof1_Fp**`(GEN n, GEN p)`

returns a primitive `n`

-th root modulo the prime `p`

.

`GEN `

**rootsof1u_Fp**`(ulong n, GEN p)`

returns a primitive `n`

-th root modulo the prime `p`

.

`ulong `

**rootsof1_Fl**`(ulong n, ulong p)`

returns a primitive `n`

-th root modulo the prime `p`

.

The following functions apply `f`

to the given arguments, recursively if they are of vector / matrix type:

`GEN `

**map_proto_G**`(GEN (*f)(GEN), GEN x)`

For instance, if `x`

is a `t_VEC`

, return a `t_VEC`

whose components are the `f(x[i])`

.

`GEN `

**map_proto_lG**`(long (*f)(GEN), GEN x)`

As above, applying the function `stoi( f() )`

.

`GEN `

**map_proto_GL**`(GEN (*f)(GEN,long), GEN x, long y)`

`GEN `

**map_proto_lGL**`(long (*f)(GEN,long), GEN x, long y)`

In the last function, `f`

implements an associative binary operator, which we extend naturally to an `n`

-ary operator `f_n`

for any `n`

: by convention, `f_0() = 1`

, `f_1(x) = x`

, and

` f_n(x_1,...,x_n) = f( f_{n-1}(x_1,...,x_{n-1}), x_n)),`

for `n >= 2`

.

`GEN `

**gassoc_proto**`(GEN (*f)(GEN,GEN),GEN x, GEN y)`

If `y`

is not `NULL`

, return `f(x,y)`

. Otherwise, `x`

must be of vector type, and we return the result of `f`

applied to its components, computed using a divide-and-conquer algorithm. More precisely, return

`f( f(x_1,NULL), f(x_2,NULL) ),`

where `x_1`

, `x_2`

are the two halves of `x`

.

`long `

**bigomegau**`(ulong n)`

returns the number of prime divisors of `n > 0`

, counted with multiplicity.

`ulong `

**coreu**`(ulong n)`

, unique squarefree integer `d`

dividing `n`

such that `n/d`

is a square.

`ulong `

**corediscs**`(long d, ulong *pt_f)`

, `d`

(possibly negative) being congruent to `0`

or `1`

modulo `4`

, return the fundamental discriminant `D`

such that `d = D*f^2`

and set `*pt_f`

to `f`

(if `*pt_f`

not `NULL`

).

`ulong `

**eulerphiu**`(ulong n)`

, Euler's totient function of `n`

.

`ulong `

**eulerphiu_fact**`(GEN fa)`

, Euler's totient function of the `ulong`

`n`

, where `fa`

is `factoru(n)`

.

`long `

**moebiusu**`(ulong n)`

, Moebius *mu*-function of `n`

.

`GEN `

**divisorsu**`(ulong n)`

, returns the divisors of `n`

in a `t_VECSMALL`

, sorted by increasing order.

`ulong `

**divisorsu_fact**`(GEN fa)`

, as `divisorsu(n)`

where `fa`

is `factoru(n)`

.

`long `

**omegau**`(ulong n)`

returns the number of prime divisors of `n > 0`

.

`long `

**uissquarefree**`(ulong n)`

returns `1`

if `n`

is square-free, and `0`

otherwise.

`ulong `

**uissquarefree_fact**`(GEN fa)`

returns `uissquarefree(n)`

, where `fa`

is `factoru(n)`

.

`long `

**uposisfundamental**`(ulong x)`

return `1`

if `x`

is a fundamental discriminant, and `0`

otherwise.

`long `

**unegisfundamental**`(ulong x)`

return `1`

if `-x`

is a fundamental discriminant, and `0`

otherwise.

`long `

**sisfundamental**`(long x)`

return `1`

if `x`

is a fundamental discriminant, and `0`

otherwise.

`int `

**uis_357_power**`(ulong x, ulong *pt, ulong *mask)`

as `is_357_power`

for `ulong`

`x`

.

`int `

**uis_357_powermod**`(ulong x, ulong *mask)`

as `uis_357_power`

, but only check for 3rd, 5th or 7th powers modulo `211 x 209 x 61 x 203 x 117 x 31 x 43 x 71`

.

`long `

**uisprimepower**`(ulong n, ulong *p)`

as `isprimepower`

, for `ulong`

`n`

.

`int `

**uislucaspsp**`(ulong n)`

returns `1`

if the `ulong`

`n`

fails Lucas compositeness test (it thus may be prime or composite), and `0`

otherwise (proving that `n`

is composite).

`ulong `

**sumdigitsu**`(ulong n)`

returns the sum of decimal digits of `u`

.

`GEN `

**usumdivkvec**`(ulong n, GEN K)`

`K`

being a `t_VECSMALL`

of positive integers. Returns the vector of `sumdivk`

`(n, K[i])`

.

`GEN `

**usumdiv_fact**`(GEN fa)`

, sum of divisors of `ulong`

`n`

, where `fa`

is `factoru(n)`

.

`GEN `

**usumdivk_fact**`(GEN fa, ulong k)`

, sum of `k`

-th powers of divisors of `ulong`

`n`

, where `fa`

is `factoru(n)`

.

`GEN `

**hilbertii**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN p)`

, returns the Hilbert symbol `(x,y)`

at the prime `p`

(`NULL`

for the place at infinity); `x`

and `y`

are `t_INT`

s.

`GEN `

**sumdedekind**`(GEN h, GEN k)`

returns the Dedekind sum attached to the `t_INT`

`h`

and `k`

, `k > 0`

.

`GEN `

**sumdedekind_coprime**`(GEN h, GEN k)`

as `sumdedekind`

, except that `h`

and `k`

are assumed to be coprime `t_INT`

s.

`GEN `

**u_sumdedekind_coprime**`(long h, long k)`

Let `k > 0`

, `0 <= h < k`

, `(h,k) = 1`

. Returns `[s_1,s_2]`

in a `t_VECSMALL`

, such that `s(h,k) = (s_2 + k s_1) / (12k)`

. Requires *max* `(h + k/2, k) < LONG_MAX`

to avoid overflow, in particular `k <= (2/3)LONG_MAX`

is fine.

\newpage

libPARI - Level 2 kernel

These functions deal with modular arithmetic, linear algebra and polynomials where assumptions can be made about the types of the coefficients.

A function name is built in the following way: `A_1_..._A_n`

*fun* for an operation *fun* with `n`

arguments of class `A_1`

,..., `A_n`

. A class name is given by a base ring followed by a number of code letters. Base rings are among

`Fl`

: **Z**`/l`

**Z** where `l < 2^{BIL}`

is not necessarily prime. Implemented using `ulong`

s

`Fp`

: **Z**`/p`

**Z** where `p`

is a `t_INT`

, not necessarily prime. Implemented as `t_INT`

s `z`

, preferably satisfying `0 <= z < p`

. More precisely, any `t_INT`

can be used as an `Fp`

, but reduced inputs are treated more efficiently. Outputs from `Fp`

xxx routines are reduced.

`Fq`

: **Z**`[X]/(p,T(X))`

, `p`

a `t_INT`

, `T`

a `t_POL`

with `Fp`

coefficients or `NULL`

(in which case no reduction modulo `T`

is performed). Implemented as `t_POL`

s `z`

with `Fp`

coefficients, *deg* `(z) < `

*deg* ` T`

, although `z`

a `t_INT`

is allowed for elements in the prime field.

`Z`

: the integers **Z**, implemented as `t_INT`

s.

`Zp`

: the `p`

-adic integers **Z**`_p`

, implemented as `t_INT`

s, for arbitrary `p`

`Zl`

: the `p`

-adic integers **Z**`_p`

, implemented as `t_INT`

s, for `p < 2^{BIL}`

`z`

: the integers **Z**, implemented using (signed) `long`

s.

`Q`

: the rational numbers **Q**, implemented as `t_INT`

s and `t_FRAC`

s.

`Rg`

: a commutative ring, whose elements can be `gadd`

-ed, `gmul`

-ed, etc.

@3Possible letters are:

`X`

: polynomial in `X`

(`t_POL`

in a fixed variable), e.g. `FpX`

means **Z**`/p`

**Z**`[X]`

`Y`

: polynomial in `Y != X`

. This is used to resolve ambiguities. E.g. `FpXY`

means `((`

**Z**`/p`

**Z**`)[X])[Y]`

.

`V`

: vector (`t_VEC`

or `t_COL`

), treated as a line vector (independently of the actual type). E.g. `ZV`

means **Z**`^k`

for some `k`

.

`C`

: vector (`t_VEC`

or `t_COL`

), treated as a column vector (independently of the actual type). The difference with `V`

is purely semantic: if the result is a vector, it will be of type `t_COL`

unless mentioned otherwise. For instance the function `ZC_add`

receives two integral vectors (`t_COL`

or `t_VEC`

, possibly different types) of the same length and returns a `t_COL`

whose entries are the sums of the input coefficients.

`M`

: matrix (`t_MAT`

). E.g. `QM`

means a matrix with rational entries

`T`

: Trees. Either a leaf or a `t_VEC`

of trees.

`E`

: point over an elliptic curve, represented as two-component vectors `[x,y]`

, except for the represented by the one-component vector `[0]`

. Not all curve models are supported.

`Q`

: representative (`t_POL`

) of a class in a polynomial quotient ring. E.g. an `FpXQ`

belongs to `(`

**Z**`/p`

**Z**`)[X]/(T(X))`

, `FpXQV`

means a vector of such elements, etc.

`n`

: a polynomial representative (`t_POL`

) for a truncated power series modulo `X^n`

. E.g. an `FpXn`

belongs to `(`

**Z**`/p`

**Z**`)[X]/(X^n)`

, `FpXnV`

means a vector of such elements, etc.

`x`

, `y`

, `m`

, `v`

, `c`

, `q`

: as their uppercase counterpart, but coefficient arrays are implemented using `t_VECSMALL`

s, which coefficient understood as `ulong`

s.

`x`

and `y`

(and `q`

) are implemented by a `t_VECSMALL`

whose first coefficient is used as a code-word and the following are the coefficients , similarly to a `t_POL`

. This is known as a 'POLSMALL'.

`m`

are implemented by a `t_MAT`

whose components (columns) are `t_VECSMALL`

s. This is known as a 'MATSMALL'.

`v`

and `c`

are regular `t_VECSMALL`

s. Difference between the two is purely semantic.

@3Omitting the letter means the argument is a scalar in the base ring. Standard functions *fun* are

`add`

: add

`sub`

: subtract

`mul`

: multiply

`sqr`

: square

`div`

: divide (Euclidean quotient)

`rem`

: Euclidean remainder

`divrem`

: return Euclidean quotient, store remainder in a pointer argument. Three special values of that pointer argument modify the default behavior: `NULL`

(do not store the remainder, used to implement `div`

), `ONLY_REM`

(return the remainder, used to implement `rem`

), `ONLY_DIVIDES`

(return the quotient if the division is exact, and `NULL`

otherwise).

`gcd`

: GCD

`extgcd`

: return GCD, store Bezout coefficients in pointer arguments

`pow`

: exponentiate

`eval`

: evaluation / composition

@3These routines implement univariate polynomial arithmetic and linear algebra over finite fields, in fact over finite rings of the form `(`

**Z**`/p`

**Z**`)[X]/(T)`

, where `p`

is not necessarily prime and `T\in(`

**Z**`/p`

**Z**`)[X]`

is possibly reducible; and finite extensions thereof. All this can be emulated with `t_INTMOD`

and `t_POLMOD`

coefficients and using generic routines, at a considerable loss of efficiency. Also, specialized routines are available that have no obvious generic equivalent.

`FpC`

/ `FpV`

, `FpM`

A `ZV`

(resp. a `ZM`

) is a `t_VEC`

or `t_COL`

(resp. `t_MAT`

) with `t_INT`

coefficients. An `FpV`

or `FpM`

, with respect to a given `t_INT`

`p`

, is the same with `Fp`

coordinates; operations are understood over **Z**`/p`

**Z**.

`int `

**Rg_is_Fp**`(GEN z, GEN *p)`

, checks if `z`

can be mapped to **Z**`/p`

**Z**: a `t_INT`

or a `t_INTMOD`

whose modulus is equal to `*p`

, (if `*p`

not `NULL`

), in that case return `1`

, else `0`

. If a modulus is found it is put in `*p`

, else `*p`

is left unchanged.

`int `

**RgV_is_FpV**`(GEN z, GEN *p)`

, `z`

a `t_VEC`

(resp. `t_COL`

), checks if it can be mapped to a `FpV`

(resp. `FpC`

), by checking `Rg_is_Fp`

coefficientwise.

`int `

**RgM_is_FpM**`(GEN z, GEN *p)`

, `z`

a `t_MAT`

, checks if it can be mapped to a `FpM`

, by checking `RgV_is_FpV`

columnwise.

`GEN `

**Rg_to_Fp**`(GEN z, GEN p)`

, `z`

a scalar which can be mapped to **Z**`/p`

**Z**: a `t_INT`

, a `t_INTMOD`

whose modulus is divisible by `p`

, a `t_FRAC`

whose denominator is coprime to `p`

, or a `t_PADIC`

with underlying prime *ell* satisfying `p = `

*ell*`^n`

for some `n`

(less than the accuracy of the input). Returns `lift(z * Mod(1,p))`

, normalized.

`GEN `

**padic_to_Fp**`(GEN x, GEN p)`

special case of `Rg_to_Fp`

, for a `x`

a `t_PADIC`

.

`GEN `

**RgV_to_FpV**`(GEN z, GEN p)`

, `z`

a `t_VEC`

or `t_COL`

, returns the `FpV`

(as a `t_VEC`

) obtained by applying `Rg_to_Fp`

coefficientwise.

`GEN `

**RgC_to_FpC**`(GEN z, GEN p)`

, `z`

a `t_VEC`

or `t_COL`

, returns the `FpC`

(as a `t_COL`

) obtained by applying `Rg_to_Fp`

coefficientwise.

`GEN `

**RgM_to_FpM**`(GEN z, GEN p)`

, `z`

a `t_MAT`

, returns the `FpM`

obtained by applying `RgC_to_FpC`

columnwise.

`GEN `

**RgM_Fp_init**`(GEN z, GEN p, ulong *pp)`

, given an `RgM`

`z`

, whose entries can be mapped to **F**`_p`

(as per `Rg_to_Fp`

), and a prime number `p`

. This routine returns a normal form of `z`

: either an `F2m`

(`p = 2`

), an `Flm`

(`p`

fits into an `ulong`

) or an `FpM`

. In the first two cases, `pp`

is set to `itou`

`(p)`

, and to `0`

in the last.

The functions above are generally used as follow:

```
GEN add(GEN x, GEN y)
{
GEN p = NULL;
if (Rg_is_Fp(x, &p) && Rg_is_Fp(y, &p) && p)
{
x = Rg_to_Fp(x, p); y = Rg_to_Fp(y, p);
z = Fp_add(x, y, p);
return Fp_to_mod(z);
}
else return gadd(x, y);
}
```

`GEN `

**FpC_red**`(GEN z, GEN p)`

, `z`

a `ZC`

. Returns `lift(Col(z) * Mod(1,p))`

, hence a `t_COL`

.

`GEN `

**FpV_red**`(GEN z, GEN p)`

, `z`

a `ZV`

. Returns `lift(Vec(z) * Mod(1,p))`

, hence a `t_VEC`

`GEN `

**FpM_red**`(GEN z, GEN p)`

, `z`

a `ZM`

. Returns `lift(z * Mod(1,p))`

, which is an `FpM`

.

`GEN `

**FpC_center**`(GEN z, GEN p, GEN pov2)`

returns a `t_COL`

whose entries are the `Fp_center`

of the `gel(z,i)`

.

`GEN `

**FpM_center**`(GEN z, GEN p, GEN pov2)`

returns a matrix whose entries are the `Fp_center`

of the `gcoeff(z,i,j)`

.

`void `

**FpC_center_inplace**`(GEN z, GEN p, GEN pov2)`

in-place version of `FpC_center`

, using `affii`

.

`void `

**FpM_center_inplace**`(GEN z, GEN p, GEN pov2)`

in-place version of `FpM_center`

, using `affii`

.

`GEN `

**FpC_add**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN p)`

adds the `ZC`

`x`

and `y`

and reduce modulo `p`

to obtain an `FpC`

.

`GEN `

**FpV_add**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN p)`

same as `FpC_add`

, returning and `FpV`

.

`GEN `

**FpM_add**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN p)`

adds the two `ZM`

s `x`

and `y`

(assumed to have compatible dimensions), and reduce modulo `p`

to obtain an `FpM`

.

`GEN `

**FpC_sub**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN p)`

subtracts the `ZC`

`y`

to the `ZC`

`x`

and reduce modulo `p`

to obtain an `FpC`

.

`GEN `

**FpV_sub**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN p)`

same as `FpC_sub`

, returning and `FpV`

.

`GEN `

**FpM_sub**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN p)`

subtracts the two `ZM`

s `x`

and `y`

(assumed to have compatible dimensions), and reduce modulo `p`

to obtain an `FpM`

.

`GEN `

**FpC_Fp_mul**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN p)`

multiplies the `ZC`

`x`

(seen as a column vector) by the `t_INT`

`y`

and reduce modulo `p`

to obtain an `FpC`

.

`GEN `

**FpM_Fp_mul**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN p)`

multiplies the `ZM`

`x`

(seen as a column vector) by the `t_INT`

`y`

and reduce modulo `p`

to obtain an `FpM`

.

`GEN `

**FpC_FpV_mul**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN p)`

multiplies the `ZC`

`x`

(seen as a column vector) by the `ZV`

`y`

(seen as a row vector, assumed to have compatible dimensions), and reduce modulo `p`

to obtain an `FpM`

.

`GEN `

**FpM_mul**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN p)`

multiplies the two `ZM`

s `x`

and `y`

(assumed to have compatible dimensions), and reduce modulo `p`

to obtain an `FpM`

.

`GEN `

**FpM_powu**`(GEN x, ulong n, GEN p)`

computes `x^n`

where `x`

is a square `FpM`

.

`GEN `

**FpM_FpC_mul**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN p)`

multiplies the `ZM`

`x`

by the `ZC`

`y`

(seen as a column vector, assumed to have compatible dimensions), and reduce modulo `p`

to obtain an `FpC`

.

`GEN `

**FpM_FpC_mul_FpX**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN p, long v)`

is a memory-clean version of

```
GEN tmp = FpM_FpC_mul(x,y,p);
return RgV_to_RgX(tmp, v);
```

`GEN `

**FpV_FpC_mul**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN p)`

multiplies the `ZV`

`x`

(seen as a row vector) by the `ZC`

`y`

(seen as a column vector, assumed to have compatible dimensions), and reduce modulo `p`

to obtain an `Fp`

.

`GEN `

**FpV_dotproduct**`(GEN x,GEN y,GEN p)`

scalar product of `x`

and `y`

(assumed to have the same length).

`GEN `

**FpV_dotsquare**`(GEN x, GEN p)`

scalar product of `x`

with itself. has `t_INT`

entries.

`GEN `

**FpV_factorback**`(GEN L, GEN e, GEN p)`

given an `FpV`

`L`

and a `ZV`

`e`

of the same length, return *prod*`_i L_i^{e_i}`

modulo `p`

.

`Fp`

-linear algebra The implementations are notasymptotically efficient (`O(n^3)`

standard algorithms).

`GEN `

**FpM_deplin**`(GEN x, GEN p)`

returns a non-trivial kernel vector, or `NULL`

if none exist.

`GEN `

**FpM_det**`(GEN x, GEN p)`

as `det`

`GEN `

**FpM_gauss**`(GEN a, GEN b, GEN p)`

as `gauss`

, where `b`

is a `FpM`

.

`GEN `

**FpM_FpC_gauss**`(GEN a, GEN b, GEN p)`

as `gauss`

, where `b`

is a `FpC`

.

`GEN `

**FpM_image**`(GEN x, GEN p)`

as `image`

`GEN `

**FpM_intersect**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN p)`

as `intersect`

`GEN `

**FpM_inv**`(GEN x, GEN p)`

returns a left inverse of `x`

(the inverse if `x`

is square), or `NULL`

if `x`

is not invertible.

`GEN `

**FpM_FpC_invimage**`(GEN A, GEN y, GEN p)`

given an `FpM`

`A`

and an `FpC`

`y`

, returns an `x`

such that `Ax = y`

, or `NULL`

if no such vector exist.

`GEN `

**FpM_invimage**`(GEN A, GEN y, GEN p)`

given two `FpM`

`A`

and `y`

, returns `x`

such that `Ax = y`

, or `NULL`

if no such matrix exist.

`GEN `

**FpM_ker**`(GEN x, GEN p)`

as `ker`

`long `

**FpM_rank**`(GEN x, GEN p)`

as `rank`

`GEN `

**FpM_indexrank**`(GEN x, GEN p)`

as `indexrank`

`GEN `

**FpM_suppl**`(GEN x, GEN p)`

as `suppl`

`GEN `

**FpM_hess**`(GEN x, GEN p)`

upper Hessenberg form of `x`

over **F**`_p`

.

`GEN `

**FpM_charpoly**`(GEN x, GEN p)`

characteristic polynomial of `x`

.

`FqC`

, `FqM`

and `Fq`

-linear algebraAn `FqM`

(resp. `FqC`

) is a matrix (resp a `t_COL`

) with `Fq`

coefficients (with respect to given `T`

, `p`

), not necessarily reduced (i.e arbitrary `t_INT`

s and `ZX`

s in the same variable as `T`

).

`GEN `

**FqC_add**`(GEN a, GEN b, GEN T, GEN p)`

`GEN `

**FqC_sub**`(GEN a, GEN b, GEN T, GEN p)`

`GEN `

**FqC_Fq_mul**`(GEN a, GEN b, GEN T, GEN p)`

`GEN `

**FqM_deplin**`(GEN x, GEN T, GEN p)`

returns a non-trivial kernel vector, or `NULL`

if none exist.

`GEN `

**FqM_gauss**`(GEN a, GEN b, GEN T, GEN p)`

as `gauss`

, where `b`

is a `FqM`

.

`GEN `

**FqM_FqC_gauss**`(GEN a, GEN b, GEN T, GEN p)`

as `gauss`

, where `b`

is a `FqC`

.

`GEN `

**FqM_FqC_mul**`(GEN a, GEN b, GEN T, GEN p)`

`GEN `

**FqM_ker**`(GEN x, GEN T, GEN p)`

as `ker`

`GEN `

**FqM_image**`(GEN x, GEN T, GEN p)`

as `image`

`GEN `

**FqM_inv**`(GEN x, GEN T, GEN p)`

returns the inverse of `x`

, or `NULL`

if `x`

is not invertible.

`GEN `

**FqM_mul**`(GEN a, GEN b, GEN T, GEN p)`

`long `

**FqM_rank**`(GEN x, GEN T, GEN p)`

as `rank`

`GEN `

**FqM_suppl**`(GEN x, GEN T, GEN p)`

as `suppl`

`GEN `

**FqM_det**`(GEN x, GEN T, GEN p)`

as `det`

`Flc`

/ `Flv`

, `Flm`

See `FpV`

, `FpM`

operations.

`GEN `

**Flv_copy**`(GEN x)`

returns a copy of `x`

.

`GEN `

**Flv_center**`(GEN z, ulong p, ulong ps2)`

`GEN `

**Flm_copy**`(GEN x)`

returns a copy of `x`

.

`GEN `

**matid_Flm**`(long n)`

returns an `Flm`

which is an `n x n`

identity matrix.

`GEN `

**scalar_Flm**`(long s, long n)`

returns an `Flm`

which is `s`

times the `n x n`

identity matrix.

`GEN `

**Flm_center**`(GEN z, ulong p, ulong ps2)`

`GEN `

**Flm_Fl_add**`(GEN x, ulong y, ulong p)`

returns `x + y*Id`

(`x`

must be square).

`GEN `

**Flm_Flc_mul**`(GEN x, GEN y, ulong p)`

multiplies `x`

and `y`

(assumed to have compatible dimensions).

`GEN `

**Flm_Flc_mul_pre**`(GEN x, GEN y, ulong p, ulong pi)`

multiplies `x`

and `y`

(assumed to have compatible dimensions), assuming `pi`

is the pseudo inverse of `p`

.

`GEN `

**Flm_Flc_mul_pre_Flx**`(GEN x, GEN y, ulong p, ulong pi, long sv)`

return `Flv_to_Flx(Flm_Flc_mul_pre(x, y, p, pi), sv)`

.

`GEN `

**Flm_Fl_mul**`(GEN x, ulong y, ulong p)`

multiplies the `Flm`

`x`

by `y`

.

`GEN `

**Flm_neg**`(GEN x, ulong p)`

negates the `Flm`

`x`

.

`void `

**Flm_Fl_mul_inplace**`(GEN x, ulong y, ulong p)`

replaces the `Flm`

`x`

by `x*y`

.

`GEN `

**Flv_Fl_mul**`(GEN x, ulong y, ulong p)`

multiplies the `Flv`

`x`

by `y`

.

`void `

**Flv_Fl_mul_inplace**`(GEN x, ulong y, ulong p)`

replaces the `Flc`

`x`

by `x*y`

.

`void `

**Flv_Fl_mul_part_inplace**`(GEN x, ulong y, ulong p, long l)`

multiplies `x[1..l]`

by `y`

modulo `p`

. In place.

`GEN `

**Flv_Fl_div**`(GEN x, ulong y, ulong p)`

divides the `Flv`

`x`

by `y`

.

`void `

**Flv_Fl_div_inplace**`(GEN x, ulong y, ulong p)`

replaces the `Flv`

`x`

by `x/y`

.

`void `

**Flc_lincomb1_inplace**`(GEN X, GEN Y, ulong v, ulong q)`

sets `X\leftarrow X + vY`

, where `X,Y`

are `Flc`

. Memory efficient (e.g. no-op if `v = 0`

), and gerepile-safe.

`GEN `

**Flv_add**`(GEN x, GEN y, ulong p)`

adds two `Flv`

.

`void `

**Flv_add_inplace**`(GEN x, GEN y, ulong p)`

replaces `x`

by `x+y`

.

`GEN `

**Flv_neg**`(GEN x, ulong p)`

returns `-x`

.

`void `

**Flv_neg_inplace**`(GEN x, ulong p)`

replaces `x`

by `-x`

.

`GEN `

**Flv_sub**`(GEN x, GEN y, ulong p)`

subtracts `y`

to `x`

.

`void `

**Flv_sub_inplace**`(GEN x, GEN y, ulong p)`

replaces `x`

by `x-y`

.

`ulong `

**Flv_dotproduct**`(GEN x, GEN y, ulong p)`

returns the scalar product of `x`

and `y`

`ulong `

**Flv_dotproduct_pre**`(GEN x, GEN y, ulong p, ulong pi)`

returns the scalar product of `x`

and `y`

assuming `pi`

is the pseudo inverse of `p`

.

`ulong `

**Flv_sum**`(GEN x, ulong p)`

returns the sum of the components of `x`

.

`ulong `

**Flv_prod**`(GEN x, ulong p)`

returns the product of the components of `x`

.

`ulong `

**Flv_prod_pre**`(GEN x, ulong p, ulong pi)`

as `Flv_prod`

assuming `pi`

is the pseudo inverse of `p`

.

`GEN `

**Flv_inv**`(GEN x, ulong p)`

returns the vector of inverses of the elements of `x`

(as a `Flv`

). Use Montgomery trick.

`void `

**Flv_inv_inplace**`(GEN x, ulong p)`

in place variant of `Flv_inv`

.

`GEN `

**Flv_inv_pre**`(GEN x, ulong p, ulong pi)`

as `Flv_inv`

assuming `pi`

is the pseudo inverse of `p`

.

`void `

**Flv_inv_pre_inplace**`(GEN x, ulong p, ulong pi)`

in place variant of `Flv_inv`

.

`GEN `

**zero_Flm**`(long m, long n)`

creates a `Flm`

with `m`

x `n`

components set to `0`

. Note that the result allocates a *single* column, so modifying an entry in one column modifies it in all columns.

`GEN `

**zero_Flm_copy**`(long m, long n)`

creates a `Flm`

with `m`

x `n`

components set to `0`

.

`GEN `

**zero_Flv**`(long n)`

creates a `Flv`

with `n`

components set to `0`

.

`GEN `

**Flm_row**`(GEN A, long x0)`

return `A[i,]`

, the `i`

-th row of the `Flm`

`A`

.

`GEN `

**Flm_add**`(GEN x, GEN y, ulong p)`

adds `x`

and `y`

(assumed to have compatible dimensions).

`GEN `

**Flm_sub**`(GEN x, GEN y, ulong p)`

subtracts `x`

and `y`

(assumed to have compatible dimensions).

`GEN `

**Flm_mul**`(GEN x, GEN y, ulong p)`

multiplies `x`

and `y`

(assumed to have compatible dimensions).

`GEN `

**Flm_powu**`(GEN x, ulong n, ulong p)`

computes `x^n`

where `x`

is a square `Flm`

.

`GEN `

**Flm_charpoly**`(GEN x, ulong p)`

return the characteristic polynomial of the square `Flm`

`x`

, as a `Flx`

.

`GEN `

**Flm_deplin**`(GEN x, ulong p)`

`ulong `

**Flm_det**`(GEN x, ulong p)`

`ulong `

**Flm_det_sp**`(GEN x, ulong p)`

, as `Flm_det`

, in place (destroys `x`

).

`GEN `

**Flm_gauss**`(GEN a, GEN b, ulong p)`

as `gauss`

, where `b`

is a `Flm`

.

`GEN `

**Flm_Flc_gauss**`(GEN a, GEN b, ulong p)`

as `gauss`

, where `b`

is a `Flc`

.

`GEN `

**Flm_indexrank**`(GEN x, ulong p)`

`GEN `

**Flm_inv**`(GEN x, ulong p)`

`GEN `

**Flm_Flc_invimage**`(GEN A, GEN y, ulong p)`

given an `Flm`

`A`

and an `Flc`

`y`

, returns an `x`

such that `Ax = y`

, or `NULL`

if no such vector exist.

`GEN `

**Flm_invimage**`(GEN A, GEN y, ulong p)`

given two `Flm`

`A`

and `y`

, returns `x`

such that `Ax = y`

, or `NULL`

if no such matrix exist.

`GEN `

**Flm_ker**`(GEN x, ulong p)`

`GEN `

**Flm_ker_sp**`(GEN x, ulong p, long deplin)`

, as `Flm_ker`

(if `deplin = 0`

) or `Flm_deplin`

(if `deplin = 1`

) , in place (destroys `x`

).

`long `

**Flm_rank**`(GEN x, ulong p)`

`long `

**Flm_suppl**`(GEN x, ulong p)`

`GEN `

**Flm_image**`(GEN x, ulong p)`

`GEN `

**Flm_intersect**`(GEN x, GEN y, ulong p)`

`GEN `

**Flm_transpose**`(GEN x)`

`GEN `

**Flm_hess**`(GEN x, ulong p)`

upper Hessenberg form of `x`

over **F**`_p`

.

`F2c`

/ `F2v`

, `F2m`

An `F2v`

`v`

is a `t_VECSMALL`

representing a vector over **F**`_2`

. Specifically `z[0]`

is the usual codeword, `z[1]`

is the number of components of `v`

and the coefficients are given by the bits of remaining words by increasing indices.

`ulong `

**F2v_coeff**`(GEN x, long i)`

returns the coefficient `i >= 1`

of `x`

.

`void `

**F2v_clear**`(GEN x, long i)`

sets the coefficient `i >= 1`

of `x`

to `0`

.

`void `

**F2v_flip**`(GEN x, long i)`

adds `1`

to the coefficient `i >= 1`

of `x`

.

`void `

**F2v_set**`(GEN x, long i)`

sets the coefficient `i >= 1`

of `x`

to `1`

.

`void `

**F2v_copy**`(GEN x)`

returns a copy of `x`

.

`GEN `

**F2v_slice**`(GEN x, long a, long b)`

returns the `F2v`

with entries `x[a]`

,..., `x[b]`

. Assumes `a <= b`

.

`ulong `

**F2m_coeff**`(GEN x, long i, long j)`

returns the coefficient `(i,j)`

of `x`

.

`void `

**F2m_clear**`(GEN x, long i, long j)`

sets the coefficient `(i,j)`

of `x`

to `0`

.

`void `

**F2m_flip**`(GEN x, long i, long j)`

adds `1`

to the coefficient `(i,j)`

of `x`

.

`void `

**F2m_set**`(GEN x, long i, long j)`

sets the coefficient `(i,j)`

of `x`

to `1`

.

`void `

**F2m_copy**`(GEN x)`

returns a copy of `x`

.

`GEN `

**F2m_rowslice**`(GEN x, long a, long b)`

returns the `F2m`

built from the `a`

-th to `b`

-th rows of the `F2m`

`x`

. Assumes `a <= b`

.

`GEN `

**F2m_F2c_mul**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

multiplies `x`

and `y`

(assumed to have compatible dimensions).

`GEN `

**F2m_image**`(GEN x)`

gives a subset of the columns of `x`

that generate the image of `x`

.

`GEN `

**F2m_invimage**`(GEN A, GEN B)`

`GEN `

**F2m_F2c_invimage**`(GEN A, GEN y)`

`GEN `

**F2m_gauss**`(GEN a, GEN b)`

as `gauss`

, where `b`

is a `F2m`

.

`GEN `

**F2m_F2c_gauss**`(GEN a, GEN b)`

as `gauss`

, where `b`

is a `F2c`

.

`GEN `

**F2m_indexrank**`(GEN x)`

`x`

being a matrix of rank `r`

, returns a vector with two `t_VECSMALL`

components `y`

and `z`

of length `r`

giving a list of rows and columns respectively (starting from 1) such that the extracted matrix obtained from these two vectors using `vecextract`

`(x,y,z)`

is invertible.

`GEN `

**F2m_mul**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

multiplies `x`

and `y`

(assumed to have compatible dimensions).

`GEN `

**F2m_powu**`(GEN x, ulong n)`

computes `x^n`

where `x`

is a square `F2m`

.

`long `

**F2m_rank**`(GEN x)`

as `rank`

.

`long `

**F2m_suppl**`(GEN x)`

as `suppl`

.

`GEN `

**matid_F2m**`(long n)`

returns an `F2m`

which is an `n x n`

identity matrix.

`GEN `

**zero_F2v**`(long n)`

creates a `F2v`

with `n`

components set to `0`

.

`GEN `

**const_F2v**`(long n)`

creates a `F2v`

with `n`

components set to `1`

.

`GEN `

**F2v_ei**`(long n, long i)`

creates a `F2v`

with `n`

components set to `0`

, but for the `i`

-th one, which is set to `1`

(`i`

-th vector in the canonical basis).

`GEN `

**zero_F2m**`(long m, long n)`

creates a `Flm`

with `m`

x `n`

components set to `0`

. Note that the result allocates a *single* column, so modifying an entry in one column modifies it in all columns.

`GEN `

**zero_F2m_copy**`(long m, long n)`

creates a `F2m`

with `m`

x `n`

components set to `0`

.

`GEN `

**F2v_to_Flv**`(GEN x)`

`GEN `

**F2c_to_ZC**`(GEN x)`

`GEN `

**ZV_to_F2v**`(GEN x)`

`GEN `

**RgV_to_F2v**`(GEN x)`

`GEN `

**F2m_to_Flm**`(GEN x)`

`GEN `

**F2m_to_ZM**`(GEN x)`

`GEN `

**Flv_to_F2v**`(GEN x)`

`GEN `

**Flm_to_F2m**`(GEN x)`

`GEN `

**ZM_to_F2m**`(GEN x)`

`GEN `

**RgM_to_F2m**`(GEN x)`

`void `

**F2v_add_inplace**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

replaces `x`

by `x+y`

. It is allowed for `y`

to be shorter than `x`

.

`ulong `

**F2m_det**`(GEN x)`

`ulong `

**F2m_det_sp**`(GEN x)`

, as `F2m_det`

, in place (destroys `x`

).

`GEN `

**F2m_deplin**`(GEN x)`

`ulong `

**F2v_dotproduct**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

returns the scalar product of `x`

and `y`

`GEN `

**F2m_inv**`(GEN x)`

`GEN `

**F2m_ker**`(GEN x)`

`GEN `

**F2m_ker_sp**`(GEN x, long deplin)`

, as `F2m_ker`

(if `deplin = 0`

) or `F2m_deplin`

(if `deplin = 1`

), in place (destroys `x`

).

`FlxqV`

, `FlxqM`

See `FqV`

, `FqM`

operations.

`GEN `

**FlxqV_dotproduct**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN T, ulong p)`

as `FpV_dotproduct`

.

`GEN `

**FlxM_Flx_add_shallow**`(GEN x, GEN y, ulong p)`

as `RgM_Rg_add_shallow`

.

`GEN `

**FlxqM_gauss**`(GEN a, GEN b, GEN T, ulong p)`

`GEN `

**FlxqM_FlxqC_gauss**`(GEN a, GEN b, GEN T, ulong p)`

`GEN `

**FlxqM_FlxqC_mul**`(GEN a, GEN b, GEN T, ulong p)`

`GEN `

**FlxqM_ker**`(GEN x, GEN T, ulong p)`

`GEN `

**FlxqM_image**`(GEN x, GEN T, ulong p)`

`GEN `

**FlxqM_det**`(GEN a, GEN T, ulong p)`

`GEN `

**FlxqM_inv**`(GEN x, GEN T, ulong p)`

`GEN `

**FlxqM_mul**`(GEN a, GEN b, GEN T, ulong p)`

`long `

**FlxqM_rank**`(GEN x, GEN T, ulong p)`

`GEN `

**matid_FlxqM**`(long n, GEN T, ulong p)`

`FpX`

Let `p`

an understood `t_INT`

, to be given in the function arguments; in practice `p`

is not assumed to be prime, but be wary. Recall than an `Fp`

object is a `t_INT`

, preferably belonging to `[0, p-1]`

; an `FpX`

is a `t_POL`

in a fixed variable whose coefficients are `Fp`

objects. Unless mentioned otherwise, all outputs in this section are `FpX`

s. All operations are understood to take place in `(`

**Z**`/p`

**Z**`)[X]`

.

`p`

is always a `t_INT`

,not necessarily prime.

`int `

**RgX_is_FpX**`(GEN z, GEN *p)`

, `z`

a `t_POL`

, checks if it can be mapped to a `FpX`

, by checking `Rg_is_Fp`

coefficientwise.

`GEN `

**RgX_to_FpX**`(GEN z, GEN p)`

, `z`

a `t_POL`

, returns the `FpX`

obtained by applying `Rg_to_Fp`

coefficientwise.

`GEN `

**FpX_red**`(GEN z, GEN p)`

, `z`

a `ZX`

, returns `lift(z * Mod(1,p))`

, normalized.

`GEN `

**FpXV_red**`(GEN z, GEN p)`

, `z`

a `t_VEC`

of `ZX`

. Applies `FpX_red`

componentwise and returns the result (and we obtain a vector of `FpX`

s).

`GEN `

**FpXT_red**`(GEN z, GEN p)`

, `z`

a tree of `ZX`

. Applies `FpX_red`

to each leaf and returns the result (and we obtain a tree of `FpX`

s).

`p`

is always a `t_INT`

,not necessarily prime.

@3Now, except for `p`

, the operands and outputs are all `FpX`

objects. Results are undefined on other inputs.

`GEN `

**FpX_add**`(GEN x,GEN y, GEN p)`

adds `x`

and `y`

.

`GEN `

**FpX_neg**`(GEN x,GEN p)`

returns `-x`

, the components are between `0`

and `p`

if this is the case for the components of `x`

.

`GEN `

**FpX_renormalize**`(GEN x, long l)`

, as `normalizepol`

, where `l = lg(x)`

, in place.

`GEN `

**FpX_sub**`(GEN x,GEN y,GEN p)`

returns `x-y`

.

`GEN `

**FpX_halve**`(GEN x, GEN m)`

returns `z`

such that `2 z = x`

modulo `m`

assuming such `z`

exists.

`GEN `

**FpX_mul**`(GEN x,GEN y,GEN p)`

returns `x y`

.

`GEN `

**FpX_mulspec**`(GEN a, GEN b, GEN p, long na, long nb)`

see `ZX_mulspec`

`GEN `

**FpX_sqr**`(GEN x,GEN p)`

returns `x^2`

.

`GEN `

**FpX_powu**`(GEN x, ulong n, GEN p)`

returns `x^n`

.

`GEN `

**FpX_divrem**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN p, GEN *pr)`

returns the quotient of `x`

by `y`

, and sets `pr`

to the remainder.

`GEN `

**FpX_div**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN p)`

returns the quotient of `x`

by `y`

.

`GEN `

**FpX_div_by_X_x**`(GEN A, GEN a, GEN p, GEN *r)`

returns the quotient of the `FpX`

`A`

by `(X - a)`

, and sets `r`

to the remainder `A(a)`

.

`GEN `

**FpX_rem**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN p)`

returns the remainder `x`

mod `y`

.

`long `

**FpX_valrem**`(GEN x, GEN t, GEN p, GEN *r)`

The arguments `x`

and `e`

being non-zero `FpX`

returns the highest exponent `e`

such that `t^{e}`

divides `x`

. The quotient `x/t^{e}`

is returned in `*r`

. In particular, if `t`

is irreducible, this returns the valuation at `t`

of `x`

, and `*r`

is the prime-to-`t`

part of `x`

.

`GEN `

**FpX_deriv**`(GEN x, GEN p)`

returns the derivative of `x`

. This function is not memory-clean, but nevertheless suitable for `gerepileupto`

.

`GEN `

**FpX_digits**`(GEN x, GEN B, GEN p)`

returns a vector of `FpX`

`[c_0,...,c_n]`

of degree less than the degree of `B`

and such that `x = `

*sum*`_{i = 0}^{n}{c_i B^i}`

.

`GEN `

**FpX_fromdigits**`(GEN v, GEN B, GEN p)`

where `v = [c_0,...,c_n]`

is a vector of `FpX`

, returns *sum*`_{i = 0}^{n}{c_i B^i}`

.

`GEN `

**FpX_translate**`(GEN P, GEN c, GEN p)`

let `c`

be an `Fp`

and let `P`

be an `FpX`

; returns the translated `FpX`

of `P(X+c)`

.

`GEN `

**FpX_gcd**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN p)`

returns a (not necessarily monic) greatest common divisor of `x`

and `y`

.

`GEN `

**FpX_halfgcd**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN p)`

returns a two-by-two `FpXM`

`M`

with determinant

such that the image *+-* 1`(a,b)`

of `(x,y)`

by `M`

has the property that *deg* ` a >= (`

*deg* ` x )/(2) > `

*deg* ` b`

.

`GEN `

**FpX_extgcd**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN p, GEN *u, GEN *v)`

returns `d = GCD(x,y)`

(not necessarily monic), and sets `*u`

, `*v`

to the Bezout coefficients such that `*ux + *vy = d`

. If `*u`

is set to `NULL`

, it is not computed which is a bit faster. This is useful when computing the inverse of `y`

modulo `x`

.

`GEN `

**FpX_center**`(GEN z, GEN p, GEN pov2)`

returns the polynomial whose coefficient belong to the symmetric residue system. Assumes the coefficients already belong to `[0,p-1]`

) and `pov2`

is `shifti(p,-1)`

.

`GEN `

**FpX_Frobenius**`(GEN T, GEN p)`

returns `X^{p} (mod T(X))`

.

`GEN `

**FpX_matFrobenius**`(GEN T, GEN p)`

returns the matrix of the Frobenius automorphism `x:--->x^p`

over the power basis of **F**`_p[X]/(T)`

.

The following functions implement arithmetic operations between `FpX`

and `Fp`

operands, the result being of type `FpX`

. The integer `p`

need not be prime.

`GEN `

**Z_to_FpX**`(GEN x, GEN p, long v)`

converts a `t_INT`

to a scalar polynomial in variable `v`

, reduced modulo `p`

.

`GEN `

**FpX_Fp_add**`(GEN y, GEN x, GEN p)`

add the `Fp`

`x`

to the `FpX`

`y`

.

`GEN `

**FpX_Fp_add_shallow**`(GEN y, GEN x, GEN p)`

add the `Fp`

`x`

to the `FpX`

`y`

, using a shallow copy (result not suitable for `gerepileupto`

)

`GEN `

**FpX_Fp_sub**`(GEN y, GEN x, GEN p)`

subtract the `Fp`

`x`

from the `FpX`

`y`

.

`GEN `

**FpX_Fp_sub_shallow**`(GEN y, GEN x, GEN p)`

subtract the `Fp`

`x`

from the `FpX`

`y`

, using a shallow copy (result not suitable for `gerepileupto`

)

`GEN `

**Fp_FpX_sub**`(GEN x,GEN y,GEN p)`

returns `x - y`

, where `x`

is a `t_INT`

and `y`

an `FpX`

.

`GEN `

**FpX_Fp_mul**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN p)`

multiplies the `FpX`

`x`

by the `Fp`

`y`

.

`GEN `

**FpX_Fp_mulspec**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN p, long lx)`

see `ZX_mulspec`

`GEN `

**FpX_mulu**`(GEN x, ulong y, GEN p)`

multiplies the `FpX`

`x`

by `y`

.

`GEN `

**FpX_Fp_mul_to_monic**`(GEN y,GEN x,GEN p)`

returns `y x`

assuming the result is monic of the same degree as `y`

(in particular `x != 0`

).

`GEN `

**FpX_normalize**`(GEN z, GEN p)`

divides the `FpX`

`z`

by its leading coefficient. If the latter is `1`

, `z`

itself is returned, not a copy. If not, the inverse remains uncollected on the stack.

`GEN `

**FpX_invBarrett**`(GEN T, GEN p)`

, returns the Barrett inverse `M`

of `T`

defined by `M(x) x^n T(1/x) = 1 (mod x^{n-1})`

where `n`

is the degree of `T`

.

`GEN `

**FpX_rescale**`(GEN P, GEN h, GEN p)`

returns `h^{`

*deg* `(P)} P(x/h)`

. `P`

is an `FpX`

and `h`

is a non-zero `Fp`

(the routine would work with any non-zero `t_INT`

but is not efficient in this case).

`GEN `

**FpX_eval**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN p)`

evaluates the `FpX`

`x`

at the `Fp`

`y`

. The result is an `Fp`

.

`GEN `

**FpX_FpV_multieval**`(GEN P, GEN v, GEN p)`

returns the vector `[P(v[1]),...,P(v[n])]`

as a `FpV`

.

`GEN `

**FpX_dotproduct**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN p)`

return the scalar product *sum*`_{i >= 0} x_i y_i`

of the coefficients of `x`

and `y`

.

`GEN `

**FpXV_FpC_mul**`(GEN V, GEN W, GEN p)`

multiplies a non-empty line vector of`FpX`

by a column vector of `Fp`

of compatible dimensions. The result is an `FpX`

.

`GEN `

**FpXV_prod**`(GEN V, GEN p)`

, `V`

being a vector of `FpX`

, returns their product.

`GEN `

**FpV_roots_to_pol**`(GEN V, GEN p, long v)`

, `V`

being a vector of `INT`

s, returns the monic `FpX`

*prod*`_i (pol_x[v] - V[i])`

.

`GEN `

**FpX_chinese_coprime**`(GEN x,GEN y, GEN Tx,GEN Ty, GEN Tz, GEN p)`

: returns an `FpX`

, congruent to `x`

mod `Tx`

and to `y`

mod `Ty`

. Assumes `Tx`

and `Ty`

are coprime, and `Tz = Tx * Ty`

or `NULL`

(in which case it is computed within).

`GEN `

**FpV_polint**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN p, long v)`

returns the `FpX`

interpolation polynomial with value `y[i]`

at `x[i]`

. Assumes lengths are the same, components are `t_INT`

s, and the `x[i]`

are distinct modulo `p`

.

`GEN `

**FpV_FpM_polint**`(GEN x, GEN V, GEN p, long v)`

equivalent (but faster) to applying `FpV_polint(x,...)`

to all the elements of the vector `V`

(thus, returns a `FpXV`

).

`GEN `

**FpV_invVandermonde**`(GEN L, GEN d, GEN p)`

`L`

being a `FpV`

of length `n`

, return the inverse `M`

of the Vandermonde matrix attached to the elements of `L`

, eventually multiplied by `d`

if it is not `NULL`

. If `A`

is a `FpV`

and `B = M A`

, then the polynomial `P = `

*sum*`_{i = 1}^n B[i] X^{i-1}`

verifies `P(L[i]) = d A[i]`

for `1 <= i <= n`

.

`int `

**FpX_is_squarefree**`(GEN f, GEN p)`

returns `1`

if the `FpX`

`f`

is squarefree, `0`

otherwise.

`int `

**FpX_is_irred**`(GEN f, GEN p)`

returns `1`

if the `FpX`

`f`

is irreducible, `0`

otherwise. Assumes that `p`

is prime. If `f`

has few factors, `FpX_nbfact(f,p) == 1`

is much faster.

`int `

**FpX_is_totally_split**`(GEN f, GEN p)`

returns `1`

if the `FpX`

`f`

splits into a product of distinct linear factors, `0`

otherwise. Assumes that `p`

is prime.

`GEN `

**FpX_factor**`(GEN f, GEN p)`

, factors the `FpX`

`f`

. Assumes that `p`

is prime. The returned value `v`

is a `t_VEC`

with two components: `v[1]`

is a vector of distinct irreducible (`FpX`

) factors, and `v[2]`

is a `t_VECSMALL`

of corresponding exponents. The order of the factors is deterministic (the computation is not).

`GEN `

**FpX_factor_squarefree**`(GEN f, GEN p)`

returns the squarefree factorization of `f`

modulo `p`

. This is a vector `[u_1,...,u_k]`

of pairwise coprime `FpX`

such that `u_k != 1`

and `f = `

*prod*` u_i^i`

. Shallow function.

`long `

**FpX_nbfact**`(GEN f, GEN p)`

, assuming the `FpX`

f is squarefree, returns the number of its irreducible factors. Assumes that `p`

is prime.

`long `

**FpX_nbfact_Frobenius**`(GEN f, GEN XP, GEN p)`

, as `FpX_nbfact(f, p)`

but faster, where `XP`

is `FpX_Frobenius(f, p)`

.

`long `

**FpX_degfact**`(GEN f, GEN p)`

, as `FpX_factor`

, but the degrees of the irreducible factors are returned instead of the factors themselves (as a `t_VECSMALL`

). Assumes that `p`

is prime.

`long `

**FpX_nbroots**`(GEN f, GEN p)`

returns the number of distinct roots in **Z**`/p`

**Z** of the `FpX`

`f`

. Assumes that `p`

is prime.

`GEN `

**FpX_oneroot**`(GEN f, GEN p)`

returns one root in **Z**`/p`

**Z** of the `FpX`

`f`

. Return `NULL`

if no root exists. Assumes that `p`

is prime.

`GEN `

**FpX_roots**`(GEN f, GEN p)`

returns the roots in **Z**`/p`

**Z** of the `FpX`

`f`

(without multiplicity, as a vector of `Fp`

s). Assumes that `p`

is prime.

`GEN `

**FpX_split_part**`(GEN f, GEN p)`

returns the largest totally split squarefree factor of `f`

.

`GEN `

**random_FpX**`(long d, long v, GEN p)`

returns a random `FpX`

in variable `v`

, of degree less than `d`

.

`GEN `

**FpX_resultant**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN p)`

returns the resultant of `x`

and `y`

, both `FpX`

. The result is a `t_INT`

belonging to `[0,p-1]`

.

`GEN `

**FpX_disc**`(GEN x, GEN p)`

returns the discriminant of the `FpX`

`x`

. The result is a `t_INT`

belonging to `[0,p-1]`

.

`GEN `

**FpX_FpXY_resultant**`(GEN a, GEN b, GEN p)`

, `a`

a `t_POL`

of `t_INT`

s (say in variable `X`

), `b`

a `t_POL`

(say in variable `X`

) whose coefficients are either `t_POL`

s in **Z**`[Y]`

or `t_INT`

s. Returns `Res_X(a, b)`

in **F**`_p[Y]`

as an `FpY`

. The function assumes that `X`

has lower priority than `Y`

.

`FpXQ`

, `Fq`

Let `p`

a `t_INT`

and `T`

an `FpX`

for `p`

, both to be given in the function arguments; an `FpXQ`

object is an `FpX`

whose degree is strictly less than the degree of `T`

. An `Fq`

is either an `FpXQ`

or an `Fp`

. Both represent a class in `(`

**Z**`/p`

**Z**`)[X] / (T)`

, in which all operations below take place. In addition, `Fq`

routines also allow `T = NULL`

, in which case no reduction mod `T`

is performed on the result.

For efficiency, the routines in this section may leave small unused objects behind on the stack (their output is still suitable for `gerepileupto`

). Besides `T`

and `p`

, arguments are either `FpXQ`

or `Fq`

depending on the function name. (All `Fq`

routines accept `FpXQ`

s by definition, not the other way round.)

For faster reduction, the modulus `T`

can be replaced by an extended modulus, which is an `FpXT`

, in all `FpXQ`

- and `Fq`

-classes functions, and in `FpX_rem`

and `FpX_divrem`

.

`GEN `

**FpX_get_red**`(GEN T, GEN p)`

returns the extended modulus `eT`

.

To write code that works both with plain and extended moduli, the following accessors are defined:

`GEN `

**get_FpX_mod**`(GEN eT)`

returns the underlying modulus `T`

.

`GEN `

**get_FpX_var**`(GEN eT)`

returns the variable number of the modulus.

`GEN `

**get_FpX_degree**`(GEN eT)`

returns the degree of the modulus.

Furthermore, `ZXT_to_FlxT`

allows to convert an extended modulus for a `FpX`

to an extended modulus for the corresponding `Flx`

.

`GEN `

**Rg_is_FpXQ**`(GEN z, GEN *T, GEN *p)`

, checks if `z`

is a `GEN`

which can be mapped to **F**`_p[X]/(T)`

: anything for which `Rg_is_Fp`

return `1`

, a `t_POL`

for which `RgX_to_FpX`

return `1`

, a `t_POLMOD`

whose modulus is equal to `*T`

if `*T`

is not `NULL`

(once mapped to a `FpX`

), or a `t_FFELT`

`z`

such that `z^0`

is equal to `*T`

if `*T`

is not `NULL`

.

If an integer modulus is found it is put in `*p`

, else `*p`

is left unchanged. If a polynomial modulus is found it is put in `*T`

, if a `t_FFELT`

`z`

is found, `z^0`

is put in `*T`

, else `*T`

is left unchanged.

`int `

**RgX_is_FpXQX**`(GEN z, GEN *T, GEN *p)`

, `z`

a `t_POL`

, checks if it can be mapped to a `FpXQX`

, by checking `Rg_is_FpXQ`

coefficientwise.

`GEN `

**Rg_to_FpXQ**`(GEN z, GEN T, GEN p)`

, `z`

a `GEN`

which can be mapped to **F**`_p[X]/(T)`

: anything `Rg_to_Fp`

can be applied to, a `t_POL`

to which `RgX_to_FpX`

can be applied to, a `t_POLMOD`

whose modulus is divisible by `T`

(once mapped to a `FpX`

), a suitable `t_RFRAC`

. Returns `z`

as an `FpXQ`

, normalized.

`GEN `

**RgX_to_FpXQX**`(GEN z, GEN T, GEN p)`

, `z`

a `t_POL`

, returns the `FpXQ`

obtained by applying `Rg_to_FpXQ`

coefficientwise.

`GEN `

**RgX_to_FqX**`(GEN z, GEN T, GEN p)`

: let `z`

be a `t_POL`

; returns the `FqX`

obtained by applying `Rg_to_FpXQ`

coefficientwise and simplifying scalars to `t_INT`

s.

`GEN `

**Fq_to_FpXQ**`(GEN z, GEN T, GEN p /*unused*/)`

if `z`

is a `t_INT`

, convert it to a constant polynomial in the variable of `T`

, otherwise return `z`

(shallow function).

`GEN `

**Fq_red**`(GEN x, GEN T, GEN p)`

, `x`

a `ZX`

or `t_INT`

, reduce it to an `Fq`

(`T = NULL`

is allowed iff `x`

is a `t_INT`

).

`GEN `

**FqX_red**`(GEN x, GEN T, GEN p)`

, `x`

a `t_POL`

whose coefficients are `ZX`

s or `t_INT`

s, reduce them to `Fq`

s. (If `T = NULL`

, as `FpXX_red(x, p)`

.)

`GEN `

**FqV_red**`(GEN x, GEN T, GEN p)`

, `x`

a vector of `ZX`

s or `t_INT`

s, reduce them to `Fq`

s. (If `T = NULL`

, only reduce components mod `p`

to `FpX`

s or `Fp`

s.)

`GEN `

**FpXQ_red**`(GEN x, GEN T,GEN p)`

`x`

a `t_POL`

whose coefficients are `t_INT`

s, reduce them to `FpXQ`

s.

`FpXQ`

`GEN `

**FpXQ_add**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN T,GEN p)`

`GEN `

**FpXQ_sub**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN T,GEN p)`

`GEN `

**FpXQ_mul**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN T,GEN p)`

`GEN `

**FpXQ_sqr**`(GEN x, GEN T, GEN p)`

`GEN `

**FpXQ_div**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN T,GEN p)`

`GEN `

**FpXQ_inv**`(GEN x, GEN T, GEN p)`

computes the inverse of `x`

`GEN `

**FpXQ_invsafe**`(GEN x,GEN T,GEN p)`

, as `FpXQ_inv`

, returning `NULL`

if `x`

is not invertible.

`GEN `

**FpXQ_pow**`(GEN x, GEN n, GEN T, GEN p)`

computes `x^n`

.

`GEN `

**FpXQ_powu**`(GEN x, ulong n, GEN T, GEN p)`

computes `x^n`

for small `n`

.

In the following three functions the integer parameter `ord`

can be given either as a positive `t_INT`

`N`

, or as its factorization matrix *faN*, or as a pair `[N,`

*faN*`]`

. The parameter may be omitted by setting it to `NULL`

(the value is then `p^d-1`

, `d = `

*deg* ` T`

).

`GEN `

**FpXQ_log**`(GEN a, GEN g, GEN ord, GEN T, GEN p)`

Let `g`

be of order `ord`

in the finite field **F**`_p[X]/(T)`

, return `e`

such that `a^e = g`

. If `e`

does not exists, the result is undefined. Assumes that `T`

is irreducible mod `p`

.

`GEN `

**Fp_FpXQ_log**`(GEN a, GEN g, GEN ord, GEN T, GEN p)`

As `FpXQ_log`

, `a`

being a `Fp`

.

`GEN `

**FpXQ_order**`(GEN a, GEN ord, GEN T, GEN p)`

returns the order of the `FpXQ`

`a`

. Assume that `ord`

is a multiple of the order of `a`

. Assume that `T`

is irreducible mod `p`

.

`int `

**FpXQ_issquare**`(GEN x, GEN T, GEN p)`

returns `1`

if `x`

is a square and `0`

otherwise. Assumes that `T`

is irreducible mod `p`

.

`GEN `

**FpXQ_sqrt**`(GEN x, GEN T, GEN p)`

returns a square root of `x`

. Return `NULL`

if `x`

is not a square.

`GEN `

**FpXQ_sqrtn**`(GEN x, GEN n, GEN T, GEN p, GEN *zn)`

Let `T`

be irreducible mod `p`

and `q = p^{`

*deg* ` T}`

; returns `NULL`

if `a`

is not an `n`

-th power residue mod `p`

. Otherwise, returns an `n`

-th root of `a`

; if `zn`

is non-`NULL`

set it to a primitive `m`

-th root of `1`

in **F**`_q`

, `m = `

*gcd* `(q-1,n)`

allowing to compute all `m`

solutions in **F**`_q`

of the equation `x^n = a`

.

`Fq`

`GEN `

**Fq_add**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN T/*unused*/, GEN p)`

`GEN `

**Fq_sub**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN T/*unused*/, GEN p)`

`GEN `

**Fq_mul**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN T, GEN p)`

`GEN `

**Fq_Fp_mul**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN T, GEN p)`

multiplies the `Fq`

`x`

by the `t_INT`

`y`

.

`GEN `

**Fq_mulu**`(GEN x, ulong y, GEN T, GEN p)`

multiplies the `Fq`

`x`

by the scalar `y`

.

`GEN `

**Fq_halve**`(GEN x, GEN T, GEN p)`

returns `z`

such that `2 z = x`

assuming such `z`

exists.

`GEN `

**Fq_sqr**`(GEN x, GEN T, GEN p)`

`GEN `

**Fq_neg**`(GEN x, GEN T, GEN p)`

`GEN `

**Fq_neg_inv**`(GEN x, GEN T, GEN p)`

computes `-x^{-1}`

`GEN `

**Fq_inv**`(GEN x, GEN pol, GEN p)`

computes `x^{-1}`

, raising an error if `x`

is not invertible.

`GEN `

**Fq_invsafe**`(GEN x, GEN pol, GEN p)`

as `Fq_inv`

, but returns `NULL`

if `x`

is not invertible.

`GEN `

**Fq_div**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN T, GEN p)`

`GEN `

**FqV_inv**`(GEN x, GEN T, GEN p)`

`x`

being a vector of `Fq`

s, return the vector of inverses of the `x[i]`

. The routine uses Montgomery's trick, and involves a single inversion, plus `3(N-1)`

multiplications for `N`

entries. The routine is not stack-clean: `2N`

`FpXQ`

are left on stack, besides the `N`

in the result.

`GEN `

**Fq_pow**`(GEN x, GEN n, GEN pol, GEN p)`

returns `x^n`

.

`GEN `

**Fq_powu**`(GEN x, ulong n, GEN pol, GEN p)`

returns `x^n`

for small `n`

.

`GEN `

**Fq_log**`(GEN a, GEN g, GEN ord, GEN T, GEN p)`

as `Fp_log`

or `FpXQ_log`

.

`int `

**Fq_issquare**`(GEN x, GEN T, GEN p)`

returns `1`

if `x`

is a square and `0`

otherwise. Assumes that `T`

is irreducible mod `p`

and that `p`

is prime; `T = NULL`

is forbidden unless `x`

is an `Fp`

.

`long `

**Fq_ispower**`(GEN x, GEN n, GEN T, GEN p)`

returns `1`

if `x`

is a `n`

-th power and `0`

otherwise. Assumes that `T`

is irreducible mod `p`

and that `p`

is prime; `T = NULL`

is forbidden unless `x`

is an `Fp`

.

`GEN `

**Fq_sqrt**`(GEN x, GEN T, GEN p)`

returns a square root of `x`

. Return `NULL`

if `x`

is not a square.

`GEN `

**Fq_sqrtn**`(GEN a, GEN n, GEN T, GEN p, GEN *zn)`

as `FpXQ_sqrtn`

.

`GEN `

**FpXQ_charpoly**`(GEN x, GEN T, GEN p)`

returns the characteristic polynomial of `x`

`GEN `

**FpXQ_minpoly**`(GEN x, GEN T, GEN p)`

returns the minimal polynomial of `x`

`GEN `

**FpXQ_norm**`(GEN x, GEN T, GEN p)`

returns the norm of `x`

`GEN `

**FpXQ_trace**`(GEN x, GEN T, GEN p)`

returns the trace of `x`

`GEN `

**FpXQ_conjvec**`(GEN x, GEN T, GEN p)`

returns the vector of conjugates `[x,x^p,x^{p^2},...,x^{p^{n-1}}]`

where `n`

is the degree of `T`

.

`GEN `

**gener_FpXQ**`(GEN T, GEN p, GEN *po)`

returns a primitive root modulo `(T,p)`

. `T`

is an `FpX`

assumed to be irreducible modulo the prime `p`

. If `po`

is not `NULL`

it is set to `[o,`

*fa*`]`

, where `o`

is the order of the multiplicative group of the finite field, and *fa* is its factorization.

`GEN `

**gener_FpXQ_local**`(GEN T, GEN p, GEN L)`

, `L`

being a vector of primes dividing `p^{`

*deg* ` T} - 1`

, returns an element of `G := `

**F**`_p[x]/(T)`

which is a generator of the *ell*-Sylow of `G`

for every *ell* in `L`

. It is not necessary, and in fact slightly inefficient, to include *ell*` = 2`

, since 2 is treated separately in any case, i.e. the generator obtained is never a square if `p`

is odd.

`GEN `

**gener_Fq_local**`(GEN T, GEN p, GEN L)`

as `pgener_Fp_local(p, L)`

if `T`

is `NULL`

, or `gener_FpXQ_local`

(otherwise).

`GEN `

**FpXQ_powers**`(GEN x, long n, GEN T, GEN p)`

returns `[x^0, ..., x^n]`

as a `t_VEC`

of `FpXQ`

s.

`GEN `

**FpXQ_matrix_pow**`(GEN x, long m, long n, GEN T, GEN p)`

, as `FpXQ_powers`

`(x, n-1, T, p)`

, but returns the powers as a an `m x n`

matrix. Usually, we have `m = n = `

*deg* ` T`

.

`GEN `

**FpXQ_autpow**`(GEN a, ulong n, GEN T, GEN p)`

computes *sigma*`^n(X)`

assuming `a = `

*sigma*`(X)`

where *sigma* is an automorphism of the algebra **F**`_p[X]/T(X)`

.

`GEN `

**FpXQ_autsum**`(GEN a, ulong n, GEN T, GEN p)`

`a`

being a two-component vector, *sigma* being the automorphism defined by *sigma*`(X) = a[1] (mod T(X))`

, returns the vector `[`

*sigma*`^n(X),b`

*sigma*`(b)...`

*sigma*`^{n-1}(b)]`

where `b = a[2]`

.

`GEN `

**FpXQ_auttrace**`(GEN a, ulong n, GEN T, GEN p)`

`a`

being a two-component vector, *sigma* being the automorphism defined by *sigma*`(X) = a[1] (mod T(X))`

, returns the vector `[`

*sigma*`^n(X),b+`

*sigma*`(b)+...+`

*sigma*`^{n-1}(b)]`

where `b = a[2]`

.

`GEN `

**FpXQ_autpowers**`(GEN S, long n, GEN T, GEN p)`

returns `[x,S(x),S(S(x)),...,S^{(n)}(x)]`

as a `t_VEC`

of `FpXQ`

s.

`GEN `

**FpXQM_autsum**`(GEN a, long n, GEN T, GEN p)`

*sigma* being the automorphism defined by *sigma*`(X) = a[1] (mod T(X))`

, returns the vector `[`

*sigma*`^n(X),b`

*sigma*`(b)...`

*sigma*`^{n-1}(b)]`

where `b = a[2]`

is a square matrix.

`GEN `

**FpX_FpXQ_eval**`(GEN f, GEN x, GEN T, GEN p)`

returns `f(x)`

.

`GEN `

**FpX_FpXQV_eval**`(GEN f, GEN V, GEN T, GEN p)`

returns `f(x)`

, assuming that `V`

was computed by `FpXQ_powers(x, n, T, p)`

.

`GEN `

**FpXC_FpXQV_eval**`(GEN C, GEN V,GEN T,GEN p)`

applies `FpX_FpXQV_eval`

to all elements of the vector `C`

and returns a `t_COL`

.

`GEN `

**FpXM_FpXQV_eval**`(GEN M, GEN V,GEN T,GEN p)`

applies `FpX_FpXQV_eval`

to all elements of the matrix `M`

.

`FpXX`

, `FpXY`

Contrary to what the name implies, an `FpXX`

is a `t_POL`

whose coefficients are either `t_INT`

s or `FpX`

s. This reduces memory overhead at the expense of consistency. The prefix `FpXY`

is an alias for `FpXX`

when variables matters.

`GEN `

**FpXX_red**`(GEN z, GEN p)`

, `z`

a `t_POL`

whose coefficients are either `ZX`

s or `t_INT`

s. Returns the `t_POL`

equal to `z`

with all components reduced modulo `p`

.

`GEN `

**FpXX_renormalize**`(GEN x, long l)`

, as `normalizepol`

, where `l = lg(x)`

, in place.

`GEN `

**FpXX_add**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN p)`

adds `x`

and `y`

.

`GEN `

**FpXX_sub**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN p)`

returns `x-y`

.

`GEN `

**FpXX_neg**`(GEN x, GEN p)`

returns `-x`

.

`GEN `

**FpXX_Fp_mul**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN p)`

multiplies the `FpXX`

`x`

by the `Fp`

`y`

.

`GEN `

**FpXX_FpX_mul**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN p)`

multiplies the coefficients of the `FpXX`

`x`

by the `FpX`

`y`

.

`GEN `

**FpXX_mulu**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN p)`

multiplies the `FpXX`

`x`

by the scalar `y`

.

`GEN `

**FpXX_deriv**`(GEN P, GEN p)`

differentiates `P`

with respect of the main variable.

`GEN `

**FpXY_eval**`(GEN Q, GEN y, GEN x, GEN p)`

`Q`

being an `FpXY`

, i.e. a `t_POL`

with `Fp`

or `FpX`

coefficients representing an element of **F**`_p[X][Y]`

. Returns the `Fp`

`Q(x,y)`

.

`GEN `

**FpXY_evalx**`(GEN Q, GEN x, GEN p)`

`Q`

being an `FpXY`

, returns the `FpX`

`Q(x,Y)`

, where `Y`

is the main variable of `Q`

.

`GEN `

**FpXY_evaly**`(GEN Q, GEN y, GEN p, long vx)`

`Q`

an `FpXY`

, returns the `FpX`

`Q(X,y)`

, where `X`

is the second variable of `Q`

, and `vx`

is the variable number of `X`

.

`GEN `

**FpXY_Fq_evaly**`(GEN Q, GEN y, GEN T, GEN p, long vx)`

`Q`

an `FpXY`

and `y`

being an `Fq`

, returns the `FqX`

`Q(X,y)`

, where `X`

is the second variable of `Q`

, and `vx`

is the variable number of `X`

.

`GEN `

**FpXY_FpXQ_evalx**`(GEN Q, GEN x, ulong p)`

`Q`

an `FpXY`

and `x`

being an `FpXQ`

, returns the `FpXQX`

`Q(x,Y)`

, where `Y`

is the first variable of `Q`

.

`GEN `

**FpXY_FpXQV_evalx**`(GEN Q, GEN V, ulong p)`

`Q`

an `FpXY`

and `x`

being an `FpXQ`

, returns the `FpXQX`

`Q(x,Y)`

, where `Y`

is the first variable of `Q`

, assuming that `V`

was computed by `FpXQ_powers(x, n, T, p)`

.

`GEN `

**FpXYQQ_pow**`(GEN x, GEN n, GEN S, GEN T, GEN p)`

, `x`

being a `FpXY`

, `T`

being a `FpX`

and `S`

being a `FpY`

, return `x^n (mod S,T,p)`

.

`FpXQX`

, `FqX`

Contrary to what the name implies, an `FpXQX`

is a `t_POL`

whose coefficients are `Fq`

s. So the only difference between `FqX`

and `FpXQX`

routines is that `T = NULL`

is not allowed in the latter. (It was thought more useful to allow `t_INT`

components than to enforce strict consistency, which would not imply any efficiency gain.)

`GEN `

**FqX_add**`(GEN x,GEN y,GEN T,GEN p)`

`GEN `

**FqX_Fq_add**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN T, GEN p)`

adds the `Fq`

`y`

to the `FqX`

`x`

.

`GEN `

**FqX_neg**`(GEN x,GEN T,GEN p)`

`GEN `

**FqX_sub**`(GEN x,GEN y,GEN T,GEN p)`

`GEN `

**FqX_mul**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN T, GEN p)`

`GEN `

**FqX_Fq_mul**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN T, GEN p)`

multiplies the `FqX`

`x`

by the `Fq`

`y`

.

`GEN `

**FqX_mulu**`(GEN x, ulong y, GEN T, GEN p)`

multiplies the `FqX`

`x`

by the scalar `y`

.

`GEN `

**FqX_Fp_mul**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN T, GEN p)`

multiplies the `FqX`

`x`

by the `t_INT`

`y`

.

`GEN `

**FqX_Fq_mul_to_monic**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN T, GEN p)`

returns `x y`

assuming the result is monic of the same degree as `x`

(in particular `y != 0`

).

`GEN `

**FpXQX_normalize**`(GEN z, GEN T, GEN p)`

`GEN `

**FqX_normalize**`(GEN z, GEN T, GEN p)`

divides the `FqX`

`z`

by its leading term. The leading coefficient becomes `1`

as a `t_INT`

.

`GEN `

**FqX_sqr**`(GEN x, GEN T, GEN p)`

`GEN `

**FqX_powu**`(GEN x, ulong n, GEN T, GEN p)`

`GEN `

**FqX_divrem**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN T, GEN p, GEN *z)`

`GEN `

**FqX_div**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN T, GEN p)`

`GEN `

**FqX_div_by_X_x**`(GEN a, GEN x, GEN T, GEN p, GEN *r)`

`GEN `

**FqX_rem**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN T, GEN p)`

`GEN `

**FqX_deriv**`(GEN x, GEN T, GEN p)`

returns the derivative of `x`

. (This function is suitable for `gerepilupto`

but not memory-clean.)

`GEN `

**FqX_translate**`(GEN P, GEN c, GEN T, GEN p)`

let `c`

be an `Fq`

defined modulo `(p, T)`

, and let `P`

be an `FqX`

; returns the translated `FqX`

of `P(X+c)`

.

`GEN `

**FqX_gcd**`(GEN P, GEN Q, GEN T, GEN p)`

returns a (not necessarily monic) greatest common divisor of `x`

and `y`

.

`GEN `

**FqX_extgcd**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN T, GEN p, GEN *ptu, GEN *ptv)`

returns `d = GCD(x,y)`

(not necessarily monic), and sets `*u`

, `*v`

to the Bezout coefficients such that `*ux + *vy = d`

.

`GEN `

**FqX_halfgcd**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN T, GEN p)`

returns a two-by-two `FqXM`

`M`

with determinant

such that the image *+-* 1`(a,b)`

of `(x,y)`

by `M`

has the property that *deg* ` a >= (`

*deg* ` x )/(2) > `

*deg* ` b`

.

`GEN `

**FqX_eval**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN T, GEN p)`

evaluates the `FqX`

`x`

at the `Fq`

`y`

. The result is an `Fq`

.

`GEN `

**FqXY_eval**`(GEN Q, GEN y, GEN x, GEN T, GEN p)`

`Q`

an `FqXY`

, i.e. a `t_POL`

with `Fq`

or `FqX`

coefficients representing an element of **F**`_q[X][Y]`

. Returns the `Fq`

`Q(x,y)`

.

`GEN `

**FqXY_evalx**`(GEN Q, GEN x, GEN T, GEN p)`

`Q`

being an `FqXY`

, returns the `FqX`

`Q(x,Y)`

, where `Y`

is the main variable of `Q`

.

`GEN `

**random_FpXQX**`(long d, long v, GEN T, GEN p)`

returns a random `FpXQX`

in variable `v`

, of degree less than `d`

.

`GEN `

**FpXQX_renormalize**`(GEN x, long lx)`

`GEN `

**FpXQX_red**`(GEN z, GEN T, GEN p)`

`z`

a `t_POL`

whose coefficients are `ZX`

s or `t_INT`

s, reduce them to `FpXQ`

s.

`GEN `

**FpXQX_mul**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN T, GEN p)`

`GEN `

**Kronecker_to_FpXQX**`(GEN z, GEN T, GEN p)`

. Let `n = `

*deg* ` T`

and let `P(X,Y)\in `

**Z**`[X,Y]`

lift a polynomial in `K[Y]`

, where `K := `

**F**`_p[X]/(T)`

and *deg* `_X P < 2n-1`

--- such as would result from multiplying minimal degree lifts of two polynomials in `K[Y]`

. Let `z = P(t,t^{2*n-1})`

be a Kronecker form of `P`

, this function returns `Q\in `

**Z**`[X,t]`

such that `Q`

is congruent to `P(X,t)`

mod `(p, T(X))`

, *deg* `_X Q < n`

, and all coefficients are in `[0,p[`

. Not stack-clean. Note that `t`

need not be the same variable as `Y`

!

`GEN `

**FpXQX_FpXQ_mul**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN T, GEN p)`

`GEN `

**FpXQX_sqr**`(GEN x, GEN T, GEN p)`

`GEN `

**FpXQX_divrem**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN T, GEN p, GEN *pr)`

`GEN `

**FpXQX_div**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN T, GEN p)`

`GEN `

**FpXQX_div_by_X_x**`(GEN a, GEN x, GEN T, GEN p, GEN *r)`

`GEN `

**FpXQX_rem**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN T, GEN p)`

`GEN `

**FpXQX_powu**`(GEN x, ulong n, GEN T, GEN p)`

returns `x^n`

.

`GEN `

**FpXQX_digits**`(GEN x, GEN B, GEN T, GEN p)`

`GEN `

**FpXQX_fromdigits**`(GEN v, GEN B, GEN T, GEN p)`

`GEN `

**FpXQX_invBarrett**`(GEN y, GEN T, GEN p)`

returns the Barrett inverse of the `FpXQX`

`y`

, namely a lift of `1/polrecip(y)+O(x^{`

*deg* `(y)-1})`

.

`GEN `

**FpXQXV_prod**`(GEN V, GEN T, GEN p)`

, `V`

being a vector of `FpXQX`

, returns their product.

`GEN `

**FpXQX_gcd**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN T, GEN p)`

`GEN `

**FpXQX_extgcd**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN T, GEN p, GEN *ptu, GEN *ptv)`

`GEN `

**FpXQX_halfgcd**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN T, GEN p)`

`GEN `

**FpXQX_FpXQXQ_eval**`(GEN f,GEN x,GEN S, GEN T,GEN p)`

returns `f(x)`

.

`FpXQXQ`

, `FqXQ`

A `FpXQXQ`

is a `t_FpXQX`

which represents an element of the ring `(Fp[X]/T(X))[Y]/S(X,Y)`

, where `T`

is a `FpX`

and `S`

a `FpXQX`

modulo `T`

. A `FqXQ`

is identical except that `T`

is allowed to be `NULL`

in which case `S`

must be a `FpX`

.

For faster reduction, the modulus `S`

can be replaced by an extended modulus, which is an `FpXQXT`

, in all `FpXQXQ`

- and `FqXQ`

-classes functions, and in `FpXQX_rem`

and `FpXQX_divrem`

.

`GEN `

**FpXQX_get_red**`(GEN S, GEN T, GEN p)`

returns the extended modulus `eS`

.

`GEN `

**FqX_get_red**`(GEN S, GEN T, GEN p)`

identical, but allow `T`

to be `NULL`

, in which case it returns `FpX_get_red(S,p)`

.

To write code that works both with plain and extended moduli, the following accessors are defined:

`GEN `

**get_FpXQX_mod**`(GEN eS)`

returns the underlying modulus `S`

.

`GEN `

**get_FpXQX_var**`(GEN eS)`

returns the variable number of the modulus.

`GEN `

**get_FpXQX_degree**`(GEN eS)`

returns the degree of the modulus.

Furthermore, `ZXXT_to_FlxXT`

allows to convert an extended modulus for a `FpXQX`

to an extended modulus for the corresponding `FlxqX`

.

`GEN `

**FpXQX_FpXQXQV_eval**`(GEN f,GEN V,GEN S,GEN T,GEN p)`

returns `f(x)`

, assuming that `V`

was computed by `FpXQXQ_powers(x, n, S, T, p)`

.

`GEN `

**FpXQXQ_div**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN S, GEN T, GEN p)`

, `x`

, `y`

and `S`

being `FpXQX`

s, returns `x*y^{-1}`

modulo `S`

.

`GEN `

**FpXQXQ_inv**`(GEN x, GEN S, GEN T, GEN p)`

, `x`

and `S`

being `FpXQX`

s, returns `x^{-1}`

modulo `S`

.

`GEN `

**FpXQXQ_invsafe**`(GEN x, GEN S, GEN T,GEN p)`

, as `FpXQXQ_inv`

, returning `NULL`

if `x`

is not invertible.

`GEN `

**FpXQXQ_mul**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN S, GEN T, GEN p)`

, `x`

, `y`

and `S`

being `FpXQX`

s, returns `x y`

modulo `S`

.

`GEN `

**FpXQXQ_sqr**`(GEN x, GEN S, GEN T, GEN p)`

, `x`

and `S`

being `FpXQX`

s, returns `x^2`

modulo `S`

.

`GEN `

**FpXQXQ_pow**`(GEN x, GEN n, GEN S, GEN T, GEN p)`

, `x`

and `S`

being `FpXQX`

s, returns `x^n`

modulo `S`

.

`GEN `

**FpXQXQ_powers**`(GEN x, long n, GEN S, GEN T, GEN p)`

, `x`

and `S`

being `FpXQX`

s, returns `[x^0,..., x^n]`

as a `t_VEC`

of `FpXQXQ`

s.

`GEN `

**FpXQXQ_matrix_pow**`(GEN x, long m, long n, GEN S, GEN T, GEN p)`

returns the same powers of `x`

as `FpXQXQ_powers`

`(x, n-1,S, T, p)`

, but as an `m x n`

matrix.

`GEN `

**FpXQXQV_autpow**`(GEN a, long n, GEN S, GEN T, GEN p)`

*sigma* being the automorphism defined by *sigma*`(X) = a[1] (mod T(X))`

, *sigma*`(Y) = a[2] (mod S(X,Y),T(X))`

, returns `[`

*sigma*`^n(X),`

*sigma*`^n(Y)]`

.

`GEN `

**FpXQXQV_autsum**`(GEN a, long n, GEN S, GEN T, GEN p)`

*sigma* being the automorphism defined by *sigma*`(X) = a[1] (mod T(X))`

, *sigma*`(Y) = a[2] (mod S(X,Y),T(X))`

, returns the vector `[`

*sigma*`^n(X),`

*sigma*`^n(Y),b`

*sigma*`(b)...`

*sigma*`^{n-1}(b)]`

where `b = a[3]`

.

`GEN `

**FpXQXQV_auttrace**`(GEN a, long n, GEN S, GEN T, GEN p)`

*sigma* being the automorphism defined by *sigma*`(X) = a[1] (mod T(X))`

, *sigma*`(Y) = a[2] (mod S(X,Y),T(X))`

, returns the vector `[`

*sigma*`^n(X),`

*sigma*`^n(Y),b+`

*sigma*`(b)+...+`

*sigma*`^{n-1}(b)]`

where `b = a[3]`

.

`GEN `

**FqXQ_add**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN S, GEN T, GEN p)`

, `x`

, `y`

and `S`

being `FqX`

s, returns `x + y`

modulo `S`

.

`GEN `

**FqXQ_sub**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN S, GEN T, GEN p)`

, `x`

, `y`

and `S`

being `FqX`

s, returns `x - y`

modulo `S`

.

`GEN `

**FqXQ_mul**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN S, GEN T, GEN p)`

, `x`

, `y`

and `S`

being `FqX`

s, returns `x y`

modulo `S`

.

`GEN `

**FqXQ_div**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN S, GEN T, GEN p)`

, `x`

and `S`

being `FqX`

s, returns `x/y`

modulo `S`

.

`GEN `

**FqXQ_inv**`(GEN x, GEN S, GEN T, GEN p)`

, `x`

and `S`

being `FqX`

s, returns `x^{-1}`

modulo `S`

.

`GEN `

**FqXQ_invsafe**`(GEN x, GEN S, GEN T, GEN p)`

, as `FqXQ_inv`

, returning `NULL`

if `x`

is not invertible.

`GEN `

**FqXQ_sqr**`(GEN x, GEN S, GEN T, GEN p)`

, `x`

and `S`

being `FqX`

s, returns `x^2`

modulo `S`

.

`GEN `

**FqXQ_pow**`(GEN x, GEN n, GEN S, GEN T, GEN p)`

, `x`

and `S`

being `FqX`

s, returns `x^n`

modulo `S`

.

`GEN `

**FqXQ_powers**`(GEN x, long n, GEN S, GEN T, GEN p)`

, `x`

and `S`

being `FqX`

s, returns `[x^0,..., x^n]`

as a `t_VEC`

of `FqXQ`

s.

`GEN `

**FqXQ_matrix_pow**`(GEN x, long m, long n, GEN S, GEN T, GEN p)`

returns the same powers of `x`

as `FqXQ_powers`

`(x, n-1,S, T, p)`

, but as an `m x n`

matrix.

`GEN `

**FqV_roots_to_pol**`(GEN V, GEN T, GEN p, long v)`

, `V`

being a vector of `Fq`

s, returns the monic `FqX`

*prod*`_i (pol_x[v] - V[i])`

.

`GEN `

**init_Fq**`(GEN p, long n, long v)`

returns an irreducible polynomial of degree `n > 0`

over **F**`_p`

, in variable `v`

.

`int `

**FqX_is_squarefree**`(GEN P, GEN T, GEN p)`

`GEN `

**FpXQX_roots**`(GEN x, GEN T, GEN p)`

return the roots of `x`

in **F**`_p[X]/(T)`

. Assumes `p`

is prime and `T`

irreducible in **F**`_p[X]`

.

`GEN `

**FqX_roots**`(GEN x, GEN T, GEN p)`

same but allow `T = NULL`

.

`GEN `

**FpXQX_factor**`(GEN x, GEN T, GEN p)`

same output convention as `FpX_factor`

. Assumes `p`

is prime and `T`

irreducible in **F**`_p[X]`

.

`GEN `

**FqX_factor**`(GEN x, GEN T, GEN p)`

same but allow `T = NULL`

.

`GEN `

**FpXQX_split_part**`(GEN f, GEN T, GEN p)`

returns the largest totally split squarefree factor of `f`

.

`long `

**FqX_ispower**`(GEN f, ulong k, GEN T, GEN p, GEN *pt)`

return returns 1 if `FqX`

`f`

is a `K`

-th power Return `0`

otherwise. If `py`

is not `NULL`

, set it to `g`

such that `g^K = f`

.

`GEN `

**FpX_factorff**`(GEN P, GEN T, GEN p)`

. Assumes `p`

prime and `T`

irreducible in **F**`_p[X]`

. Factor the `FpX`

`P`

over the finite field **F**`_p[Y]/(T(Y))`

. See `FpX_factorff_irred`

if `P`

is known to be irreducible of **F**`_p`

.

`GEN `

**FpX_rootsff**`(GEN P, GEN T, GEN p)`

. Assumes `p`

prime and `T`

irreducible in **F**`_p[X]`

. Returns the roots of the `FpX`

`P`

belonging to the finite field **F**`_p[Y]/(T(Y))`

.

`GEN `

**FpX_factorff_irred**`(GEN P, GEN T, GEN p)`

. Assumes `p`

prime and `T`

irreducible in **F**`_p[X]`

. Factors the *irreducible* `FpX`

`P`

over the finite field **F**`_p[Y]/(T(Y))`

and returns the vector of irreducible `FqX`

s factors (the exponents, being all equal to `1`

, are not included).

`GEN `

**FpX_ffisom**`(GEN P, GEN Q, GEN p)`

. Assumes `p`

prime, `P`

, `Q`

are `ZX`

s, both irreducible mod `p`

, and *deg* `(P) | `

*deg* ` Q`

. Outputs a monomorphism between **F**`_p[X]/(P)`

and **F**`_p[X]/(Q)`

, as a polynomial `R`

such that `Q | P(R)`

in **F**`_p[X]`

. If `P`

and `Q`

have the same degree, it is of course an isomorphism.

`void `

**FpX_ffintersect**`(GEN P, GEN Q, long n, GEN p, GEN *SP,GEN *SQ, GEN MA,GEN MB)`

\hfil

Assumes `p`

is prime, `P`

, `Q`

are `ZX`

s, both irreducible mod `p`

, and `n`

divides both the degree of `P`

and `Q`

. Compute `SP`

and `SQ`

such that the subfield of **F**`_p[X]/(P)`

generated by `SP`

and the subfield of **F**`_p[X]/(Q)`

generated by `SQ`

are isomorphic of degree `n`

. The polynomials `P`

and `Q`

do not need to be of the same variable. If `MA`

(resp. `MB`

) is not `NULL`

, it must be the matrix of the Frobenius map in **F**`_p[X]/(P)`

(resp. **F**`_p[X]/(Q)`

).

`GEN `

**FpXQ_ffisom_inv**`(GEN S, GEN T, GEN p)`

. Assumes `p`

is prime, `T`

a `ZX`

, which is irreducible modulo `p`

, `S`

a `ZX`

representing an automorphism of **F**`_q := `

**F**`_p[X]/(T)`

. (`S(X)`

is the image of `X`

by the automorphism.) Returns the inverse automorphism of `S`

, in the same format, i.e. an `FpX`

`H`

such that `H(S) = X`

modulo `(T, p)`

.

`long `

**FpXQX_nbfact**`(GEN S, GEN T, GEN p)`

returns the number of irreducible factors of the polynomial `S`

over the finite field **F**`_q`

defined by `T`

and `p`

.

`long `

**FqX_nbfact**`(GEN S, GEN T, GEN p)`

as above but accept `T = NULL`

.

`long `

**FpXQX_nbroots**`(GEN S, GEN T, GEN p)`

returns the number of roots of the polynomial `S`

over the finite field **F**`_q`

defined by `T`

and `p`

.

`long `

**FqX_nbroots**`(GEN S, GEN T, GEN p)`

as above but accept `T = NULL`

.

`GEN `

**FpXQX_Frobenius**`(GEN S, GEN T, GEN p)`

returns `X^{q} (mod S(X))`

over the finite field **F**`_q`

defined by `T`

and `p`

, thus `q = p^n`

where `n`

is the degree of `T`

.

`GEN `

**FpXQXQ_halfFrobenius**`(GEN A, GEN S, GEN T, GEN p)`

returns `A(X)^{(q-1)/2} (mod S(X))`

over the finite field **F**`_q`

defined by `T`

and `p`

, thus `q = p^n`

where `n`

is the degree of `T`

.

`Flx`

Let `p`

an understood `ulong`

, assumed to be prime, to be given the function arguments; an `Fl`

is an `ulong`

belonging to `[0,p-1]`

, an `Flx`

`z`

is a `t_VECSMALL`

representing a polynomial with small integer coefficients. Specifically `z[0]`

is the usual codeword, `z[1] = evalvarn(v)`

for some variable `v`

, then the coefficients by increasing degree. An `FlxX`

is a `t_POL`

whose coefficients are `Flx`

s.

@3In the following, an argument called `sv`

is of the form `evalvarn`

`(v)`

for some variable number `v`

.

For faster reduction, the modulus `T`

can be replaced by an extended modulus, which is an `FlxT`

, in all `Flxq`

-classes functions, and in `Flx_divrem`

.

`GEN `

**Flx_get_red**`(GEN T, ulong p)`

returns the extended modulus `eT`

.

To write code that works both with plain and extended moduli, the following accessors are defined:

`GEN `

**get_Flx_mod**`(GEN eT)`

returns the underlying modulus `T`

.

`GEN `

**get_Flx_var**`(GEN eT)`

returns the variable number of the modulus.

`GEN `

**get_Flx_degree**`(GEN eT)`

returns the degree of the modulus.

Furthermore, `ZXT_to_FlxT`

allows to convert an extended modulus for a `FpX`

to an extended modulus for the corresponding `Flx`

.

`ulong `

**Flx_lead**`(GEN x)`

returns the leading coefficient of `x`

as a `ulong`

(return `0`

for the zero polynomial).

`GEN `

**Flx_red**`(GEN z, ulong p)`

converts from `zx`

with non-negative coefficients to `Flx`

(by reducing them mod `p`

).

`int `

**Flx_equal1**`(GEN x)`

returns 1 (true) if the `Flx`

`x`

is equal to 1, 0 (false) otherwise.

`int `

**Flx_equal**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

returns 1 (true) if the `Flx`

`x`

and `y`

are equal, and 0 (false) otherwise.

`GEN `

**Flx_copy**`(GEN x)`

returns a copy of `x`

.

`GEN `

**Flx_add**`(GEN x, GEN y, ulong p)`

`GEN `

**Flx_Fl_add**`(GEN y, ulong x, ulong p)`

`GEN `

**Flx_neg**`(GEN x, ulong p)`

`GEN `

**Flx_neg_inplace**`(GEN x, ulong p)`

, same as `Flx_neg`

, in place (`x`

is destroyed).

`GEN `

**Flx_sub**`(GEN x, GEN y, ulong p)`

`GEN `

**Flx_halve**`(GEN x, ulong p)`

returns `z`

such that `2 z = x`

modulo `p`

assuming such `z`

exists.

`GEN `

**Flx_mul**`(GEN x, GEN y, ulong p)`

`GEN `

**Flx_Fl_mul**`(GEN y, ulong x, ulong p)`

`GEN `

**Flx_double**`(GEN y, ulong p)`

returns `2 y`

.

`GEN `

**Flx_triple**`(GEN y, ulong p)`

returns `3 y`

.

`GEN `

**Flx_mulu**`(GEN y, ulong x, ulong p)`

as `Flx_Fl_mul`

but do not assume that `x < p`

.

`GEN `

**Flx_Fl_mul_to_monic**`(GEN y, ulong x, ulong p)`

returns `y x`

assuming the result is monic of the same degree as `y`

(in particular `x != 0`

).

`GEN `

**Flx_sqr**`(GEN x, ulong p)`

`GEN `

**Flx_powu**`(GEN x, ulong n, ulong p)`

returns `x^n`

.

`GEN `

**Flx_divrem**`(GEN x, GEN y, ulong p, GEN *pr)`

`GEN `

**Flx_div**`(GEN x, GEN y, ulong p)`

`GEN `

**Flx_rem**`(GEN x, GEN y, ulong p)`

`GEN `

**Flx_deriv**`(GEN z, ulong p)`

`GEN `

**Flx_Frobenius**`(GEN T, ulong p)`

`GEN `

**Flx_matFrobenius**`(GEN T, ulong p)`

`GEN `

**Flx_gcd**`(GEN a, GEN b, ulong p)`

returns a (not necessarily monic) greatest common divisor of `x`

and `y`

.

`GEN `

**Flx_halfgcd**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN p)`

returns a two-by-two `FlxM`

`M`

with determinant

such that the image *+-* 1`(a,b)`

of `(x,y)`

by `M`

has the property that *deg* ` a >= (`

*deg* ` x )/(2) > `

*deg* ` b`

.

`GEN `

**Flx_extgcd**`(GEN a, GEN b, ulong p, GEN *ptu, GEN *ptv)`

`GEN `

**Flx_roots**`(GEN f, ulong p)`

returns the vector of roots of `f`

(without multiplicity, as a `t_VECSMALL`

). Assumes that `p`

is prime.

`ulong `

**Flx_oneroot**`(GEN f, ulong p)`

returns one root `0 <= r < p`

of the `Flx`

`f`

in **Z**`/p`

**Z**. Return `p`

if no root exists. Assumes that `p`

is prime.

`ulong `

**Flx_oneroot_split**`(GEN f, ulong p)`

as `Flx_oneroot`

but assume `f`

is totally split.

`GEN `

**Flx_roots_naive**`(GEN f, ulong p)`

returns the vector of roots of `f`

as a `t_VECSMALL`

(multiple roots are not repeated), found by an exhaustive search. Efficient for very small `p`

!

`GEN `

**Flx_factor**`(GEN f, ulong p)`

`GEN `

**Flx_factor_squarefree**`(GEN f, ulong p)`

returns the squarefree factorization of `f`

modulo `p`

. This is a vector `[u_1,...,u_k]`

of pairwise coprime `Flx`

such that `u_k != 1`

and `f = `

*prod*` u_i^i`

. Shallow function.

`GEN `

**Flx_mod_Xn1**`(GEN T, ulong n, ulong p)`

return `T`

modulo `(X^n + 1, p)`

. Shallow function.

`GEN `

**Flx_mod_Xnm1**`(GEN T, ulong n, ulong p)`

return `T`

modulo `(X^n - 1, p)`

. Shallow function.

`GEN `

**Flx_degfact**`(GEN f, ulong p)`

as `FpX_degfact`

.

`GEN `

**Flx_factorff_irred**`(GEN P, GEN Q, ulong p)`

as `FpX_factorff_irred`

.

`GEN `

**Flx_rootsff**`(GEN P, GEN T, ulong p)`

as `FpX_rootsff`

.

`GEN `

**Flx_ffisom**`(GEN P,GEN Q,ulong l)`

as `FpX_ffisom`

.

`GEN `

**pol0_Flx**`(long sv)`

returns a zero `Flx`

in variable `v`

.

`GEN `

**zero_Flx**`(long sv)`

alias for `pol0_Flx`

`GEN `

**pol1_Flx**`(long sv)`

returns the unit `Flx`

in variable `v`

.

`GEN `

**polx_Flx**`(long sv)`

returns the variable `v`

as degree 1 `Flx`

.

`GEN `

**monomial_Flx**`(ulong a, long d, long sv)`

returns the `Flx`

`a X^d`

in variable `v`

.

`GEN `

**Flx_normalize**`(GEN z, ulong p)`

, as `FpX_normalize`

.

`GEN `

**Flx_rescale**`(GEN P, ulong h, ulong p)`

returns `h^{`

*deg* `(P)} P(x/h)`

, `P`

is a `Flx`

and `h`

is a non-zero integer.

`GEN `

**random_Flx**`(long d, long sv, ulong p)`

returns a random `Flx`

in variable `v`

, of degree less than `d`

.

`GEN `

**Flx_recip**`(GEN x)`

, returns the reciprocal polynomial

`ulong `

**Flx_resultant**`(GEN a, GEN b, ulong p)`

, returns the resultant of `a`

and `b`

`ulong `

**Flx_extresultant**`(GEN a, GEN b, ulong p, GEN *ptU, GEN *ptV)`

given two `Flx`

`a`

and `b`

, returns their resultant and sets Bezout coefficients (if the resultant is 0, the latter are not set).

`GEN `

**Flx_invBarrett**`(GEN T, ulong p)`

, returns the Barrett inverse `M`

of `T`

defined by `M(x) x^n T(1/x) = 1 (mod x^{n-1})`

where `n`

is the degree of `T`

.

`GEN `

**Flx_renormalize**`(GEN x, long l)`

, as `FpX_renormalize`

, where `l = lg(x)`

, in place.

`GEN `

**Flx_shift**`(GEN T, long n)`

returns `T * x^n`

if `n >= 0`

, and `T \x^{-n}`

otherwise.

`long `

**Flx_val**`(GEN x)`

returns the valuation of `x`

, i.e. the multiplicity of the `0`

root.

`long `

**Flx_valrem**`(GEN x, GEN *Z)`

as `RgX_valrem`

, returns the valuation of `x`

. In particular, if the valuation is `0`

, set `*Z`

to `x`

, not a copy.

`GEN `

**Flx_div_by_X_x**`(GEN A, ulong a, ulong p, ulong *rem)`

, returns the Euclidean quotient of the `Flx`

`A`

by `X - a`

, and sets `rem`

to the remainder ` A(a)`

.

`ulong `

**Flx_eval**`(GEN x, ulong y, ulong p)`

, as `FpX_eval`

.

`ulong `

**Flx_eval_pre**`(GEN x, ulong y, ulong p, ulong pi)`

, as `Flx_eval`

, assuming `pi`

is the pseudo inverse of `p`

.

`ulong `

**Flx_eval_powers_pre**`(GEN P, GEN y, ulong p, ulong pi)`

. Let `y`

be the `t_VECSMALL`

`(1,a,...,a^n)`

, where `n`

is the degree of the `Flx`

`P`

, return `P(a)`

, assuming `pi`

is the pseudo inverse of `p`

.

`GEN `

**Flx_Flv_multieval**`(GEN P, GEN v, ulong p)`

returns the vector `[P(v[1]),...,P(v[n])]`

as a `Flv`

.

`ulong `

**Flx_dotproduct**`(GEN x, GEN y, ulong p)`

returns the scalar product of the coefficients of `x`

and `y`

.

`GEN `

**Flx_deflate**`(GEN P, long d)`

assuming `P`

is a polynomial of the form `Q(X^d)`

, return `Q`

.

`GEN `

**Flx_splitting**`(GEN p, long k)`

, as `RgX_splitting`

.

`GEN `

**Flx_inflate**`(GEN P, long d)`

returns `P(X^d)`

.

`int `

**Flx_is_squarefree**`(GEN z, ulong p)`

`int `

**Flx_is_irred**`(GEN f, ulong p)`

, as `FpX_is_irred`

.

`int `

**Flx_is_smooth**`(GEN f, long r, ulong p)`

return `1`

if all irreducible factors of `f`

are of degree at most `r`

, `0`

otherwise.

`long `

**Flx_nbroots**`(GEN f, ulong p)`

, as `FpX_nbroots`

.

`long `

**Flx_nbfact**`(GEN z, ulong p)`

, as `FpX_nbfact`

.

`long `

**Flx_nbfact_Frobenius**`(GEN f, GEN XP, ulong p)`

, as `FpX_nbfact_Frobenius`

.

`GEN `

**Flx_degfact**`(GEN f, ulong p)`

, as `FpX_degfact`

.

`GEN `

**Flx_nbfact_by_degree**`(GEN z, long *nb, ulong p)`

Assume that the `Flx`

`z`

is squarefree mod the prime `p`

. Returns a `t_VECSMALL`

`D`

with *deg* ` z`

entries, such that `D[i]`

is the number of irreducible factors of degree `i`

. Set `nb`

to the total number of irreducible factors (the sum of the `D[i]`

).

`void `

**Flx_ffintersect**`(GEN P,GEN Q, long n, ulong p, GEN*SP, GEN*SQ, GEN MA,GEN MB)`

,\hfil

as `FpX_ffintersect`

`GEN `

**Flv_polint**`(GEN x, GEN y, ulong p, long sv)`

as `FpV_polint`

, returning an `Flx`

in variable `v`

.

`GEN `

**Flv_Flm_polint**`(GEN x, GEN V, ulong p, long sv)`

equivalent (but faster) to applying `Flv_polint(x,...)`

to all the elements of the vector `V`

(thus, returns a `FlxV`

).

`GEN `

**Flv_invVandermonde**`(GEN L, ulong d, ulong p)`

`L`

being a `Flv`

of length `n`

, return the inverse `M`

of the Vandermonde matrix attached to the elements of `L`

, multiplied by `d`

. If `A`

is a `Flv`

and `B = M A`

, then the polynomial `P = `

*sum*`_{i = 1}^n B[i] X^{i-1}`

verifies `P(L[i]) = d A[i]`

for `1 <= i <= n`

.

`GEN `

**Flv_roots_to_pol**`(GEN a, ulong p, long sv)`

as `FpV_roots_to_pol`

returning an `Flx`

in variable `v`

.

`FlxV`

See `FpXV`

operations.

`GEN `

**FlxV_Flc_mul**`(GEN V, GEN W, ulong p)`

, as `FpXV_FpC_mul`

.

`GEN `

**FlxV_red**`(GEN V, ulong p)`

reduces each components with `Flx_red`

.

`GEN `

**FlxV_prod**`(GEN V, ulong p)`

, `V`

being a vector of `Flx`

, returns their product.

`FlxT`

See `FpXT`

operations.

`GEN `

**FlxT_red**`(GEN V, ulong p)`

reduces each leaf with `Flx_red`

.

`Flxq`

See `FpXQ`

operations.

`GEN `

**Flxq_add**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN T, ulong p)`

`GEN `

**Flxq_sub**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN T, ulong p)`

`GEN `

**Flxq_mul**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN T, ulong p)`

`GEN `

**Flxq_sqr**`(GEN y, GEN T, ulong p)`

`GEN `

**Flxq_inv**`(GEN x, GEN T, ulong p)`

`GEN `

**Flxq_invsafe**`(GEN x, GEN T, ulong p)`

`GEN `

**Flxq_div**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN T, ulong p)`

`GEN `

**Flxq_pow**`(GEN x, GEN n, GEN T, ulong p)`

`GEN `

**Flxq_powu**`(GEN x, ulong n, GEN T, ulong p)`

`GEN `

**Flxq_powers**`(GEN x, long n, GEN T, ulong p)`

`GEN `

**Flxq_matrix_pow**`(GEN x, long m, long n, GEN T, ulong p)`

, see `FpXQ_matrix_pow`

.

`GEN `

**Flxq_autpow**`(GEN a, long n, GEN T, ulong p)`

see `FpXQ_autpow`

.

`GEN `

**Flxq_autsum**`(GEN a, long n, GEN T, GEN p)`

see `FpXQ_autsum`

.

`GEN `

**Flxq_auttrace**`(GEN a, ulong n, GEN T, ulong p)`

see `FpXQ_auttrace`

.

`GEN `

**Flxq_ffisom_inv**`(GEN S, GEN T, ulong p)`

, as `FpXQ_ffisom_inv`

.

`GEN `

**Flx_Flxq_eval**`(GEN f, GEN x, GEN T, ulong p)`

returns `f(x)`

.

`GEN `

**Flx_FlxqV_eval**`(GEN f, GEN x, GEN T, ulong p)`

, see `FpX_FpXQV_eval`

.

`GEN `

**FlxqV_roots_to_pol**`(GEN V, GEN T, ulong p, long v)`

as `FqV_roots_to_pol`

returning an `FlxqX`

in variable `v`

.

`int `

**Flxq_issquare**`(GEN x, GEN T, ulong p)`

returns `1`

if `x`

is a square and `0`

otherwise. Assume that `T`

is irreducible mod `p`

.

`int `

**Flxq_is2npower**`(GEN x, long n, GEN T, ulong p)`

returns `1`

if `x`

is a `2^n`

-th power and `0`

otherwise. Assume that `T`

is irreducible mod `p`

.

`GEN `

**Flxq_order**`(GEN a, GEN ord, GEN T, ulong p)`

as `FpXQ_order`

.

`GEN `

**Flxq_log**`(GEN a, GEN g, GEN ord, GEN T, ulong p)`

as `FpXQ_log`

`GEN `

**Flxq_sqrtn**`(GEN x, GEN n, GEN T, ulong p, GEN *zn)`

as `FpXQ_sqrtn`

.

`GEN `

**Flxq_sqrt**`(GEN x, GEN T, ulong p)`

returns a square root of `x`

. Return `NULL`

if `x`

is not a square.

`GEN `

**Flxq_lroot**`(GEN a, GEN T, ulong p)`

returns `x`

such that `x^p = a`

.

`GEN `

**Flxq_lroot_fast**`(GEN a, GEN V, GEN T, ulong p)`

assuming that `V = Flxq_powers(s,p-1,T,p)`

where `s(x)^p = x (mod T(x),p)`

, returns `b`

such that `b^p = a`

. Only useful if `p`

is less than the degree of `T`

.

`GEN `

**Flxq_charpoly**`(GEN x, GEN T, ulong p)`

returns the characteristic polynomial of `x`

`GEN `

**Flxq_minpoly**`(GEN x, GEN T, ulong p)`

returns the minimal polynomial of `x`

`ulong `

**Flxq_norm**`(GEN x, GEN T, ulong p)`

returns the norm of `x`

`ulong `

**Flxq_trace**`(GEN x, GEN T, ulong p)`

returns the trace of `x`

`GEN `

**Flxq_conjvec**`(GEN x, GEN T, ulong p)`

returns the conjugates `[x,x^p,x^{p^2},...,x^{p^{n-1}}]`

where `n`

is the degree of `T`

.

`GEN `

**gener_Flxq**`(GEN T, ulong p, GEN *po)`

returns a primitive root modulo `(T,p)`

. `T`

is an `Flx`

assumed to be irreducible modulo the prime `p`

. If `po`

is not `NULL`

it is set to `[o,`

*fa*`]`

, where `o`

is the order of the multiplicative group of the finite field, and *fa* is its factorization.

`FlxX`

See `FpXX`

operations.

`GEN `

**pol1_FlxX**`(long vX, long sx)`

returns the unit `FlxX`

as a `t_POL`

in variable `vX`

which only coefficient is `pol1_Flx(sx)`

.

`GEN `

**polx_FlxX**`(long vX, long sx)`

returns the variable `X`

as a degree 1 `t_POL`

with `Flx`

coefficients in the variable `x`

.

`long `

**FlxY_degreex**`(GEN P)`

return the degree of `P`

with respect to the secondary variable.

`GEN `

**FlxX_add**`(GEN P, GEN Q, ulong p)`

`GEN `

**FlxX_sub**`(GEN P, GEN Q, ulong p)`

`GEN `

**FlxX_Fl_mul**`(GEN x, ulong y, ulong p)`

`GEN `

**FlxX_double**`(GEN x, ulong p)`

`GEN `

**FlxX_triple**`(GEN x, ulong p)`

`GEN `

**FlxX_neg**`(GEN x, ulong p)`

`GEN `

**FlxX_Flx_add**`(GEN y, GEN x, ulong p)`

`GEN `

**FlxX_Flx_mul**`(GEN x, GEN y, ulong p)`

`GEN `

**FlxY_Flx_div**`(GEN x, GEN y, ulong p)`

divides the coefficients of `x`

by `y`

using `Flx_div`

.

`GEN `

**FlxX_deriv**`(GEN P, ulong p)`

returns the derivative of `P`

with respect to the main variable.

`GEN `

**FlxY_evalx**`(GEN P, ulong z, ulong p)`

`P`

being an `FlxY`

, returns the `Flx`

`P(z,Y)`

, where `Y`

is the main variable of `P`

.

`GEN `

**FlxY_Flx_translate**`(GEN P, GEN f, ulong p)`

`P`

being an `FlxY`

and `f`

being an `Flx`

, return `(P(x,Y+f(x))`

, where `Y`

is the main variable of `P`

.

`ulong `

**FlxY_evalx_powers_pre**`(GEN P, GEN xp, ulong p, ulong pi)`

, `xp`

being the vector `[1,x,...,x^n]`

, where `n`

is larger or equal to the degree of `P`

in `X`

, return `P(x,Y)`

, where `Y`

is the main variable of `Q`

, assuming `pi`

is the pseudo inverse of `p`

.

`ulong `

**FlxY_eval_powers_pre**`(GEN P, GEN xp, GEN yp, ulong p, ulong pi)`

, `xp`

being the vector `[1,x,...,x^n]`

, where `n`

is larger or equal to the degree of `P`

in `X`

and `yp`

being the vector `[1,y,...,y^m]`

, where `m`

is larger or equal to the degree of `P`

in `Y`

return `P(x,y)`

, assuming `pi`

is the pseudo inverse of `p`

.

`GEN `

**FlxY_Flxq_evalx**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN T, ulong p)`

as `FpXY_FpXQ_evalx`

.

`GEN `

**FlxY_FlxqV_evalx**`(GEN x, GEN V, GEN T, ulong p)`

as `FpXY_FpXQV_evalx`

.

`GEN `

**FlxX_renormalize**`(GEN x, long l)`

, as `normalizepol`

, where `l = lg(x)`

, in place.

`GEN `

**FlxX_resultant**`(GEN u, GEN v, ulong p, long sv)`

Returns `Res_X(u, v)`

, which is an `Flx`

. The coefficients of `u`

and `v`

are assumed to be in the variable `v`

.

`GEN `

**Flx_FlxY_resultant**`(GEN a, GEN b, ulong p)`

Returns `Res_x(a, b)`

, which is an `Flx`

in the main variable of `b`

.

`GEN `

**FlxX_shift**`(GEN a, long n)`

`GEN `

**FlxX_swap**`(GEN x, long n, long ws)`

, as `RgXY_swap`

.

`GEN `

**FlxYqq_pow**`(GEN x, GEN n, GEN S, GEN T, ulong p)`

, as `FpXYQQ_pow`

.

`FlxqX`

See `FpXQX`

operations.

For faster reduction, the modulus `S`

can be replaced by an extended modulus, which is an `FlxqXT`

, in all `FlxqXQ`

-classes functions, and in `FlxqX_rem`

and `FlxqX_divrem`

.

`GEN `

**FlxqX_get_red**`(GEN S, GEN T, ulong p)`

returns the extended modulus `eS`

.

To write code that works both with plain and extended moduli, the following accessors are defined:

`GEN `

**get_FlxqX_mod**`(GEN eS)`

returns the underlying modulus `S`

.

`GEN `

**get_FlxqX_var**`(GEN eS)`

returns the variable number of the modulus.

`GEN `

**get_FlxqX_degree**`(GEN eS)`

returns the degree of the modulus.

`GEN `

**random_FlxqX**`(long d, long v, GEN T, ulong p)`

returns a random `FlxqX`

in variable `v`

, of degree less than `d`

.

`GEN `

**zxX_to_Kronecker**`(GEN P, GEN Q)`

assuming `P(X,Y)`

is a polynomial of degree in `X`

strictly less than `n`

, returns `P(X,X^{2*n-1})`

, the Kronecker form of `P`

.

`GEN `

**Kronecker_to_FlxqX**`(GEN z, GEN T, ulong p)`

. Let `n = `

*deg* ` T`

and let `P(X,Y)\in `

**Z**`[X,Y]`

lift a polynomial in `K[Y]`

, where `K := `

**F**`_p[X]/(T)`

and *deg* `_X P < 2n-1`

--- such as would result from multiplying minimal degree lifts of two polynomials in `K[Y]`

. Let `z = P(t,t^{2*n-1})`

be a Kronecker form of `P`

, this function returns `Q\in `

**Z**`[X,t]`

such that `Q`

is congruent to `P(X,t)`

mod `(p, T(X))`

, *deg* `_X Q < n`

, and all coefficients are in `[0,p[`

. Not stack-clean. Note that `t`

need not be the same variable as `Y`

!

`GEN `

**FlxqX_red**`(GEN z, GEN T, ulong p)`

`GEN `

**FlxqX_normalize**`(GEN z, GEN T, ulong p)`

`GEN `

**FlxqX_mul**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN T, ulong p)`

`GEN `

**FlxqX_Flxq_mul**`(GEN P, GEN U, GEN T, ulong p)`

`GEN `

**FlxqX_Flxq_mul_to_monic**`(GEN P, GEN U, GEN T, ulong p)`

returns `P*U`

assuming the result is monic of the same degree as `P`

(in particular `U != 0`

).

`GEN `

**FlxqX_sqr**`(GEN x, GEN T, ulong p)`

`GEN `

**FlxqX_powu**`(GEN x, ulong n, GEN T, ulong p)`

`GEN `

**FlxqX_divrem**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN T, ulong p, GEN *pr)`

`GEN `

**FlxqX_div**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN T, ulong p)`

`GEN `

**FlxqX_rem**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN T, ulong p)`

`GEN `

**FlxqX_invBarrett**`(GEN T, GEN Q, ulong p)`

`GEN `

**FlxqX_gcd**`(GEN x, GEN y, ulong p)`

returns a (not necessarily monic) greatest common divisor of `x`

and `y`

.

`GEN `

**FlxqX_extgcd**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN T, ulong p, GEN *ptu, GEN *ptv)`

`GEN `

**FlxqX_halfgcd**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN T, ulong p)`

, see `FpX_halfgcd`

.

`GEN `

**FlxqXV_prod**`(GEN V, GEN T, ulong p)`

`GEN `

**FlxqX_safegcd**`(GEN P, GEN Q, GEN T, ulong p)`

Returns the *monic* GCD of `P`

and `Q`

if Euclid's algorithm succeeds and `NULL`

otherwise. In particular, if `p`

is not prime or `T`

is not irreducible over **F**`_p[X]`

, the routine may still be used (but will fail if non-invertible leading terms occur).

`GEN `

**FlxqX_Frobenius**`(GEN S, GEN T, GEN p)`

, as `FpXQX_Frobenius`

`GEN `

**FlxqXQ_halfFrobenius**`(GEN A, GEN S, GEN T, GEN p)`

, as `FpXQXQ_halfFrobenius`

`GEN `

**FlxqX_roots**`(GEN f, GEN T, ulong p)`

return the roots of `f`

in **F**`_p[X]/(T)`

. Assumes `p`

is prime and `T`

irreducible in **F**`_p[X]`

.

`GEN `

**FlxqX_factor**`(GEN f, GEN T, ulong p)`

return the factorization of `f`

over **F**`_p[X]/(T)`

. Assumes `p`

is prime and `T`

irreducible in **F**`_p[X]`

.

`long `

**FlxqX_nbroots**`(GEN S, GEN T, GEN p)`

, as `FpX_nbroots`

.

`GEN `

**FlxqX_FlxqXQ_eval**`(GEN Q, GEN x, GEN S, GEN T, ulong p)`

as `FpX_FpXQ_eval`

.

`GEN `

**FlxqX_FlxqXQV_eval**`(GEN P, GEN V, GEN S, GEN T, ulong p)`

as `FpX_FpXQV_eval`

.

`FlxqXQ`

See `FpXQXQ`

operations.

`GEN `

**FlxqXQ_mul**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN S, GEN T, ulong p)`

`GEN `

**FlxqXQ_sqr**`(GEN x, GEN S, GEN T, ulong p)`

`GEN `

**FlxqXQ_inv**`(GEN x, GEN S, GEN T, ulong p)`

`GEN `

**FlxqXQ_invsafe**`(GEN x, GEN S, GEN T, ulong p)`

`GEN `

**FlxqXQ_div**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN S, GEN T, ulong p)`

`GEN `

**FlxqXQ_pow**`(GEN x, GEN n, GEN S, GEN T, ulong p)`

`GEN `

**FlxqXQ_powu**`(GEN x, ulong n, GEN S, GEN T, ulong p)`

`GEN `

**FlxqXQ_powers**`(GEN x, long n, GEN S, GEN T, ulong p)`

`GEN `

**FlxqXQ_matrix_pow**`(GEN x, long n, long m, GEN S, GEN T, ulong p)`

`GEN `

**FlxqXQV_autpow**`(GEN a, long n, GEN S, GEN T, ulong p)`

as `FpXQXQV_autpow`

`GEN `

**FlxqXQV_autsum**`(GEN a, long n, GEN S, GEN T, ulong p)`

as `FpXQXQV_autsum`

`F2x`

An `F2x`

`z`

is a `t_VECSMALL`

representing a polynomial over **F**`_2[X]`

. Specifically `z[0]`

is the usual codeword, `z[1] = evalvarn(v)`

for some variable `v`

and the coefficients are given by the bits of remaining words by increasing degree.

`ulong `

**F2x_coeff**`(GEN x, long i)`

returns the coefficient `i >= 0`

of `x`

.

`void `

**F2x_clear**`(GEN x, long i)`

sets the coefficient `i >= 0`

of `x`

to `0`

.

`void `

**F2x_flip**`(GEN x, long i)`

adds `1`

to the coefficient `i >= 0`

of `x`

.

`void `

**F2x_set**`(GEN x, long i)`

sets the coefficient `i >= 0`

of `x`

to `1`

.

`GEN `

**F2x_copy**`(GEN x)`

`GEN `

**Flx_to_F2x**`(GEN x)`

`GEN `

**Z_to_F2x**`(GEN x, long v)`

`GEN `

**ZX_to_F2x**`(GEN x)`

`GEN `

**F2v_to_F2x**`(GEN x, long sv)`

`GEN `

**F2x_to_Flx**`(GEN x)`

`GEN `

**F2x_to_ZX**`(GEN x)`

`GEN `

**pol0_F2x**`(long sv)`

returns a zero `F2x`

in variable `v`

.

`GEN `

**zero_F2x**`(long sv)`

alias for `pol0_F2x`

.

`GEN `

**pol1_F2x**`(long sv)`

returns the `F2x`

in variable `v`

constant to `1`

.

`GEN `

**polx_F2x**`(long sv)`

returns the variable `v`

as degree 1 `F2x`

.

`GEN `

**monomial_F2x**`(long d, long sv)`

returns the `F2x`

`X^d`

in variable `v`

.

`GEN `

**random_F2x**`(long d, long sv)`

returns a random `F2x`

in variable `v`

, of degree less than `d`

.

`long `

**F2x_degree**`(GEN x)`

returns the degree of the `F2x x`

. The degree of `0`

is defined as `-1`

.

`int `

**F2x_equal1**`(GEN x)`

`int `

**F2x_equal**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

`GEN `

**F2x_1_add**`(GEN y)`

returns `y+1`

where `y`

is a `Flx`

.

`GEN `

**F2x_add**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

`GEN `

**F2x_mul**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

`GEN `

**F2x_sqr**`(GEN x)`

`GEN `

**F2x_divrem**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN *pr)`

`GEN `

**F2x_rem**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

`GEN `

**F2x_div**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

`GEN `

**F2x_renormalize**`(GEN x, long lx)`

`GEN `

**F2x_deriv**`(GEN x)`

`GEN `

**F2x_deflate**`(GEN x, long d)`

`ulong `

**F2x_eval**`(GEN P, ulong u)`

returns `P(u)`

.

`void `

**F2x_shift**`(GEN x, long d)`

as `RgX_shift`

`void `

**F2x_even_odd**`(GEN p, GEN *pe, GEN *po)`

as `RgX_even_odd`

`long `

**F2x_valrem**`(GEN x, GEN *Z)`

`GEN `

**F2x_extgcd**`(GEN a, GEN b, GEN *ptu, GEN *ptv)`

`GEN `

**F2x_gcd**`(GEN a, GEN b)`

`GEN `

**F2x_halfgcd**`(GEN a, GEN b)`

`int `

**F2x_issquare**`(GEN x)`

returns `1`

if `x`

is a square of a `F2x`

and `0`

otherwise.

`int `

**F2x_is_irred**`(GEN f)`

, as `FpX_is_irred`

.

`GEN `

**F2x_degfact**`(GEN f)`

as `FpX_degfact`

.

`GEN `

**F2x_sqrt**`(GEN x)`

returns the squareroot of `x`

, assuming `x`

is a square of a `F2x`

.

`GEN `

**F2x_Frobenius**`(GEN T)`

`GEN `

**F2x_matFrobenius**`(GEN T)`

`GEN `

**F2x_factor**`(GEN f)`

`GEN `

**F2x_factor_squarefree**`(GEN f)`

`F2xq`

See `FpXQ`

operations.

`GEN `

**F2xq_mul**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN pol)`

`GEN `

**F2xq_sqr**`(GEN x,GEN pol)`

`GEN `

**F2xq_div**`(GEN x,GEN y,GEN T)`

`GEN `

**F2xq_inv**`(GEN x, GEN T)`

`GEN `

**F2xq_invsafe**`(GEN x, GEN T)`

`GEN `

**F2xq_pow**`(GEN x, GEN n, GEN pol)`

`GEN `

**F2xq_powu**`(GEN x, ulong n, GEN pol)`

`ulong `

**F2xq_trace**`(GEN x, GEN T)`

`GEN `

**F2xq_conjvec**`(GEN x, GEN T)`

returns the vector of conjugates `[x,x^2,x^{2^2},...,x^{2^{n-1}}]`

where `n`

is the degree of `T`

.

`GEN `

**F2xq_log**`(GEN a, GEN g, GEN ord, GEN T)`

`GEN `

**F2xq_order**`(GEN a, GEN ord, GEN T)`

`GEN `

**F2xq_Artin_Schreier**`(GEN a, GEN T)`

returns a solution of `x^2+x = a`

, assuming it exists.

`GEN `

**F2xq_sqrt**`(GEN a, GEN T)`

`GEN `

**F2xq_sqrt_fast**`(GEN a, GEN s, GEN T)`

assuming that `s^2 = x (mod T(x))`

, computes `b = a(s) (mod T)`

so that `b^2 = a`

.

`GEN `

**F2xq_sqrtn**`(GEN a, GEN n, GEN T, GEN *zeta)`

`GEN `

**gener_F2xq**`(GEN T, GEN *po)`

`GEN `

**F2xq_powers**`(GEN x, long n, GEN T)`

`GEN `

**F2xq_matrix_pow**`(GEN x, long m, long n, GEN T)`

`GEN `

**F2x_F2xq_eval**`(GEN f, GEN x, GEN T)`

`GEN `

**F2x_F2xqV_eval**`(GEN f, GEN x, GEN T)`

, see `FpX_FpXQV_eval`

.

`GEN `

**F2xq_autpow**`(GEN a, long n, GEN T)`

computes *sigma*`^n(X)`

assuming `a = `

*sigma*`(X)`

where *sigma* is an automorphism of the algebra **F**`_2[X]/T(X)`

.

`F2xqV`

, `F2xqM`

.See `FqV`

, `FqM`

operations.

`GEN `

**F2xqM_F2xqC_mul**`(GEN a, GEN b, GEN T)`

`GEN `

**F2xqM_ker**`(GEN x, GEN T)`

`GEN `

**F2xqM_det**`(GEN a, GEN T)`

`GEN `

**F2xqM_image**`(GEN x, GEN T)`

`GEN `

**F2xqM_inv**`(GEN a, GEN T)`

`GEN `

**F2xqM_mul**`(GEN a, GEN b, GEN T)`

`long `

**F2xqM_rank**`(GEN x, GEN T)`

`GEN `

**matid_F2xqM**`(long n, GEN T)`

`F2xX`

.See `FpXX`

operations.

`GEN `

**ZXX_to_F2xX**`(GEN x, long v)`

`GEN `

**FlxX_to_F2xX**`(GEN x)`

`GEN `

**F2xX_to_ZXX**`(GEN B)`

`GEN `

**F2xX_renormalize**`(GEN x, long lx)`

`long `

**F2xY_degreex**`(GEN P)`

return the degree of `P`

with respect to the secondary variable.

`GEN `

**pol1_F2xX**`(long v, long sv)`

`GEN `

**polx_F2xX**`(long v, long sv)`

`GEN `

**F2xX_add**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

`GEN `

**F2xX_F2x_mul**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

`GEN `

**F2xX_deriv**`(GEN P)`

returns the derivative of `P`

with respect to the main variable.

`GEN `

**Kronecker_to_F2xqX**`(GEN z, GEN T)`

`GEN `

**F2xX_to_Kronecker**`(GEN z, GEN T)`

`GEN `

**F2xY_F2xq_evalx**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN T)`

as `FpXY_FpXQ_evalx`

.

`GEN `

**F2xY_F2xqV_evalx**`(GEN x, GEN V, GEN T)`

as `FpXY_FpXQV_evalx`

.

`F2xXV/F2xXC`

.See `FpXXV`

operations.

`GEN `

**FlxXC_to_F2xXC**`(GEN B)`

`GEN `

**F2xXC_to_ZXXC**`(GEN B)`

`F2xqX`

.See `FlxqX`

operations.

`GEN `

**random_F2xqX**`(long d, long v, GEN T, ulong p)`

returns a random `F2xqX`

in variable `v`

, of degree less than `d`

.

`GEN `

**F2xqX_red**`(GEN z, GEN T)`

`GEN `

**F2xqX_normalize**`(GEN z, GEN T)`

`GEN `

**F2xqX_F2xq_mul**`(GEN P, GEN U, GEN T)`

`GEN `

**F2xqX_F2xq_mul_to_monic**`(GEN P, GEN U, GEN T)`

`GEN `

**F2xqX_mul**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN T)`

`GEN `

**F2xqX_sqr**`(GEN x, GEN T)`

`GEN `

**F2xqX_rem**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN T)`

`GEN `

**F2xqX_div**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN T)`

`GEN `

**F2xqX_divrem**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN T, GEN *pr)`

`GEN `

**F2xqX_gcd**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN T)`

`GEN `

**F2xqX_F2xqXQ_eval**`(GEN Q, GEN x, GEN S, GEN T)`

as `FpX_FpXQ_eval`

.

`GEN `

**F2xqX_F2xqXQV_eval**`(GEN P, GEN V, GEN S, GEN T)`

as `FpX_FpXQV_eval`

.

`GEN `

**F2xqX_roots**`(GEN f, GEN T)`

return the roots of `f`

in **F**`_2[X]/(T)`

. Assumes `T`

irreducible in **F**`_2[X]`

.

`GEN `

**F2xqX_factor**`(GEN f, GEN T)`

return the factorisation of `f`

over **F**`_2[X]/(T)`

. Assumes `T`

irreducible in **F**`_2[X]`

.

`F2xqXQ`

.See `FlxqXQ`

operations.

`GEN `

**F2xqXQ_mul**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN S, GEN T)`

`GEN `

**F2xqXQ_sqr**`(GEN x, GEN S, GEN T)`

`GEN `

**F2xqXQ_pow**`(GEN x, GEN n, GEN S, GEN T)`

`GEN `

**F2xqXQ_powers**`(GEN x, long n, GEN S, GEN T)`

`GEN `

**F2xqXQV_autpow**`(GEN a, long n, GEN S, GEN T)`

as `FpXQXQV_autpow`

`GEN `

**F2xqXQV_auttrace**`(GEN a, long n, GEN S, GEN T)`

. Let *sigma* be the automorphism defined by *sigma*`(X) = a[1] (mod T(X))`

and *sigma*`(Y) = a[2] (mod S(X,Y),T(X))`

; returns the vector `[`

*sigma*`^n(X),`

*sigma*`^n(Y),b+`

*sigma*`(b)+...+`

*sigma*`^{n-1}(b)]`

where `b = a[3]`

.

`t_INTMOD`

coefficientsThose functions are mostly needed for interface reasons: `t_INTMOD`

s should not be used in library mode since the modular kernel is more flexible and more efficient, but GP users do not have access to the modular kernel. We document them for completeness:

`GEN `

**Fp_to_mod**`(GEN z, GEN p)`

, `z`

a `t_INT`

. Returns `z * Mod(1,p)`

, normalized. Hence the returned value is a `t_INTMOD`

.

`GEN `

**FpX_to_mod**`(GEN z, GEN p)`

, `z`

a `ZX`

. Returns `z * Mod(1,p)`

, normalized. Hence the returned value has `t_INTMOD`

coefficients.

`GEN `

**FpC_to_mod**`(GEN z, GEN p)`

, `z`

a `ZC`

. Returns `Col(z) * Mod(1,p)`

, a `t_COL`

with `t_INTMOD`

coefficients.

`GEN `

**FpV_to_mod**`(GEN z, GEN p)`

, `z`

a `ZV`

. Returns `Vec(z) * Mod(1,p)`

, a `t_VEC`

with `t_INTMOD`

coefficients.

`GEN `

**FpVV_to_mod**`(GEN z, GEN p)`

, `z`

a `ZVV`

. Returns `Vec(z) * Mod(1,p)`

, a `t_VEC`

of `t_VEC`

with `t_INTMOD`

coefficients.

`GEN `

**FpM_to_mod**`(GEN z, GEN p)`

, `z`

a `ZM`

. Returns `z * Mod(1,p)`

, with `t_INTMOD`

coefficients.

`GEN `

**F2c_to_mod**`(GEN x)`

`GEN `

**F2m_to_mod**`(GEN x)`

`GEN `

**Flc_to_mod**`(GEN z)`

`GEN `

**Flm_to_mod**`(GEN z)`

`GEN `

**FpXQC_to_mod**`(GEN V, GEN T, GEN p)`

`V`

being a vector of `FpXQ`

, converts each entry to a `t_POLMOD`

with `t_INTMOD`

coefficients, and return a `t_COL`

.

`GEN `

**QXQV_to_mod**`(GEN V, GEN T)`

`V`

a vector of `QXQ`

, which are lifted representatives of elements of **Q**`[X]/(T)`

(number field elements in most applications) and `T`

is in **Z**`[X]`

. Return a vector where all non-rational entries are converted to `t_POLMOD`

modulo `T`

; no reduction mod `T`

is attempted: the representatives should be already reduced. Used to normalize the output of `nfroots`

.

`GEN `

**QXQXV_to_mod**`(GEN V, GEN T)`

`V`

a vector of polynomials whose coefficients are `QXQ`

. Analogous to `QXQV_to_mod`

. Used to normalize the output of `nffactor`

.

`GEN `

**QXQX_to_mod_shallow**`(GEN z, GEN T)`

`v`

a polynomial with `QXQ`

coefficients; replace them by `mkpolmod(.,T)`

. Shallow function.

The following functions are obsolete and should not be used: they receive a polynomial with arbitrary coefficients, apply `RgX_to_FpX`

, a function from the modular kernel, then `*_to_mod`

:

`GEN `

**rootmod**`(GEN f, GEN p)`

, applies `FpX_roots`

.

`GEN `

**rootmod2**`(GEN f, GEN p)`

, applies `ZX_to_flx`

then `Flx_roots_naive`

.

`GEN `

**factmod**`(GEN f, GEN p)`

applies `FpX_factor`

.

`GEN `

**simplefactmod**`(GEN f, GEN p)`

applies `FpX_degfact`

.

`GEN `

**Z_chinese**`(GEN a, GEN b, GEN A, GEN B)`

returns the integer in `[0, `

*lcm* `(A,B)[`

congruent to `a`

mod `A`

and `b`

mod `B`

, assuming it exists; in other words, that `a`

and `b`

are congruent mod *gcd* `(A,B)`

.

`GEN `

**Z_chinese_all**`(GEN a, GEN b, GEN A, GEN B, GEN *pC)`

as `Z_chinese`

, setting `*pC`

to the lcm of `A`

and `B`

.

`GEN `

**Z_chinese_coprime**`(GEN a, GEN b, GEN A, GEN B, GEN C)`

, as `Z_chinese`

, assuming that *gcd* `(A,B) = 1`

and that `C = `

*lcm* `(A,B) = AB`

.

`void `

**Z_chinese_pre**`(GEN A, GEN B, GEN *pC, GEN *pU, GEN *pd)`

initializes chinese remainder computations modulo `A`

and `B`

. Sets `*pC`

to *lcm* `(A,B)`

, `*pd`

to *gcd* `(A,B)`

, `*pU`

to an integer congruent to `0`

mod `(A/d)`

and `1`

mod `(B/d)`

. It is allowed to set `pd = NULL`

, in which case, `d`

is still computed, but not saved.

`GEN `

**Z_chinese_post**`(GEN a, GEN b, GEN C, GEN U, GEN d)`

returns the solution to the chinese remainder problem `x`

congruent to `a`

mod `A`

and `b`

mod `B`

, where `C, U, d`

were set in `Z_chinese_pre`

. If `d`

is `NULL`

, assume the problem has a solution. Otherwise, return `NULL`

if it has no solution.

`GEN `

**ZV_producttree**`(GEN x)`

where `x`

are vectors of integer (or `t_VECSMALL`

s) of length `n >= 1`

, return the vector of `t_VEC`

s `[f(x),f^2(x),...,f^k(x)]`

where `f`

is the transformation `[a_1,a_2,...,a_m] :--->[a_1 a_2,a_3 a_4,...,a_{m-1} a_m]`

if `m`

is even and `[a_1 a_2,a_3 a4,...,a_{m-2} a_{m-1},a_m]`

if `m`

is odd, and `k`

is chosen so that `f^k(x)`

is of length `1`

(This is the vector `[a_1 a_2 ldots a_m]`

).

`GEN `

**ZV_chinese**`(GEN A, GEN P, GEN *pt_mod)`

where `A`

and `P`

are vectors of integer (or `t_VECSMALL`

s) of the same length `n >= 1`

, the elements of `P`

being pairwise coprime, and `M`

being the product of the elements of `P`

, returns the integer in `[0, M[`

congruent to `A[i]`

mod `P[i]`

for all `1 <= i <= n`

. If `pt_mod`

is not `NULL`

, set `*pt_mod`

to `M`

`GEN `

**ZV_chinese_tree**`(GEN A, GEN P, GEN T, GEN *pt_mod)`

as `ZV_chinese`

, where `T`

is assumed to be the tree created by `ZV_producttree(P)`

.

`GEN `

**ncV_chinese_center**`(GEN A, GEN P, GEN *pt_mod)`

where `A`

is a vector of `VECSMALL`

s (seen as vectors of unsigned integers) and `P`

a `t_VECSMALL`

of the same length `n >= 1`

, the elements of `P`

being pairwise coprime, and `M`

being the product of the elements of `P`

, returns the `t_COL`

whose entries are integers in `[-M/2, M/2[`

congruent to `A[i]`

mod `P[i]`

for all `1 <= i <= n`

. If `pt_mod`

is not `NULL`

, set `*pt_mod`

to `M`

.

`GEN `

**nmV_chinese_center**`(GEN A, GEN P, GEN *pt_mod)`

where `A`

is a vector of `MATSMALL`

s (seen as matrices of unsigned integers) and `P`

a `t_VECSMALL`

of the same length `n >= 1`

, the elements of `P`

being pairwise coprime, and `M`

being the product of the elements of `P`

, returns the matrix whose entries are integers in `[-M/2, M/2[`

congruent to `A[i]`

mod `P[i]`

for all `1 <= i <= n`

. If `pt_mod`

is not `NULL`

, set `*pt_mod`

to `M`

. NB: this function uses the parallel GP interface.

`GEN `

**Z_ZV_mod**`(GEN A, GEN P)`

`P`

being a vector of integers of length `n >= 1`

, the elements of `P`

being pairwise coprime, return a vector `B`

of the same length such that `B[i] = A (mod P[i])`

and `0 <= B[i] < P[i]`

for all `1 <= i <= n`

.

`GEN `

**Z_nv_mod**`(GEN A, GEN P)`

`P`

being a `t_VECSMALL`

of length `n >= 1`

, the elements of `P`

being pairwise coprime, return a `t_VECSMALL`

`B`

of the same length such that `B[i] = A (mod P[i])`

and `0 <= B[i] < P[i]`

for all `1 <= i <= n`

. The entries of `P`

and `B`

are treated as `ulong`

s.

`GEN `

**ZX_nv_mod_tree**`(GEN A, GEN P, GEN T)`

`A`

being a `ZX`

and `P`

a `t_VECSMALL`

of length `n >= 1`

, the elements of `P`

being pairwise coprime, return the vector of `Flx`

`[A (mod P[1]),...,A (mod P[n])]`

, where `T`

is assumed to be the tree created by `ZV_producttree(P)`

.

The following pair of functions is used in homomorphic imaging schemes, when reconstructing an integer from its images modulo pairwise coprime integers. The idea is as follows: we want to discover an integer `H`

which satisfies `|H| < B`

for some known bound `B`

; we are given pairs `(H_p, p)`

with `H`

congruent to `H_p`

mod `p`

and all `p`

pairwise coprime.

Given `H`

congruent to `H_p`

modulo a number of `p`

, whose product is `q`

, and a new pair `(Hp, p)`

, `p`

coprime to `q`

, the following incremental functions use the chinese remainder theorem (CRT) to find a new `H`

, congruent to the preceding one modulo `q`

, but also to `Hp`

modulo `p`

. It is defined uniquely modulo `qp`

, and we choose the centered representative. When `P`

is larger than `2B`

, we have `H = H`

, but of course, the value of `H`

may stabilize sooner. In many applications it is possible to directly check that such a partial result is correct.

`GEN `

**Z_init_CRT**`(ulong Hp, ulong p)`

given a `Fl`

`Hp`

in `[0, p-1]`

, returns the centered representative `H`

congruent to `Hp`

modulo `p`

.

`int `

**Z_incremental_CRT**`(GEN *H, ulong Hp, GEN *q, ulong p)`

given a `t_INT`

`*H`

, centered modulo `*q`

, a new pair `(Hp, p)`

with `p`

coprime to `q`

, this function updates `*H`

so that it also becomes congruent to `(Hp, p)`

, and `*q`

to the product`qp = p.*q`

. It returns `1`

if the new value is equal to the old one, and `0`

otherwise.

`GEN `

**chinese1_coprime_Z**`(GEN v)`

an alternative divide-and-conquer implementation: `v`

is a vector of `t_INTMOD`

with pairwise coprime moduli. Return the `t_INTMOD`

solving the corresponding chinese remainder problem. This is a streamlined version of

`GEN `

**chinese1**`(GEN v)`

, which solves a general chinese remainder problem (not necessarily over **Z**, moduli not assumed coprime).

As above, for `H`

a `ZM`

: we assume that `H`

and all `Hp`

have dimension ` > 0`

. The original `*H`

is destroyed.

`GEN `

**ZM_init_CRT**`(GEN Hp, ulong p)`

`int `

**ZM_incremental_CRT**`(GEN *H, GEN Hp, GEN *q, ulong p)`

As above for `H`

a `ZX`

: note that the degree may increase or decrease. The original `*H`

is destroyed.

`GEN `

**ZX_init_CRT**`(GEN Hp, ulong p, long v)`

`int `

**ZX_incremental_CRT**`(GEN *H, GEN Hp, GEN *q, ulong p)`

`int `

**Fp_ratlift**`(GEN x, GEN m, GEN amax, GEN bmax, GEN *a, GEN *b)`

. Assuming that `0 <= x < m`

, `amax >= 0`

, and `bmax > 0`

are `t_INT`

s, and that `2 amax bmax < m`

, attempts to recognize `x`

as a rational `a/b`

, i.e. to find `t_INT`

s `a`

and `b`

such that

@3***** `a = b x`

modulo `m`

,

@3***** `|a| <= amax`

, `0 < b <= bmax`

,

@3***** *gcd* `(m,b) = `

*gcd* `(a,b)`

.

@3If unsuccessful, the routine returns `0`

and leaves `a`

, `b`

unchanged; otherwise it returns `1`

and sets `a`

and `b`

.

In almost all applications, we actually know that a solution exists, as well as a non-zero multiple `B`

of `b`

, and `m = p^`

*ell* is a prime power, for a prime `p`

chosen coprime to `B`

hence to `b`

. Under the single assumption *gcd* `(m,b) = 1`

, if a solution `a,b`

exists satisfying the three conditions above, then it is unique.

`GEN `

**FpM_ratlift**`(GEN M, GEN m, GEN amax, GEN bmax, GEN denom)`

given an `FpM`

modulo `m`

with reduced or `Fp_center`

-ed entries, reconstructs a matrix with rational coefficients by applying `Fp_ratlift`

to all entries. Assume that all preconditions for `Fp_ratlift`

are satisfied, as well *gcd* `(m,b) = 1`

(so that the solution is unique if it exists). Return `NULL`

if the reconstruction fails, and the rational matrix otherwise. If `denom`

is not `NULL`

check further that all denominators divide `denom`

.

The functions is not stack clean if one coefficients of `M`

is negative (centered residues), but still suitable for `gerepileupto`

.

`GEN `

**FpX_ratlift**`(GEN P, GEN m, GEN amax, GEN bmax, GEN denom)`

as `FpM_ratlift`

, where `P`

is an `FpX`

.

`GEN `

**FpC_ratlift**`(GEN P, GEN m, GEN amax, GEN bmax, GEN denom)`

as `FpM_ratlift`

, where `P`

is an `FpC`

.

`GEN `

**Zp_sqrt**`(GEN b, GEN p, long e)`

`b`

and `p`

being `t_INT`

s, with `p`

a prime (possibly `2`

), returns a `t_INT`

`a`

such that `a^2 = b mod p^e`

.

`GEN `

**Z2_sqrt**`(GEN b, long e)`

`b`

being a `t_INT`

s returns a `t_INT`

`a`

such that `a^2 = b mod 2^e`

.

`GEN `

**Zp_sqrtlift**`(GEN b, GEN a, GEN p, long e)`

let `a,b,p`

be `t_INT`

s, with `p > 1`

odd, such that `a^2 = b mod p`

. Returns a `t_INT`

`A`

such that `A^2 = b mod p^e`

. Special case of `Zp_sqrtnlift`

.

`GEN `

**Zp_sqrtnlift**`(GEN b, GEN n, GEN a, GEN p, long e)`

let `a,b,n,p`

be `t_INT`

s, with `n,p > 1`

, and `p`

coprime to `n`

, such that `a^n = b mod p`

. Returns a `t_INT`

`A`

such that `A^n = b mod p^e`

. Special case of `ZpX_liftroot`

.

`GEN `

**Zp_teichmuller**`(GEN x, GEN p, long e, GEN pe)`

for `p`

an odd prime, `x`

a `t_INT`

coprime to `p`

, and `pe = p^e`

, returns the `(p-1)`

-th root of `1`

congruent to `x`

modulo `p`

, modulo `p^e`

. For convenience, `p = 2`

is also allowed and we return `1`

(`x`

is `1`

mod `4`

) or `2^e - 1`

(`x`

is `3`

mod `4`

).

`GEN `

**teichmullerinit**`(long p, long n)`

returns the values of `Zp_teichmuller`

at all `x = 1,..., p-1`

.

`GEN `

**ZpX_roots**`(GEN f, GEN p, long e)`

`f`

a `ZX`

with leading term prime to `p`

, and without multiple roots mod `p`

. Return a vector of `t_INT`

s which are the roots of `f`

mod `p^e`

.

`GEN `

**ZpX_liftroot**`(GEN f, GEN a, GEN p, long e)`

`f`

a `ZX`

with leading term prime to `p`

, and `a`

a root mod `p`

such that `v_p(f'(a)) = 0`

. Return a `t_INT`

which is the root of `f`

mod `p^e`

congruent to `a`

mod `p`

.

`GEN `

**ZX_Zp_root**`(GEN f, GEN a, GEN p, long e)`

same as `ZpX_liftroot`

without the assumption `v_p(f'(a)) = 0`

. Return a `t_VEC`

of `t_INT`

s, which are the `p`

-adic roots of `f`

congruent to `a`

mod `p`

(given modulo `p^e`

).

`GEN `

**ZpX_liftroots**`(GEN f, GEN S, GEN p, long e)`

`f`

a `ZX`

with leading term prime to `p`

, and `S`

a vector of simple roots mod `p`

. Return a vector of `t_INT`

s which are the root of `f`

mod `p^e`

congruent to the `S[i]`

mod `p`

.

`GEN `

**ZpX_liftfact**`(GEN A, GEN B, GEN pe, GEN p, long e)`

is the routine underlying `polhensellift`

. Here, `p`

is prime defines a finite field **F**`_p`

. `A`

is a polynomial in **Z**`[X]`

, whose leading coefficient is non-zero in **F**`_q`

. `B`

is a vector of monic `FpX`

, pairwise coprime in **F**`_p[X]`

, whose product is congruent to `A/lc(A)`

in **F**`_p[X]`

. Lifts the elements of `B`

mod `pe = p^e`

.

`GEN `

**ZpX_Frobenius**`(GEN T, GEN p, ulong e)`

returns the `p`

-adic lift of the Frobenius automorphism of **F**`_p[X]/(T)`

to precision `e`

.

`long `

**ZpX_disc_val**`(GEN f, GEN p)`

returns the valuation at `p`

of the discriminant of `f`

. Assume that `f`

is a monic *separable* `ZX`

and that `p`

is a prime number. Proceeds by dynamically increasing the `p`

-adic accuracy; infinite loop if the discriminant of `f`

is `0`

.

`long `

**ZpX_resultant_val**`(GEN f, GEN g, GEN p, long M)`

returns the valuation at `p`

of `Res(f,g)`

. Assume `f,g`

are both `ZX`

, and that `p`

is a prime number coprime to the leading coefficient of `f`

. Proceeds by dynamically increasing the `p`

-adic accuracy. To avoid an infinite loop when the resultant is `0`

, we return `M`

if the Sylvester matrix mod `p^M`

still does not have maximal rank.

`GEN `

**ZpX_gcd**`(GEN f,GEN g, GEN p, GEN pm)`

`f`

a monic `ZX`

, `g`

a `ZX`

, `pm = p^m`

a prime power. There is a unique integer `r >= 0`

and a monic `h\in `

**Q**`_p[X]`

such that

`p^rh`

**Z**`_p[X] + p^m`

**Z**`_p[X] = f`

**Z**`_p[X] + g`

**Z**`_p[X] + p^m`

**Z**`_p[X].`

Return the `0`

polynomial if `r >= m`

and a monic `h\in`

**Z**`[1/p][X]`

otherwise (whose valuation at `p`

is ` > -m`

).

`GEN `

**ZpX_reduced_resultant**`(GEN f, GEN g, GEN p, GEN pm)`

`f`

a monic `ZX`

, `g`

a `ZX`

, `pm = p^m`

a prime power. The `p`

-adic *reduced resultant*\varsidx{resultant (reduced)} of `f`

and `g`

is `0`

if `f`

, `g`

not coprime in **Z**`_p[X]`

, and otherwise the generator of the form `p^d`

of

` (f`

**Z**`_p[X] + g`

**Z**`_p[X])`

*cap* **Z**`_p. `

Return the reduced resultant modulo `p^m`

.

`GEN `

**ZpX_reduced_resultant_fast**`(GEN f, GEN g, GEN p, long M)`

`f`

a monic `ZX`

, `g`

a `ZX`

, `p`

a prime. Returns the `p`

-adic reduced resultant of `f`

and `g`

modulo `p^M`

. This function computes resultants for a sequence of increasing `p`

-adic accuracies (up to `M`

`p`

-adic digits), returning as soon as it obtains a non-zero result. It is very inefficient when the resultant is `0`

, but otherwise usually more efficient than computations using a priori bounds.

`GEN `

**ZpX_monic_factor**`(GEN f, GEN p, long M)`

`f`

a monic `ZX`

, `p`

a primer, return the `p`

-adic factorization of `f`

, modulo `p^M`

. This is the underlying low-level recursive function behind `factorpadic`

(using a combination of Round 4 factorization and Hensel lifting); the factors are not sorted and the function is not `gerepile`

-clean.

`GEN `

**ZpXQ_invlift**`(GEN b, GEN a, GEN T, GEN p, long e)`

let `p`

be a prime `t_INT`

and `a,b`

be `FpXQ`

s (modulo `T`

) such that `a b = 1 mod (p,T)`

. Returns an `FpXQ`

`A`

such that `A b = 1 mod (p^e, T)`

. Special case of `ZpXQ_liftroot`

.

`GEN `

**ZpXQ_inv**`(GEN b, GEN T, GEN p, long e)`

let `p`

be a prime `t_INT`

and `b`

be a `FpXQ`

(modulo `T, p^e`

). Returns an `FpXQ`

`A`

such that `A b = 1 mod (p^e, T)`

.

`GEN `

**ZpXQ_div**`(GEN a, GEN b, GEN T, GEN q, GEN p, long e)`

let `p`

be a prime `t_INT`

and `a`

and `b`

be a `FpXQ`

(modulo `T, p^e`

). Returns an `FpXQ`

`c`

such that `c b = a mod (p^e, T)`

. The parameter `q`

must be equal to `p^e`

.

`GEN `

**ZpXQ_sqrtnlift**`(GEN b, GEN n, GEN a, GEN T, GEN p, long e)`

let `n,p`

be `t_INT`

s, with `n,p > 1`

and `p`

coprime to `n`

, and `a,b`

be `FpXQ`

s (modulo `T`

) such that `a^n = b mod (p,T)`

. Returns an `Fq`

`A`

such that `A^n = b mod (p^e, T)`

. Special case of `ZpXQ_liftroot`

.

`GEN `

**ZpXQ_sqrt**`(GEN b, GEN T, GEN p, long e)`

let `p`

being a odd prime and `b`

be a `FpXQ`

(modulo `T, p^e`

), returns `a`

such that `a^2 = b mod (p^e, T)`

.

`GEN `

**ZpX_ZpXQ_liftroot**`(GEN f, GEN a, GEN T, GEN p, long e)`

as `ZpXQX_liftroot`

, but `f`

is a polynomial in **Z**`[X]`

.

`GEN `

**ZpX_ZpXQ_liftroot_ea**`(GEN f, GEN a, GEN T, GEN p, long e, void *E, int early(void *E, GEN x, GEN q))`

as `ZpX_ZpXQ_liftroot`

with early abort: the function `early(E,x,q)`

will be called with `x`

is a root of `f`

modulo `q = p^n`

for some `n`

. If `early`

returns a non-zero value, the function returns `x`

immediately.

`GEN `

**ZpXQ_log**`(GEN a, GEN T, GEN p, long e)`

`T`

being a `ZpX`

irreducible modulo `p`

, return the logarithm of `a`

in **Z**`_p[X]/(T)`

to precision `e`

, assuming that `a = 1 (mod p`

**Z**`_p[X])`

if `p`

odd or `a = 1 (mod 4`

**Z**`_2[X])`

if `p = 2`

.

`GEN `

**Zq_sqrtnlift**`(GEN b, GEN n, GEN a, GEN T, GEN p, long e)`

`GEN `

**ZpXQM_prodFrobenius**`(GEN M, GEN T, GEN p, long e)`

returns the product of matrices `M `

*sigma*`(M) `

*sigma*`^2(M)...`

*sigma*`^{n-1}(M)`

to precision `e`

where *sigma* is the lift of the Frobenius automorphism over **Z**`_p[X]/(T)`

and `n`

is the degree of `T`

.

`GEN `

**ZpXQX_liftfact**`(GEN A, GEN B, GEN T, GEN pe, GEN p, long e)`

is the routine underlying `polhensellift`

. Here, `p`

is prime, `T(Y)`

defines a finite field **F**`_q`

. `A`

is a polynomial in **Z**`[X,Y]`

, whose leading coefficient is non-zero in **F**`_q`

. `B`

is a vector of monic or `FqX`

, pairwise coprime in **F**`_q[X]`

, whose product is congruent to `A/lc(A)`

in **F**`_q[X]`

. Lifts the elements of `B`

mod `pe = p^e`

, such that the congruence now holds mod `(T,p^e)`

.

`GEN `

**ZpXQX_liftroot**`(GEN f, GEN a, GEN T, GEN p, long e)`

as `ZpX_liftroot`

, but `f`

is now a polynomial in **Z**`[X,Y]`

and lift the root `a`

in the unramified extension of **Q**`_p`

with residue field **F**`_p[Y]/(T)`

, assuming `v_p(f(a)) > 0`

and `v_p(f'(a)) = 0`

.

`GEN `

**ZpXQX_liftroot_vald**`(GEN f, GEN a, long v, GEN T, GEN p, long e)`

returns the foots of `f`

as `ZpXQX_liftroot`

, where `v`

is the valuation of the content of `f'`

and it is required that `v_p(f(a)) > v`

and `v_p(f'(a)) = v`

.

`GEN `

**ZpXQX_roots**`(GEN F, GEN T, GEN p, long e)`

`GEN `

**ZpXQX_divrem**`(GEN x, GEN Sp, GEN T,GEN q,GEN p,long e, GEN *pr)`

as `FpXQX_divrem`

. The parameter `q`

must be equal to `p^e`

.

`GEN `

**ZpXQX_digits**`(GEN x, GEN B, GEN T, GEN q, GEN p, long e)`

As `FpXQX_digits`

. The parameter `q`

must be equal to `p^e`

.

`GEN `

**ZqX_roots**`(GEN F, GEN T, GEN p, long e)`

`GEN `

**ZqX_liftfact**`(GEN A, GEN B, GEN T, GEN pe, GEN p, long e)`

`GEN `

**ZqX_liftroot**`(GEN f, GEN a, GEN T, GEN p, long e)`

`p`

-adic functions`GEN `

**ZpM_echelon**`(GEN M, long early_abort, GEN p, GEN pm)`

given a `ZM`

`M`

, a prime `p`

and `pm = p^m`

, returns an echelon form `E`

for `M`

mod `p^m`

. I.e. there exist a square integral matrix `U`

with *det* ` U`

coprime to `p`

such that `E = MU`

modulo `p^m`

. I `early_abort`

is non-zero, return NULL as soon as one pivot in the echelon form is divisible by `p^m`

. The echelon form is an upper triangular HNF, we do not waste time to reduce it to Gauss-Jordan form.

`GEN `

**zlm_echelon**`(GEN M, long early_abort, ulong p, ulong pm)`

variant of `ZpM_echelon`

, for a `Zlm`

`M`

.

`GEN `

**ZlM_gauss**`(GEN a, GEN b, ulong p, long e, GEN C)`

as `gauss`

with the following peculiarities: `a`

and `b`

are `ZM`

, such that `a`

is invertible modulo `p`

. Optional `C`

is an `Flm`

that is an inverse of `a mod p`

or `NULL`

. Return the matrix `x`

such that `ax = b mod p^e`

and all elements of `x`

are in `[0,p^e-1]`

. For efficiency, it is better to reduce `a`

and `b`

mod `p^e`

first.

`GEN `

**padic_to_Q**`(GEN x)`

truncate the `t_PADIC`

to a `t_INT`

or `t_FRAC`

.

`GEN `

**padic_to_Q_shallow**`(GEN x)`

shallow version of `padic_to_Q`

`GEN `

**QpV_to_QV**`(GEN v)`

apply `padic_to_Q_shallow`

`long `

**padicprec**`(GEN x, GEN p)`

returns the absolute `p`

-adic precision of the object `x`

, by definition the minimum precision of the components of `x`

. For a non-zero `t_PADIC`

, this returns `valp(x) + precp(x)`

.

`long `

**padicprec_relative**`(GEN x)`

returns the relative `p`

-adic precision of the `t_INT`

, `t_FRAC`

, or `t_PADIC`

`x`

(minimum precision of the components of `x`

for `t_POL`

or vector/matrices). For a `t_PADIC`

, this returns `precp(x)`

if `x != 0`

, and `0`

for `x = 0`

.

The following technical function returns an optimal sequence of `p`

-adic accuracies, for a given target accuracy:

`ulong `

**quadratic_prec_mask**`(long n)`

we want to reach accuracy `n >= 1`

, starting from accuracy 1, using a quadratically convergent, self-correcting, algorithm; in other words, from inputs correct to accuracy `l`

one iteration outputs a result correct to accuracy `2l`

. For instance, to reach `n = 9`

, we want to use accuracies `[1,2,3,5,9]`

instead of `[1,2,4,8,9]`

. The idea is to essentially double the accuracy at each step, and not overshoot in the end.

Let `a_0`

= 1, `a_1 = 2,..., a_k = n`

, be the desired sequence of accuracies. To obtain it, we work backwards and set

` a_k = n, a_{i-1} = (a_i + 1)\2.`

This is in essence what the function returns. But we do not want to store the `a_i`

explicitly, even as a `t_VECSMALL`

, since this would leave an object on the stack. Instead, we store `a_i`

implicitly in a bitmask `MASK`

: let `a_0 = 1`

, if the `i`

-th bit of the mask is set, set `a_{i+1} = 2a_i - 1`

, and `2a_i`

otherwise; in short the bits indicate the places where we do something special and do not quite double the accuracy (which would be the straightforward thing to do).

In fact, to avoid returning separately the mask and the sequence length `k+1`

, the function returns `MASK + 2^{k+1}`

, so the highest bit of the mask indicates the length of the sequence, and the following ones give an algorithm to obtain the accuracies. This is much simpler than it sounds, here is what it looks like in practice:

```
ulong mask = quadratic_prec_mask(n);
long l = 1;
while (mask > 1) { /* here, the result is known to accuracy l */
l = 2*l; if (mask & 1) l--; /* new accuracy l for the iteration */
mask >>= 1; /* pop low order bit */
/* ... lift to the new accuracy ... */
}
/* we are done. At this point l = n */
```

@3We just pop the bits in `mask`

starting from the low order bits, stop when `mask`

is `1`

(that last bit corresponds to the `2^{k+1}`

that we added to the mask proper). Note that there is nothing specific to Hensel lifts in that function: it would work equally well for an Archimedean Newton iteration.

Note that in practice, we rather use an infinite loop, and insert an

` if (mask == 1) break;`

@3in the middle of the loop: the loop body usually includes preparations for the next iterations (e.g. lifting Bezout coefficients in a quadratic Hensel lift), which are costly and useless in the *last* iteration.

`ulong `

**Rg_to_Fl**`(GEN z, ulong p)`

, `z`

which can be mapped to **Z**`/p`

**Z**: a `t_INT`

, a `t_INTMOD`

whose modulus is divisible by `p`

, a `t_FRAC`

whose denominator is coprime to `p`

, or a `t_PADIC`

with underlying prime *ell* satisfying `p = `

*ell*`^n`

for some `n`

(less than the accuracy of the input). Returns `lift(z * Mod(1,p))`

, normalized, as an `Fl`

.

`ulong `

**Rg_to_F2**`(GEN z)`

, as `Rg_to_Fl`

for `p = 2`

.

`ulong `

**padic_to_Fl**`(GEN x, ulong p)`

special case of `Rg_to_Fl`

, for a `x`

a `t_PADIC`

.

`GEN `

**RgX_to_F2x**`(GEN x)`

, `x`

a `t_POL`

, returns the `F2x`

obtained by applying `Rg_to_Fl`

coefficientwise.

`GEN `

**RgX_to_Flx**`(GEN x, ulong p)`

, `x`

a `t_POL`

, returns the `Flx`

obtained by applying `Rg_to_Fl`

coefficientwise.

`GEN `

**Rg_to_F2xq**`(GEN z, GEN T)`

, `z`

a `GEN`

which can be mapped to **F**`_2[X]/(T)`

: anything `Rg_to_Fl`

can be applied to, a `t_POL`

to which `RgX_to_F2x`

can be applied to, a `t_POLMOD`

whose modulus is divisible by `T`

(once mapped to a `F2x`

), a suitable `t_RFRAC`

. Returns `z`

as an `F2xq`

, normalized.

`GEN `

**Rg_to_Flxq**`(GEN z, GEN T, ulong p)`

, `z`

a `GEN`

which can be mapped to **F**`_p[X]/(T)`

: anything `Rg_to_Fl`

can be applied to, a `t_POL`

to which `RgX_to_Flx`

can be applied to, a `t_POLMOD`

whose modulus is divisible by `T`

(once mapped to a `Flx`

), a suitable `t_RFRAC`

. Returns `z`

as an `Flxq`

, normalized.

`GEN `

**ZX_to_Flx**`(GEN x, ulong p)`

reduce `ZX`

`x`

modulo `p`

(yielding an `Flx`

). Faster than `RgX_to_Flx`

.

`GEN `

**ZV_to_Flv**`(GEN x, ulong p)`

reduce `ZV`

`x`

modulo `p`

(yielding an `Flv`

).

`GEN `

**ZXV_to_FlxV**`(GEN v, ulong p)`

, as `ZX_to_Flx`

, repeatedly called on the vector's coefficients.

`GEN `

**ZXT_to_FlxT**`(GEN v, ulong p)`

, as `ZX_to_Flx`

, repeatedly called on the tree leaves.

`GEN `

**ZXX_to_FlxX**`(GEN B, ulong p, long v)`

, as `ZX_to_Flx`

, repeatedly called on the polynomial's coefficients.

`GEN `

**zxX_to_FlxX**`(GEN z, ulong p)`

as `zx_to_Flx`

, repeatedly called on the polynomial's coefficients.

`GEN `

**ZXXV_to_FlxXV**`(GEN V, ulong p, long v)`

, as `ZXX_to_FlxX`

, repeatedly called on the vector's coefficients.

`GEN `

**ZXXT_to_FlxXT**`(GEN V, ulong p, long v)`

, as `ZXX_to_FlxX`

, repeatedly called on the tree leaves.

`GEN `

**RgV_to_Flv**`(GEN x, ulong p)`

reduce the `t_VEC`

/`t_COL`

`x`

modulo `p`

, yielding a `t_VECSMALL`

.

`GEN `

**RgM_to_Flm**`(GEN x, ulong p)`

reduce the `t_MAT`

`x`

modulo `p`

.

`GEN `

**ZM_to_Flm**`(GEN x, ulong p)`

reduce `ZM`

`x`

modulo `p`

(yielding an `Flm`

).

`GEN `

**ZV_to_zv**`(GEN z)`

, converts coefficients using `itos`

`GEN `

**ZV_to_nv**`(GEN z)`

, converts coefficients using `itou`

`GEN `

**ZM_to_zm**`(GEN z)`

, converts coefficients using `itos`

`GEN `

**FqC_to_FlxC**`(GEN x, GEN T, GEN p)`

, converts coefficients in `Fq`

to coefficient in Flx, result being a column vector.

`GEN `

**FqV_to_FlxV**`(GEN x, GEN T, GEN p)`

, converts coefficients in `Fq`

to coefficient in Flx, result being a line vector.

`GEN `

**FqM_to_FlxM**`(GEN x, GEN T, GEN p)`

, converts coefficients in `Fq`

to coefficient in Flx.

`GEN `

**Flx_to_ZX**`(GEN z)`

, converts to `ZX`

(`t_POL`

of non-negative `t_INT`

s in this case)

`GEN `

**Flx_to_FlxX**`(GEN z)`

, converts to `FlxX`

(`t_POL`

of constant `Flx`

in this case).

`GEN `

**Flx_to_ZX_inplace**`(GEN z)`

, same as `Flx_to_ZX`

, in place (`z`

is destroyed).

`GEN `

**FlxX_to_ZXX**`(GEN B)`

, converts an `FlxX`

to a polynomial with `ZX`

or `t_INT`

coefficients (repeated calls to `Flx_to_ZX`

).

`GEN `

**FlxXC_to_ZXXC**`(GEN B)`

, converts an `FlxXC`

to a `t_COL`

with `ZXX`

coefficients (repeated calls to `FlxX_to_ZXX`

).

`GEN `

**FlxXM_to_ZXXM**`(GEN B)`

, converts an `FlxXM`

to a `t_MAT`

with `ZXX`

coefficients (repeated calls to `FlxX_to_ZXX`

).

`GEN `

**FlxC_to_ZXC**`(GEN x)`

, converts a vector of `Flx`

to a column vector of polynomials with `t_INT`

coefficients (repeated calls to

`Flx_to_ZX`

).

`GEN `

**FlxV_to_ZXV**`(GEN x)`

, as above but return a `t_VEC`

.

`void `

**F2xV_to_FlxV_inplace**`(GEN v)`

v is destroyed.

`void `

**F2xV_to_ZXV_inplace**`(GEN v)`

v is destroyed.

`void `

**FlxV_to_ZXV_inplace**`(GEN v)`

v is destroyed.

`GEN `

**FlxM_to_ZXM**`(GEN z)`

, converts a matrix of `Flx`

to a matrix of polynomials with `t_INT`

coefficients (repeated calls to `Flx_to_ZX`

).

`GEN `

**zx_to_ZX**`(GEN z)`

, as `Flx_to_ZX`

, without assuming the coefficients to be non-negative.

`GEN `

**zx_to_Flx**`(GEN z, ulong p)`

as `Flx_red`

without assuming the coefficients to be non-negative.

`GEN `

**Flc_to_ZC**`(GEN z)`

, converts to `ZC`

(`t_COL`

of non-negative `t_INT`

s in this case)

`GEN `

**Flv_to_ZV**`(GEN z)`

, converts to `ZV`

(`t_VEC`

of non-negative `t_INT`

s in this case)

`GEN `

**Flm_to_ZM**`(GEN z)`

, converts to `ZM`

(`t_MAT`

with non-negative `t_INT`

s coefficients in this case)

`GEN `

**zc_to_ZC**`(GEN z)`

as `Flc_to_ZC`

, without assuming coefficients are non-negative.

`GEN `

**zv_to_ZV**`(GEN z)`

as `Flv_to_ZV`

, without assuming coefficients are non-negative.

`GEN `

**zm_to_ZM**`(GEN z)`

as `Flm_to_ZM`

, without assuming coefficients are non-negative.

`GEN `

**zv_to_Flv**`(GEN z, ulong p)`

`GEN `

**zm_to_Flm**`(GEN z, ulong p)`

Multiply a multiprecision object by a single-precision one.

`GEN `

**RgM_zc_mul**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

`GEN `

**RgMrow_zc_mul**`(GEN x, GEN y, long i)`

`GEN `

**RgM_zm_mul**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

`GEN `

**RgV_zc_mul**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

`GEN `

**RgV_zm_mul**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

`GEN `

**ZM_zc_mul**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

`GEN `

**zv_ZM_mul**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

`GEN `

**ZV_zc_mul**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

`GEN `

**ZM_zm_mul**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

`GEN `

**ZC_z_mul**`(GEN x, long y)`

`GEN `

**ZM_nm_mul**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

the entries of `y`

are `ulong`

s.

`GEN `

**nm_Z_mul**`(GEN y, GEN c)`

the entries of `y`

are `ulong`

s.

`GEN `

**Fl_to_Flx**`(ulong x, long evx)`

converts a `unsigned long`

to a scalar `Flx`

. Assume that `evx = evalvarn(vx)`

for some variable number `vx`

.

`GEN `

**Z_to_Flx**`(GEN x, ulong p, long sv)`

converts a `t_INT`

to a scalar `Flx`

polynomial. Assume that `sv = evalvarn(v)`

for some variable number `v`

.

`GEN `

**Flx_to_Flv**`(GEN x, long n)`

converts from `Flx`

to `Flv`

with `n`

components (assumed larger than the number of coefficients of `x`

).

`GEN `

**zx_to_zv**`(GEN x, long n)`

as `Flx_to_Flv`

.

`GEN `

**Flv_to_Flx**`(GEN x, long sv)`

converts from vector (coefficient array) to (normalized) polynomial in variable `v`

.

`GEN `

**zv_to_zx**`(GEN x, long n)`

as `Flv_to_Flx`

.

`GEN `

**Flm_to_FlxV**`(GEN x, long sv)`

converts the columns of `Flm`

`x`

to an array of `Flx`

in the variable `v`

(repeated calls to `Flv_to_Flx`

).

`GEN `

**zm_to_zxV**`(GEN x, long n)`

as `Flm_to_FlxV`

.

`GEN `

**Flm_to_FlxX**`(GEN x, long sw, long sv)`

same as `Flm_to_FlxV(x,sv)`

but returns the result as a (normalized) polynomial in variable `w`

.

`GEN `

**FlxV_to_Flm**`(GEN v, long n)`

reverse `Flm_to_FlxV`

, to obtain an `Flm`

with `n`

rows (repeated calls to `Flx_to_Flv`

).

`GEN `

**FlxX_to_Flm**`(GEN v, long n)`

reverse `Flm_to_FlxX`

, to obtain an `Flm`

with `n`

rows (repeated calls to `Flx_to_Flv`

).

`GEN `

**FlxX_to_FlxC**`(GEN B, long n, long sv)`

see `RgX_to_RgV`

. The coefficients of `B`

are assumed to be in the variable `v`

.

`GEN `

**FlxXV_to_FlxM**`(GEN V, long n, long sv)`

see `RgXV_to_RgM`

. The coefficients of `V[i]`

are assumed to be in the variable `v`

.

`GEN `

**Fly_to_FlxY**`(GEN a, long sv)`

convert coefficients of `a`

to constant `Flx`

in variable `v`

.

`F2x`

`GEN `

**F2x_to_F2v**`(GEN x, long n)`

converts from `F2x`

to `F2v`

with `n`

components (assumed larger than the number of coefficients of `x`

).

`GEN `

**F2xC_to_ZXC**`(GEN x)`

, converts a vector of `F2x`

to a column vector of polynomials with `t_INT`

coefficients (repeated calls to `F2x_to_ZX`

).

`GEN `

**F2xC_to_FlxC**`(GEN x)`

`GEN `

**FlxC_to_F2xC**`(GEN x)`

`GEN `

**F2xV_to_F2m**`(GEN v, long n)`

`F2x_to_F2v`

to each polynomial to get an `F2m`

with `n`

rows.

`long `

**Z_issquare**`(GEN n)`

returns `1`

if the `t_INT`

`n`

is a square, and `0`

otherwise. This is tested first modulo small prime powers, then `sqrtremi`

is called.

`long `

**Z_issquareall**`(GEN n, GEN *sqrtn)`

as `Z_issquare`

. If `n`

is indeed a square, set `sqrtn`

to its integer square root. Uses a fast congruence test mod `64 x 63 x 65 x 11`

before computing an integer square root.

`long `

**Z_ispow2**`(GEN x)`

returns `1`

if the `t_INT`

`x`

is a power of `2`

, and `0`

otherwise.

`long `

**uissquare**`(ulong n)`

as `Z_issquare`

, for an `ulong`

operand `n`

.

`long `

**uissquareall**`(ulong n, ulong *sqrtn)`

as `Z_issquareall`

, for an `ulong`

operand `n`

.

`ulong `

**usqrt**`(ulong a)`

returns the floor of the square root of `a`

.

`ulong `

**usqrtn**`(ulong a, ulong n)`

returns the floor of the `n`

-th root of `a`

.

`long `

**Z_ispower**`(GEN x, ulong k)`

returns `1`

if the `t_INT`

`n`

is a `k`

-th power, and `0`

otherwise; assume that `k > 1`

.

`long `

**Z_ispowerall**`(GEN x, ulong k, GEN *pt)`

as `Z_ispower`

. If `n`

is indeed a `k`

-th power, set `*pt`

to its integer `k`

-th root.

`long `

**Z_isanypower**`(GEN x, GEN *ptn)`

returns the maximal `k >= 2`

such that the `t_INT`

`x = n^k`

is a perfect power, or `0`

if no such `k`

exist; in particular `ispower(1)`

, `ispower(0)`

, `ispower(-1)`

all return 0. If the return value `k`

is not `0`

(so that `x = n^k`

) and `ptn`

is not `NULL`

, set `*ptn`

to `n`

.

The following low-level functions are called by `Z_isanypower`

but can be directly useful:

`int `

**is_357_power**`(GEN x, GEN *ptn, ulong *pmask)`

tests whether the integer `x > 0`

is a `3`

-rd, `5`

-th or `7`

-th power. The bits of `*mask`

initially indicate which test is to be performed; bit `0`

: `3`

-rd, bit `1`

: `5`

-th, bit `2`

: `7`

-th (e.g. `*pmask = 7`

performs all tests). They are updated during the call: if the ```i`

-th power'' bit is set to `0`

then `x`

is not a `k`

-th power. The function returns `0`

(not a `3`

-rd, `5`

-th or `7`

-th power), `3`

(`3`

-rd power, not a `5`

-th or `7`

-th power), `5`

(`5`

-th power, not a `7`

-th power), or `7`

(`7`

-th power); if an `i`

-th power bit is initially set to `0`

, we take it at face value and assume `x`

is not an `i`

-th power without performing any test. If the return value `k`

is non-zero, set `*ptn`

to `n`

such that `x = n^k`

.

`int `

**is_pth_power**`(GEN x, GEN *ptn, forprime_t *T, ulong cutoff)`

let `x > 0`

be an integer, `cutoff > 0`

and `T`

be an iterator over primes ` >= 11`

, we look for the smallest prime `p`

such that `x = n^p`

(advancing `T`

as we go along). The `11`

is due to the fact that `is_357_power`

and `issquare`

are faster than the generic version for `p < 11`

.

Fail and return `0`

when the existence of `p`

would imply `2^{cutoff} > x^{1/p}`

, meaning that a possible `n`

is so small that it should have been found by trial division; for maximal speed, you should start by a round of trial division, but the cut-off may also be set to `1`

for a rigorous result without any trial division.

Otherwise returns the smallest suitable prime power `p^i`

and set `*ptn`

to the `p^i`

-th root of `x`

(which is now not a `p`

-th power). We may immediately recall the function with the same parameters after setting `x = *ptn`

: it will start at the next prime.

`GEN `

**Z_factor**`(GEN n)`

factors the `t_INT`

`n`

. The ``primes'' in the factorization are actually strong pseudoprimes.

`GEN `

**absZ_factor**`(GEN n)`

returns `Z_factor(absi(n))`

.

`long `

**Z_issmooth**`(GEN n, ulong lim)`

returns `1`

if all the prime factors of the `t_INT`

`n`

are less or equal to `lim`

.

`GEN `

**Z_issmooth_fact**`(GEN n, ulong lim)`

returns `NULL`

if a prime factor of the `t_INT`

`n`

is ` > lim`

, and returns the factorization of `n`

otherwise, as a `t_MAT`

with `t_VECSMALL`

columns (word-size primes and exponents). Neither memory-clean nor suitable for `gerepileupto`

.

`GEN `

**Z_factor_until**`(GEN n, GEN lim)`

as `Z_factor`

, but stop the factorization process as soon as the unfactored part is smaller than `lim`

. The resulting factorization matrix only contains the factors found. No other assumptions can be made on the remaining factors.

`GEN `

**Z_factor_limit**`(GEN n, ulong lim)`

trial divide `n`

by all primes `p < lim`

in the precomputed list of prime numbers and return the corresponding factorization matrix. In this case, the last ``prime'' divisor in the first column of the factorization matrix may well be a proven composite.

If `lim = 0`

, the effect is the same as setting `lim = maxprime() + 1`

: use all precomputed primes.

`GEN `

**absZ_factor_limit**`(GEN n, ulong all)`

returns `Z_factor_limit(absi(n))`

.

`GEN `

**boundfact**`(GEN x, ulong lim)`

as `Z_factor_limit`

, applying to `t_INT`

or `t_FRAC`

inputs.

`GEN `

**Z_smoothen**`(GEN n, GEN L, GEN *pP, GEN *pE)`

given a `t_VECSMALL`

`L`

containing a list of small primes and a `t_INT`

`n`

, trial divide `n`

by the elements of `L`

and return the cofactor. Return `NULL`

if the cofactor is

. *+-* 1`*P`

and `*E`

contain the list of prime divisors found and their exponents, as `t_VECSMALL`

s. Neither memory-clean, nor suitable for `gerepileupto`

.

`GEN `

**Z_factor_listP**`(GEN N, GEN L)`

given a `t_INT`

`N`

, a vector or primes `L`

containing all prime divisors of `N`

(and possibly others). Return `factor(N)`

. Neither memory-clean, nor suitable for `gerepileupto`

.

`GEN `

**factor_pn_1**`(GEN p, ulong n)`

returns the factorization of `p^n-1`

, where `p`

is prime and `n`

is a positive integer.

`GEN `

**factor_pn_1_limit**`(GEN p, ulong n, ulong B)`

returns a partial factorization of `p^n-1`

, where `p`

is prime and `n`

is a positive integer. Don't actively search for prime divisors `p > B`

, but we may find still find some due to Aurifeuillian factorizations. Any entry ` > B^2`

in the output factorization matrix is *a priori* not a prime (but may well be).

`GEN `

**factor_Aurifeuille_prime**`(GEN p, long n)`

an Aurifeuillian factor of *phi*`_n(p)`

, assuming `p`

prime and an Aurifeuillian factor exists (`p `

*zeta*`_n`

is a square in **Q**`(`

*zeta*`_n)`

).

`GEN `

**factor_Aurifeuille**`(GEN a, long d)`

an Aurifeuillian factor of *phi*`_n(a)`

, assuming `a`

is a non-zero integer and `n > 2`

. Returns `1`

if no Aurifeuillian factor exists.

`GEN `

**odd_prime_divisors**`(GEN a)`

`t_VEC`

of all prime divisors of the `t_INT`

`a`

.

`GEN `

**factoru**`(ulong n)`

, returns the factorization of `n`

. The result is a `2`

-component vector `[P,E]`

, where `P`

and `E`

are `t_VECSMALL`

containing the prime divisors of `n`

, and the `v_p(n)`

.

`GEN `

**factoru_pow**`(ulong n)`

, returns the factorization of `n`

. The result is a `3`

-component vector `[P,E,C]`

, where `P`

, `E`

and `C`

are `t_VECSMALL`

containing the prime divisors of `n`

, the `v_p(n)`

and the `p^{v_p(n)}`

.

`ulong `

**tridiv_bound**`(GEN n)`

returns the trial division bound used by `Z_factor`

`(n)`

.

Given `a`

and `b`

two non-zero integers, let **ppi**`(a,b)`

, **ppo**`(a,b)`

, **ppg**`(a,b)`

, **pple**`(a,b)`

(powers in `a`

of primes inside `b`

, outside `b`

, greater than thos in `b`

, less than or equal to those in `b`

) be the integers defined by

@3***** `v_p(ppi) = v_p(a) [v_p(b) > 0]`

,

@3***** `v_p(ppo) = v_p(a) [v_p(b) = 0]`

,

@3***** `v_p(ppg) = v_p(a) [v_p(a) > v_p(b)]`

,

@3***** `v_p(pple) = v_p(a) [v_p(a) <= v_p(b)]`

.

`GEN `

**Z_ppo**`(GEN a, GEN b)`

returns `ppo(a,b)`

; shallow function.

`ulong `

**u_ppo**`(ulong a, ulong b)`

returns `ppo(a,b)`

.

`GEN `

**Z_ppgle**`(GEN a, GEN b)`

returns `[ppg(a,b), pple(a,b)]`

; shallow function.

`GEN `

**Z_ppio**`(GEN a, GEN b)`

returns `[`

*gcd* `(a,b), ppi(a,b), ppo(a,b)]`

; shallow function.

`GEN `

**Z_cba**`(GEN a, GEN b)`

fast natural coprime base algorithm. Returns a vector of coprime divisors of `a`

and `b`

such that both `a`

and `b`

can be multiplicatively generated from this set.

Arithmetic functions accept arguments of the following kind: a plain positive integer `N`

(`t_INT`

), the factorization *fa* of a positive integer (a `t_MAT`

with two columns containing respectively primes and exponents), or a vector `[N,`

*fa*`]`

. A few functions accept non-zero integers (e.g. `omega`

), and some others arbitrary integers (e.g. `factorint`

,...).

`int `

**is_Z_factorpos**`(GEN f)`

returns `1`

if `f`

looks like the factorization of a positive integer, and `0`

otherwise. Useful for sanity checks but not 100% foolproof. Specifically, this routine checks that `f`

is a two-column matrix all of whose entries are positive integers. It does *not* check that entries in the first column (``primes'') are prime, or even pairwise coprime, nor that they are stricly increasing.

`int `

**is_Z_factornon0**`(GEN f)`

returns `1`

if `f`

looks like the factorization of a non-zero integer, and `0`

otherwise. Useful for sanity checks but not 100% foolproof, analogous to `is_Z_factorpos`

. (Entries in the first column need only be non-zero integers.)

`int `

**is_Z_factor**`(GEN f)`

returns `1`

if `f`

looks like the factorization of an integer, and `0`

otherwise. Useful for sanity checks but not 100% foolproof. Specifically, this routine checks that `f`

is a two-column matrix all of whose entries are integers. Entries in the second column (``exponents'') are all positive. Either it encodes the ``factorization'' `0^e`

, `e > 0`

, or entries in the first column (``primes'') are all non-zero.

`GEN `

**clean_Z_factor**`(GEN f)`

assuming `f`

is the factorization of an integer `n`

, return the factorization of `|n|`

, i.e. remove `-1`

from the factorization. Shallow function.

`GEN `

**fuse_Z_factor**`(GEN f, GEN B)`

assuming `f`

is the factorization of an integer `n`

, return `boundfact(n, B)`

, i.e. return a factorization where all primary factors for `|p| <= B`

are preserved, and all others are ``fused'' into a single composite integer; if that remainder is trivial, i.e. equal to 1, it is of course not included. Shallow function.

In the following three routines, `f`

is the name of an arithmetic function, and `n`

a supplied argument. They all raise exceptions if `n`

does not correspond to an integer or an integer factorization of the expected shape.

`GEN `

**check_arith_pos**`(GEN n, const char *f)`

check whether `n`

is attached to the factorization of a positive integer, and return `NULL`

(plain `t_INT`

) or a factorization extracted from `n`

otherwise. May raise an `e_DOMAIN`

(`n <= 0`

) or an `e_TYPE`

exception (other failures).

`GEN `

**check_arith_non0**`(GEN n, const char *f)`

check whether `n`

is attached to the factorization of a non-`0`

integer, and return `NULL`

(plain `t_INT`

) or a factorization extracted from `n`

otherwise. May raise an `e_TYPE`

exception.

`GEN `

**check_arith_all**`(GEN n, const char *f)`

is attached to the factorization of an integer, and return `NULL`

(plain `t_INT`

) or a factorization extracted from `n`

otherwise.

Routines attached to the dynamic factorization of an integer `n`

, iterating over successive prime divisors. This is useful to implement high-level routines allowed to take shortcuts given enough partial information: e.g. `moebius`

`(n)`

can be trivially computed if we hit `p`

such that `p^2 | n`

. For efficiency, trial division by small primes should have already taken place. In any case, the functions below assume that no prime ` < 2^{14}`

divides `n`

.

`GEN `

**ifac_start**`(GEN n, int moebius)`

schedules a new factorization attempt for the integer `n`

. If `moebius`

is non-zero, the factorization will be aborted as soon as a repeated factor is detected (Moebius mode). The function assumes that `n > 1`

is a *composite* `t_INT`

whose prime divisors satisfy `p > 2^{14}`

*and* that one can write to `n`

in place.

This function stores data on the stack, no `gerepile`

call should delete this data until the factorization is complete. Returns `partial`

, a data structure recording the partial factorization state.

`int `

**ifac_next**`(GEN *partial, GEN *p, long *e)`

deletes a primary factor `p^e`

from `partial`

and sets `p`

(prime) and `e`

(exponent), and normally returns `1`

. Whatever remains in the `partial`

structure is now coprime to `p`

.

Returns `0`

if all primary factors have been used already, so we are done with the factorization. In this case `p`

is set to `NULL`

. If we ran in Moebius mode and the factorization was in fact aborted, we have `e = 1`

, otherwise `e = 0`

.

`int `

**ifac_read**`(GEN part, GEN *k, long *e)`

peeks at the next integer to be factored in the list `k^e`

, where `k`

is not necessarily prime and can be a perfect power as well, but will be factored by the next call to `ifac_next`

. You can remove this factorization from the schedule by calling:

`void `

**ifac_skip**`(GEN part)`

removes the next scheduled factorization.

`int `

**ifac_isprime**`(GEN n)`

given `n`

whose prime divisors are ` > 2^{14}`

, returns the decision the factoring engine would take about the compositeness of `n`

: `0`

if `n`

is a proven composite, and `1`

if we believe it to be prime; more precisely, `n`

is a proven prime if `factor_proven`

is set, and only a BPSW-pseudoprime otherwise.

`long `

**Z_issquarefree**`(GEN n)`

returns `1`

if the `t_INT`

`n`

is square-free, and `0`

otherwise.

`long `

**Z_isfundamental**`(GEN x)`

returns `1`

if the `t_INT`

`x`

is a fundamental discriminant, and `0`

otherwise.

`GEN `

**core**`(GEN n)`

unique squarefree integer `d`

dividing `n`

such that `n/d`

is a square. The core of `0`

is defined to be `0`

.

`GEN `

**core2**`(GEN n)`

return `[d,f]`

with `d`

squarefree and `n = df^2`

.

`GEN `

**corepartial**`(GEN n, long lim)`

as `core`

, using `boundfact(n,lim)`

to partially factor `n`

. The result is not necessarily squarefree, but `p^2 | n`

implies `p > lim`

.

`GEN `

**core2partial**`(GEN n, long lim)`

as `core2`

, using `boundfact(n,lim)`

to partially factor `n`

. The resulting `d`

is not necessarily squarefree, but `p^2 | n`

implies `p > lim`

.

`ulong `

**uprimepi**`(ulong n)`

, returns the number of primes `p <= n`

(Chebyshev's *pi* function).

`double `

**primepi_upper_bound**`(double x)`

return a quick upper bound for *pi*`(x)`

, using Dusart bounds.

`GEN `

**gprimepi_upper_bound**`(GEN x)`

as `primepi_upper_bound`

, returns a `t_REAL`

.

`double `

**primepi_lower_bound**`(double x)`

return a quick lower bound for *pi*`(x)`

, using Dusart bounds.

`GEN `

**gprimepi_lower_bound**`(GEN x)`

as `primepi_lower_bound`

, returns a `t_REAL`

or `gen_0`

.

`ulong `

**unextprime**`(ulong n)`

, returns the smallest prime ` >= n`

. Return `0`

if it cannot be represented as an `ulong`

(`n`

bigger than `2^{64} - 59`

or `2^{32} - 5`

depending on the word size).

`ulong `

**uprecprime**`(ulong n)`

, returns the largest prime ` <= n`

. Return `0`

if `n <= 1`

.

`ulong `

**uprime**`(long n)`

returns the `n`

-th prime, assuming it fits in an `ulong`

(overflow error otherwise).

`GEN `

**prime**`(long n)`

same as `utoi(uprime(n))`

.

`GEN `

**primes_zv**`(long m)`

returns the first `m`

primes, in a `t_VECSMALL`

.

`GEN `

**primes**`(long m)`

return the first `m`

primes, as a `t_VEC`

of `t_INT`

s.

`GEN `

**primes_interval**`(GEN a, GEN b)`

return the primes in the interval `[a,b]`

, as a `t_VEC`

of `t_INT`

s.

`GEN `

**primes_interval_zv**`(ulong a, ulong b)`

return the primes in the interval `[a,b]`

, as a `t_VECSMALL`

of `ulongs`

s.

`GEN `

**primes_upto_zv**`(ulong b)`

return the primes in the interval `[2,b]`

, as a `t_VECSMALL`

of `ulongs`

s.

`int `

**uisprime**`(ulong p)`

, returns `1`

if `p`

is a prime number and `0`

otherwise.

`int `

**uisprime_101**`(ulong p)`

, assuming that `p`

has no divisor ` <= 101`

, returns `1`

if `p`

is a prime number and `0`

otherwise.

`int `

**uisprime_661**`(ulong p)`

, assuming that `p`

has no divisor ` <= 661`

, returns `1`

if `p`

is a prime number and `0`

otherwise.

`int `

**isprime**`(GEN n)`

, returns `1`

if the `t_INT`

`n`

is a (fully proven) prime number and `0`

otherwise.

`long `

**isprimeAPRCL**`(GEN n)`

, returns `1`

if the `t_INT`

`n`

is a prime number and `0`

otherwise, using only the APRCL test --- not even trial division or compositeness tests. The workhorse `isprime`

should be faster on average, especially if non-primes are included!

`long `

**BPSW_psp**`(GEN n)`

, returns `1`

if the `t_INT`

`n`

is a Baillie-Pomerance-Selfridge-Wagstaff pseudoprime, and `0`

otherwise (proven composite).

`int `

**BPSW_isprime**`(GEN x)`

assuming `x`

is a BPSW-pseudoprime, rigorously prove its primality. The function `isprime`

is currently implemented as

` BPSW_psp(x) && BPSW_isprime(x)`

`long `

**millerrabin**`(GEN n, long k)`

performs `k`

strong Rabin-Miller compositeness tests on the `t_INT`

`n`

, using `k`

random bases. This function also caches square roots of `-1`

that are encountered during the successive tests and stops as soon as three distinct square roots have been produced; we have in principle factored `n`

at this point, but unfortunately, there is currently no way for the factoring machinery to become aware of it. (It is highly implausible that hard to find factors would be exhibited in this way, though.) This should be slower than `BPSW_psp`

for `k >= 4`

and we would expect it to be less reliable.

`int `

**forprime_init**`(forprime_t *T, GEN a, GEN b)`

initialize an iterator `T`

over primes in `[a,b]`

; over primes ` >= a`

if `b = NULL`

. Return `0`

if the range is known to be empty from the start (as if `b < a`

or `b < 0`

), and return `1`

otherwise.

`GEN `

**forprime_next**`(forprime_t *T)`

returns the next prime in the range, assuming that `T`

was initialized by `forprime_init`

.

`int `

**u_forprime_init**`(forprime_t *T, ulong a, ulong b)`

`ulong `

**u_forprime_next**`(forprime_t *T)`

`void `

**u_forprime_restrict**`(forprime_t *T, ulong c)`

let `T`

an iterator over primes initialized via `u_forprime_init(&T, a, b)`

, possibly followed by a number of calls to `u_forprime_next`

, and `a <= c <= b`

. Restrict the range of primes considered to `[a,c]`

.

`int `

**u_forprime_arith_init**`(forprime_t *T, ulong a,ulong b, ulong c,ulong q)`

initialize an iterator over primes in `[a,b]`

, congruent to `c`

modulo `q`

. Assume `0 <= c < q`

and `(c,q) = 1`

. Subsequent calls to `u_forprime_next`

will only return primes congruent to `c`

modulo `q`

.

`ZC`

/ `ZV`

, `ZM`

A `ZV`

(resp. a `ZM`

, resp. a `ZX`

) is a `t_VEC`

or `t_COL`

(resp. `t_MAT`

, resp. `t_POL`

) with `t_INT`

coefficients.

`ZC`

/ `ZV`

`void `

**RgV_check_ZV**`(GEN x, const char *s)`

Assuming `x`

is a `t_VEC`

or `t_COL`

raise an error if it is not a `ZV`

(`s`

should point to the name of the caller).

`int `

**RgV_is_ZV**`(GEN x)`

Assuming `x`

is a `t_VEC`

or `t_COL`

return `1`

if it is a `ZV`

, and `0`

otherwise.

`int `

**RgV_is_QV**`(GEN P)`

return 1 if the `RgV`

`P`

has only `t_INT`

and `t_FRAC`

coefficients, and 0 otherwise.

`int `

**ZV_equal0**`(GEN x)`

returns 1 if all entries of the `ZV`

`x`

are zero, and `0`

otherwise.

`int `

**ZV_cmp**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

compare two `ZV`

, which we assume have the same length (lexicographic order, comparing absolute values).

`int `

**ZV_abscmp**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

compare two `ZV`

, which we assume have the same length (lexicographic order).

`int `

**ZV_equal**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

returns `1`

if the two `ZV`

are equal and `0`

otherwise. A `t_COL`

and a `t_VEC`

with the same entries are declared equal.

`GEN `

**ZC_add**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

adds `x`

and `y`

.

`GEN `

**ZC_sub**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

subtracts `x`

and `y`

.

`GEN `

**ZC_Z_add**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

adds `y`

to `x[1]`

.

`GEN `

**ZC_Z_sub**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

subtracts `y`

to `x[1]`

.

`GEN `

**Z_ZC_sub**`(GEN a, GEN x)`

returns the vector `[a - x_1, -x_2,...,-x_n]`

.

`GEN `

**ZC_copy**`(GEN x)`

returns a (`t_COL`

) copy of `x`

.

`GEN `

**ZC_neg**`(GEN x)`

returns `-x`

as a `t_COL`

.

`void `

**ZV_neg_inplace**`(GEN x)`

negates the `ZV`

`x`

in place, by replacing each component by its opposite (the type of `x`

remains the same, `t_COL`

or `t_COL`

). If you want to save even more memory by avoiding the implicit component copies, use `ZV_togglesign`

.

`void `

**ZV_togglesign**`(GEN x)`

negates `x`

in place, by toggling the sign of its integer components. Universal constants `gen_1`

, `gen_m1`

, `gen_2`

and `gen_m2`

are handled specially and will not be corrupted. (We use `togglesign_safe`

.)

`GEN `

**ZC_Z_mul**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

multiplies the `ZC`

or `ZV`

`x`

(which can be a column or row vector) by the `t_INT`

`y`

, returning a `ZC`

.

`GEN `

**ZC_Z_divexact**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

returns `x/y`

assuming all divisions are exact.

`GEN `

**ZC_Z_div**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

returns `x/y`

, where the resulting vector has rational entries.

`GEN `

**ZV_dotproduct**`(GEN x,GEN y)`

as `RgV_dotproduct`

assuming `x`

and `y`

have `t_INT`

entries.

`GEN `

**ZV_dotsquare**`(GEN x)`

as `RgV_dotsquare`

assuming `x`

has `t_INT`

entries.

`GEN `

**ZC_lincomb**`(GEN u, GEN v, GEN x, GEN y)`

returns `ux + vy`

, where `u`

, `v`

are `t_INT`

and `x,y`

are `ZC`

or `ZV`

. Return a `ZC`

`void `

**ZC_lincomb1_inplace**`(GEN X, GEN Y, GEN v)`

sets `X\leftarrow X + vY`

, where `v`

is a `t_INT`

and `X,Y`

are `ZC`

or `ZV`

. (The result has the type of `X`

.) Memory efficient (e.g. no-op if `v = 0`

), but not gerepile-safe.

`GEN `

**ZC_ZV_mul**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN p)`

multiplies the `ZC`

`x`

(seen as a column vector) by the `ZV`

`y`

(seen as a row vector, assumed to have compatible dimensions).

`GEN `

**ZV_content**`(GEN x)`

returns the GCD of all the components of `x`

.

`GEN `

**ZV_extgcd**`(GEN A)`

given a vector of `n`

integers `A`

, returns `[d, U]`

, where `d`

is the content of `A`

and `U`

is a matrix in `GL_n(`

**Z**`)`

such that `AU = [D,0,...,0]`

.

`GEN `

**ZV_prod**`(GEN x)`

returns the product of all the components of `x`

(`1`

for the empty vector).

`GEN `

**ZV_sum**`(GEN x)`

returns the sum of all the components of `x`

(`0`

for the empty vector).

`long `

**ZV_max_lg**`(GEN x)`

returns the effective length of the longest entry in `x`

.

`int `

**ZV_dvd**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

assuming `x`

, `y`

are two `ZV`

s of the same length, return `1`

if `y[i]`

divides `x[i]`

for all `i`

and `0`

otherwise. Error if one of the `y[i]`

is `0`

.

`GEN `

**ZV_sort**`(GEN L)`

sort the `ZV`

`L`

. Returns a vector with the same type as `L`

.

`GEN `

**ZV_sort_uniq**`(GEN L)`

sort the `ZV`

`L`

, removing duplicate entries. Returns a vector with the same type as `L`

.

`long `

**ZV_search**`(GEN L, GEN y)`

look for the `t_INT`

`y`

in the sorted `ZV`

`L`

. Return an index `i`

such that `L[i] = y`

, and `0`

otherwise.

`GEN `

**ZV_indexsort**`(GEN L)`

returns the permutation which, applied to the `ZV`

`L`

, would sort the vector. The result is a `t_VECSMALL`

.

`GEN `

**ZV_union_shallow**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

given two *sorted* ZV (as per `ZV_sort`

, returns the union of `x`

and `y`

. Shallow function. In case two entries are equal in `x`

and `y`

, include the one from `x`

.

`ZM`

`void `

**RgM_check_ZM**`(GEN A, const char *s)`

Assuming `x`

is a `t_MAT`

raise an error if it is not a `ZM`

(`s`

should point to the name of the caller).

`GEN `

**ZM_copy**`(GEN x)`

returns a copy of `x`

.

`int `

**ZM_equal**`(GEN A, GEN B)`

returns `1`

if the two `ZM`

are equal and `0`

otherwise.

`GEN `

**ZM_add**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

returns `x + y`

(assumed to have compatible dimensions).

`GEN `

**ZM_sub**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

returns `x - y`

(assumed to have compatible dimensions).

`GEN `

**ZM_neg**`(GEN x)`

returns `-x`

.

`void `

**ZM_togglesign**`(GEN x)`

negates `x`

in place, by toggling the sign of its integer components. Universal constants `gen_1`

, `gen_m1`

, `gen_2`

and `gen_m2`

are handled specially and will not be corrupted. (We use `togglesign_safe`

.)

`GEN `

**ZM_mul**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

multiplies `x`

and `y`

(assumed to have compatible dimensions).

`GEN `

**ZM_sqr**`(GEN x)`

returns `x^2`

, where `x`

is a square `ZM`

.

`GEN `

**ZM_Z_mul**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

multiplies the `ZM`

`x`

by the `t_INT`

`y`

.

`GEN `

**ZM_ZC_mul**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

multiplies the `ZM`

`x`

by the `ZC`

`y`

(seen as a column vector, assumed to have compatible dimensions).

`GEN `

**ZM_diag_mul**`(GEN d, GEN m)`

given a vector `d`

with integer entries and a `ZM`

`m`

of compatible dimensions, return `diagonal(d) * m`

.

`GEN `

**ZM_mul_diag**`(GEN m, GEN d)`

given a vector `d`

with integer entries and a `ZM`

`m`

of compatible dimensions, return `m * diagonal(d)`

.

`GEN `

**ZM_multosym**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

`GEN `

**ZM_transmultosym**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

`GEN `

**ZM_transmul**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

`GEN `

**ZMrow_ZC_mul**`(GEN x, GEN y, long i)`

multiplies the `i`

-th row of `ZM`

`x`

by the `ZC`

`y`

(seen as a column vector, assumed to have compatible dimensions). Assumes that `x`

is non-empty and `0 < i < lg(x[1])`

.

`GEN `

**ZV_ZM_mul**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

multiplies the `ZV`

`x`

by the `ZM`

`y`

. Returns a `t_VEC`

.

`GEN `

**ZM_Z_divexact**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

returns `x/y`

assuming all divisions are exact.

`GEN `

**ZM_Z_div**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

returns `x/y`

, where the resulting matrix has rational entries.

`GEN `

**ZM_pow**`(GEN x, GEN n)`

returns `x^n`

, assuming `x`

is a square `ZM`

and `n >= 0`

.

`GEN `

**ZM_powu**`(GEN x, ulong n)`

returns `x^n`

, assuming `x`

is a square `ZM`

and `n >= 0`

.

`GEN `

**ZM_det**`(GEN M)`

if `M`

is a `ZM`

, returns the determinant of `M`

. This is the function underlying `matdet`

whenever `M`

is a `ZM`

.

`GEN `

**ZM_detmult**`(GEN M)`

if `M`

is a `ZM`

, returns a multiple of the determinant of the lattice generated by its columns. This is the function underlying `detint`

.

`GEN `

**ZM_supnorm**`(GEN x)`

return the sup norm of the `ZM`

`x`

.

`GEN `

**ZM_charpoly**`(GEN M)`

returns the characteristic polynomial (in variable `0`

) of the `ZM`

`M`

.

`GEN `

**QM_charpoly_ZX**`(GEN M)`

returns the characteristic polynomial (in variable `0`

) of the `QM`

`M`

, assuming that the result has integer coefficients.

`GEN `

**QM_charpoly_ZX_bound**`(GEN M, long b)`

as `QM_charpoly_ZX`

assuming that the sup norm of the (integral) result is ` <= 2^b`

.

`GEN `

**ZM_imagecompl**`(GEN x)`

returns `matimagecompl(x)`

.

`long `

**ZM_rank**`(GEN x)`

returns `matrank(x)`

.

`GEN `

**ZM_indexrank**`(GEN x)`

returns `matindexrank(x)`

.

`GEN `

**ZM_indeximage**`(GEN x)`

returns `gel(ZM_indexrank(x), 2)`

.

`long `

**ZM_max_lg**`(GEN x)`

returns the effective length of the longest entry in `x`

.

`GEN `

**ZM_inv**`(GEN M, GEN d)`

if `M`

is a `ZM`

and `d`

is a `t_INT`

such that `M' := dM^{-1}`

is integral, return `M'`

. It is allowed to set `d = NULL`

, in which case, the determinant of `M`

is used instead.

`GEN `

**ZM_inv_ratlift**`(GEN M, GEN *pd)`

if `M`

is a `ZM`

, return a primitive matrix `H`

such that `M H`

is `d`

times the identity and set `*pd`

to `d`

. To be used when you expect that the denominator of `M^{-1}`

is much smaller than *det* ` M`

and no sharp multiplicative bound is available; else use `ZM_inv`

.

`GEN `

**QM_inv**`(GEN M, GEN d)`

as above, with `M`

a `QM`

. We still assume that `M'`

has integer coefficients.

`GEN `

**ZM_det_triangular**`(GEN x)`

returns the product of the diagonal entries of `x`

(its determinant if it is indeed triangular).

`int `

**ZM_isidentity**`(GEN x)`

return 1 if the `ZM`

`x`

is the identity matrix, and 0 otherwise.

`int `

**ZM_isscalar**`(GEN x, GEN s)`

given a `ZM`

`x`

and a `t_INT`

`s`

, return 1 if `x`

is equal to `s`

times the identity, and 0 otherwise. If `s`

is `NULL`

, test whether `x`

is an arbitrary scalar matrix.

`long `

**ZC_is_ei**`(GEN x)`

return `i`

if the `ZC`

`x`

has `0`

entries, but for a `1`

at position `i`

.

`int `

**ZM_ishnf**`(GEN x)`

return `1`

if `x`

is in HNF form, i.e. is upper triangular with positive diagonal coefficients, and for `j > i`

, `x_{i,i} > x_{i,j} >= 0`

.

`GEN `

**Qevproj_init**`(GEN M)`

let `M`

be a `n x d`

`ZM`

of maximal rank `d <= n`

, representing the basis of a **Q**-subspace `V`

of **Q**`^n`

. Return a projector on `V`

, to be used by `Qevproj_apply`

. The interface details may change in the future, but this function currently returns `[M, B,D,p]`

, where `p`

is a `t_VECSMALL`

with `d`

entries such that the submatrix `A = rowpermute(M,p)`

is invertible, `B`

is a `ZM`

and `d`

a `t_INT`

such that `A B = D `

*Id* `_d`

.

`GEN `

**Qevproj_apply**`(GEN T, GEN pro)`

let `T`

be an `n x n`

`QM`

, stabilizing a **Q**-subspace `V\subset `

**Q**`^n`

of dimension `d`

, and let `pro`

be a projector on that subspace initialized by `Qevproj_init`

`(M)`

. Return the `d x d`

matrix representing `T_{|V}`

on the basis given by the columns of `M`

.

`GEN `

**Qevproj_apply_vecei**`(GEN T, GEN pro, long k)`

as `Qevproj_apply`

, return only the image of the `k`

-th basis vector `M[k]`

(still on the basis given by the columns of `M`

).

`zv`

, `zm`

`GEN `

**zv_neg**`(GEN x)`

return `-x`

. No check for overflow is done, which occurs in the fringe case where an entry is equal to `2^{BIL-1}`

.

`GEN `

**zv_neg_inplace**`(GEN x)`

negates `x`

in place and return it. No check for overflow is done, which occurs in the fringe case where an entry is equal to `2^{BIL-1}`

.

`GEN `

**zm_zc_mul**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

`GEN `

**zm_mul**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

`GEN `

**zv_z_mul**`(GEN x, long n)`

return `n x`

. No check for overflow is done.

`long `

**zv_content**`(GEN x)`

returns the gcd of the entries of `x`

.

`long `

**zv_dotproduct**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

`long `

**zv_prod**`(GEN x)`

returns the product of all the components of `x`

(assumes no overflow occurs).

`GEN `

**zv_prod_Z**`(GEN x)`

returns the product of all the components of `x`

; consider all `x[i]`

as `ulong`

s.

`long `

**zv_sum**`(GEN x)`

returns the sum of all the components of `x`

(assumes no overflow occurs).

`int `

**zv_cmp0**`(GEN x)`

returns 1 if all entries of the `zv`

`x`

are `0`

, and `0`

otherwise.

`int `

**zv_equal**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

returns `1`

if the two `zv`

are equal and `0`

otherwise.

`int `

**zv_equal0**`(GEN x)`

returns `1`

if all entries are `0`

, and return `0`

otherwise.

`long `

**zv_search**`(GEN L, long y)`

look for `y`

in the sorted `zv`

`L`

. Return an index `i`

such that `L[i] = y`

, and `0`

otherwise.

`GEN `

**zv_copy**`(GEN x)`

as `Flv_copy`

.

`GEN `

**zm_transpose**`(GEN x)`

as `Flm_transpose`

.

`GEN `

**zm_copy**`(GEN x)`

as `Flm_copy`

.

`GEN `

**zero_zm**`(long m, long n)`

as `zero_Flm`

.

`GEN `

**zero_zv**`(long n)`

as `zero_Flv`

.

`GEN `

**zm_row**`(GEN A, long x0)`

as `Flm_row`

.

`int `

**zvV_equal**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

returns `1`

if the two `zvV`

(vectors of `zv`

) are equal and `0`

otherwise.

`ZMV`

/ `zmV`

(vectors of `ZM`

/`zm`

)`int `

**RgV_is_ZMV**`(GEN x)`

Assuming `x`

is a `t_VEC`

or `t_COL`

return `1`

if its components are `ZM`

, and `0`

otherwise.

`GEN `

**ZMV_to_zmV**`(GEN z)`

`GEN `

**zmV_to_ZMV**`(GEN z)`

`GEN `

**ZMV_to_FlmV**`(GEN z, ulong m)`

`RgC`

/ `RgV`

, `RgM`

`RgC`

and `RgV`

routines assume the inputs are `VEC`

or `COL`

of the same dimension. `RgM`

assume the inputs are `MAT`

of compatible dimensions.

`void `

**RgM_dimensions**`(GEN)`

{x, long *m, long *n} sets `m`

, resp. `n`

, to the number of rows, resp. columns of the `t_MAT`

`x`

.

`GEN `

**RgC_add**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

returns `x + y`

as a `t_COL`

.

`GEN `

**RgC_neg**`(GEN x)`

returns `-x`

as a `t_COL`

.

`GEN `

**RgC_sub**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

returns `x - y`

as a `t_COL`

.

`GEN `

**RgV_add**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

returns `x + y`

as a `t_VEC`

.

`GEN `

**RgV_neg**`(GEN x)`

returns `-x`

as a `t_VEC`

.

`GEN `

**RgV_sub**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

returns `x - y`

as a `t_VEC`

.

`GEN `

**RgM_add**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

return `x+y`

.

`GEN `

**RgM_neg**`(GEN x)`

returns `-x`

.

`GEN `

**RgM_sub**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

returns `x-y`

.

`GEN `

**RgM_Rg_add**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

assuming `x`

is a square matrix and `y`

a scalar, returns the square matrix `x + y*Id`

.

`GEN `

**RgM_Rg_add_shallow**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

as `RgM_Rg_add`

with much fewer copies. Not suitable for `gerepileupto`

.

`GEN `

**RgM_Rg_sub**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

assuming `x`

is a square matrix and `y`

a scalar, returns the square matrix `x - y*Id`

.

`GEN `

**RgM_Rg_sub_shallow**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

as `RgM_Rg_sub`

with much fewer copies. Not suitable for `gerepileupto`

.

`GEN `

**RgC_Rg_add**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

assuming `x`

is a non-empty column vector and `y`

a scalar, returns the vector `[x_1 + y, x_2,...,x_n]`

.

`GEN `

**RgC_Rg_sub**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

assuming `x`

is a non-empty column vector and `y`

a scalar, returns the vector `[x_1 - y, x_2,...,x_n]`

.

`GEN `

**Rg_RgC_sub**`(GEN a, GEN x)`

assuming `x`

is a non-empty column vector and `a`

a scalar, returns the vector `[a - x_1, -x_2,...,-x_n]`

.

`GEN `

**RgC_Rg_div**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

`GEN `

**RgM_Rg_div**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

returns `x/y`

(`y`

treated as a scalar).

`GEN `

**RgC_Rg_mul**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

`GEN `

**RgV_Rg_mul**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

`GEN `

**RgM_Rg_mul**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

returns `x x y`

(`y`

treated as a scalar).

`GEN `

**RgV_RgC_mul**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

returns `x x y`

.

`GEN `

**RgV_RgM_mul**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

returns `x x y`

.

`GEN `

**RgM_RgC_mul**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

returns `x x y`

.

`GEN `

**RgM_mul**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

returns `x x y`

.

`GEN `

**RgM_transmul**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

returns `x~ x y`

.

`GEN `

**RgM_multosym**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

returns `x x y`

, assuming the result is a symmetric matrix (about twice faster than a generic matrix multiplication).

`GEN `

**RgM_transmultosym**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

returns `x~ x y`

, assuming the result is a symmetric matrix (about twice faster than a generic matrix multiplication).

`GEN `

**RgMrow_RgC_mul**`(GEN x, GEN y, long i)`

multiplies the `i`

-th row of `RgM`

`x`

by the `RgC`

`y`

(seen as a column vector, assumed to have compatible dimensions). Assumes that `x`

is non-empty and `0 < i < lg(x[1])`

.

`GEN `

**RgM_mulreal**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

returns the real part of `x x y`

(whose entries are `t_INT`

, `t_FRAC`

, `t_REAL`

or `t_COMPLEX`

).

`GEN `

**RgM_sqr**`(GEN x)`

returns `x^2`

.

`GEN `

**RgC_RgV_mul**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

returns `x x y`

(the square matrix `(x_iy_j)`

).

The following two functions are not well defined in general and only provided for convenience in specific cases:

`GEN `

**RgC_RgM_mul**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

returns `x x y[1,]`

if `y`

is a row matrix `1 x n`

, error otherwise.

`GEN `

**RgM_RgV_mul**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

returns `x x y[,1]`

if `y`

is a column matrix `n x 1`

, error otherwise.

`GEN `

**RgM_powers**`(GEN x, long n)`

returns `[x^0, ..., x^n]`

as a `t_VEC`

of `RgM`

s.

`GEN `

**RgV_sum**`(GEN v)`

sum of the entries of `v`

`GEN `

**RgV_prod**`(GEN v)`

product of the entries of `v`

, using a divide and conquer strategy

`GEN `

**RgV_sumpart**`(GEN v, long n)`

returns the sum `v[1] +...+ v[n]`

(assumes that `lg`

`(v) > n`

).

`GEN `

**RgV_sumpart2**`(GEN v, long m, long n)`

returns the sum `v[m] +...+ v[n]`

(assumes that `lg`

`(v) > n`

and `m > 0`

). Returns `gen_0`

when `m > n`

.

`GEN `

**RgM_sumcol**`(GEN v)`

returns a `t_COL`

, sum of the columns of the `t_MAT`

`v`

.

`GEN `

**RgV_dotproduct**`(GEN x,GEN y)`

returns the scalar product of `x`

and `y`

`GEN `

**RgV_dotsquare**`(GEN x)`

returns the scalar product of `x`

with itself.

`GEN `

**RgV_kill0**`(GEN v)`

returns a shallow copy of `v`

where entries matched by `gequal0`

are replaced by `NULL`

. The return value is not a valid `GEN`

and must be handled specially. The idea is to pre-treat a vector of coefficients to speed up later linear combinations or scalar products.

`GEN `

**gram_matrix**`(GEN v)`

returns the Gram matrix `(v_i.v_j)`

attached to the entries of `v`

(matrix, or vector of vectors).

`GEN `

**RgV_polint**`(GEN X, GEN Y, long v)`

`X`

and `Y`

being two vectors of the same length, returns the polynomial `T`

in variable `v`

such that `T(X[i]) = Y[i]`

for all `i`

. The special case `X = NULL`

corresponds to `X = [1,2,...,n]`

, where `n`

is the length of `Y`

.

The following routines check whether matrices or vectors have a special shape, using `gequal1`

and `gequal0`

to test components. (This makes a difference when components are inexact.)

`int `

**RgV_isscalar**`(GEN x)`

return 1 if all the entries of `x`

are `0`

(as per `gequal0`

), except possibly the first one. The name comes from vectors expressing polynomials on the standard basis `1,T,..., T^{n-1}`

, or on `nf.zk`

(whose first element is `1`

).

`int `

**QV_isscalar**`(GEN x)`

as `RgV_isscalar`

, assuming `x`

is a `QV`

(`t_INT`

and `t_FRAC`

entries only).

`int `

**ZV_isscalar**`(GEN x)`

as `RgV_isscalar`

, assuming `x`

is a `ZV`

(`t_INT`

entries only).

`int `

**RgM_isscalar**`(GEN x, GEN s)`

return 1 if `x`

is the scalar matrix equal to `s`

times the identity, and 0 otherwise. If `s`

is `NULL`

, test whether `x`

is an arbitrary scalar matrix.

`int `

**RgM_isidentity**`(GEN x)`

return 1 if the `t_MAT`

`x`

is the identity matrix, and 0 otherwise.

`int `

**RgM_isdiagonal**`(GEN x)`

return 1 if the `t_MAT`

`x`

is a diagonal matrix, and 0 otherwise.

`long `

**RgC_is_ei**`(GEN x)`

return `i`

if the `t_COL`

`x`

has `0`

entries, but for a `1`

at position `i`

.

`int `

**RgM_is_ZM**`(GEN x)`

return 1 if the `t_MAT`

`x`

has only `t_INT`

coefficients, and 0 otherwise.

`long `

**RgV_isin**`(GEN v, GEN x)`

return the first index `i`

such that `v[i] = x`

if it exists, and `0`

otherwise. Naive search in linear time, does not assume that `v`

is sorted.

`GEN `

**RgM_diagonal**`(GEN m)`

returns the diagonal of `m`

as a `t_VEC`

.

`GEN `

**RgM_diagonal_shallow**`(GEN m)`

shallow version of `RgM_diagonal`

`GEN `

**RgC_gtofp**`(GEN x, GEN prec)`

returns the `t_COL`

obtained by applying `gtofp(gel(x,i), prec)`

to all coefficients of `x`

.

`GEN `

**RgC_gtomp**`(GEN x, long prec)`

returns the `t_COL`

obtained by applying `gtomp(gel(x,i), prec)`

to all coefficients of `x`

.

`GEN `

**RgC_fpnorml2**`(GEN x, long prec)`

returns (a stack-clean variant of)

` gnorml2( RgC_gtofp(x, prec) )`

`GEN `

**RgM_gtofp**`(GEN x, GEN prec)`

returns the `t_MAT`

obtained by applying `gtofp(gel(x,i), prec)`

to all coefficients of `x`

.

`GEN `

**RgM_gtomp**`(GEN x, long prec)`

returns the `t_MAT`

obtained by applying `gtomp(gel(x,i), prec)`

to all coefficients of `x`

.

`GEN `

**RgM_fpnorml2**`(GEN x, long prec)`

returns (a stack-clean variant of)

` gnorml2( RgM_gtofp(x, prec) )`

`GEN `

**RgM_inv**`(GEN a)`

returns a left inverse of `a`

(which needs not be square), or `NULL`

if this turns out to be impossible. The latter happens when the matrix does not have maximal rank (or when rounding errors make it appear so).

`GEN `

**RgM_inv_upper**`(GEN a)`

as `RgM_inv`

, assuming that `a`

is a non-empty invertible upper triangular matrix, hence a little faster.

`GEN `

**RgM_RgC_invimage**`(GEN A, GEN B)`

returns a `t_COL`

`X`

such that `A X = B`

if one such exists, and `NULL`

otherwise.

`GEN `

**RgM_invimage**`(GEN A, GEN B)`

returns a `t_MAT`

`X`

such that `A X = B`

if one such exists, and `NULL`

otherwise.

`GEN `

**RgM_Hadamard**`(GEN a)`

returns a upper bound for the absolute value of `det(a)`

. The bound is a `t_INT`

.

`GEN `

**RgM_solve**`(GEN a, GEN b)`

returns `a^{-1}b`

where `a`

is a square `t_MAT`

and `b`

is a `t_COL`

or `t_MAT`

. Returns `NULL`

if `a^{-1}`

cannot be computed, see `RgM_inv`

.

If `b = NULL`

, the matrix `a`

need no longer be square, and we strive to return a left inverse for `a`

(`NULL`

if it does not exist).

`GEN `

**RgM_solve_realimag**`(GEN M, GEN b)`

`M`

being a `t_MAT`

with `r_1+r_2`

rows and `r_1+2r_2`

columns, `y`

a `t_COL`

or `t_MAT`

such that the equation `Mx = y`

makes sense, returns `x`

under the following simplifying assumptions: the first `r_1`

rows of `M`

and `y`

are real (the `r_2`

others are complex), and `x`

is real. This is stabler and faster than calling `RgM_solve(M, b)`

over **C**. In most applications, `M`

approximates the complex embeddings of an integer basis in a number field, and `x`

is actually rational.

`GEN `

**split_realimag**`(GEN x, long r1, long r2)`

`x`

is a `t_COL`

or `t_MAT`

with `r_1 + r_2`

rows, whose first `r_1`

rows have real entries (the `r_2`

others are complex). Return an object of the same type as `x`

and `r_1 + 2r_2`

rows, such that the first `r_1 + r_2`

rows contain the real part of `x`

, and the `r_2`

following ones contain the imaginary part of the last `r_2`

rows of `x`

. Called by `RgM_solve_realimag`

.

`GEN `

**RgM_det_triangular**`(GEN x)`

returns the product of the diagonal entries of `x`

(its determinant if it is indeed triangular).

`GEN `

**Frobeniusform**`(GEN V, long n)`

given the vector `V`

of elementary divisors for `M - xId`

, where `M`

is an `n x n`

square matrix. Returns the Frobenius form of `M`

.

`int `

**RgM_QR_init**`(GEN x, GEN *pB, GEN *pQ, GEN *pL, long prec)`

QR-decomposition of a square invertible `t_MAT`

`x`

with real coefficients. Sets `*pB`

to the vector of squared lengths of the `x[i]`

, `*pL`

to the Gram-Schmidt coefficients and `*pQ`

to a vector of successive Householder transforms. If `R`

denotes the transpose of `L`

and `Q`

is the result of applying `*pQ`

to the identity matrix, then `x = QR`

is the QR decomposition of `x`

. Returns `0`

is `x`

is not invertible or we hit a precision problem, and `1`

otherwise.

`int `

**QR_init**`(GEN x, GEN *pB, GEN *pQ, GEN *pL, long prec)`

as `RgM_QR_init`

, assuming further that `x`

has `t_INT`

or `t_REAL`

coefficients.

`GEN `

**R_from_QR**`(GEN x, long prec)`

assuming that `x`

is a square invertible `t_MAT`

with `t_INT`

or `t_REAL`

coefficients, return the upper triangular `R`

from the `QR`

docomposition of `x`

. Not memory clean. If the matrix is not known to have `t_INT`

or `t_REAL`

coefficients, apply `RgM_gtomp`

first.

`GEN `

**gaussred_from_QR**`(GEN x, long prec)`

assuming that `x`

is a square invertible `t_MAT`

with `t_INT`

or `t_REAL`

coefficients, returns `qfgaussred(x~ * x)`

; this is essentially the upper triangular `R`

matrix from the `QR`

decomposition of `x`

, renormalized to accomodate `qfgaussred`

conventions. Not memory clean.

`GEN `

**RgM_gram_schmidt**`(GEN e, GEN *ptB)`

naive (unstable) Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization of the basis `(e_i)`

given by the columns of `t_MAT`

`e`

. Return the `e_i^*`

(as columns of a `t_MAT`

) and set `*ptB`

to the vector of squared lengths `|e_i^*|^2`

.

`GEN `

**RgM_Babai**`(GEN M, GEN y)`

given an LLL-reduced `t_MAT`

`M`

and a `t_COL`

`y`

of the same dimension, apply Babai's nearest plane algorithm to return an *integral* `x`

such that `y - Mx`

has small `L_2`

norm. This yields an approximate solution to the closest vector problem.

`ZG`

Let `G`

be a multiplicative group with neutral element `1_G`

whose multiplication is supported by `gmul`

and where equality test is performed using `gidentical`

, e.g. a matrix group. The following routines implement basic computations in the group algebra **Z**`[G]`

. All of them are shallow for efficiency reasons. A `ZG`

is either

@3***** a `t_INT`

`n`

, representing `n[1_G]`

@3***** or a ``factorization matrix'' with two columns `[g,e]`

: the first one contains group elements, sorted according to `cmp_universal`

, and the second one contains integer ``exponents'', representing *sum*` e_i [g_i]`

.

Note that `to_famat`

and `to_famat_shallow`

`(g,e)`

allow to build the `ZG`

`e[g]`

from `e\in `

**Z** and `g\in G`

.

`GEN `

**ZG_normalize**`(GEN x)`

given a `t_INT`

`x`

or a factorization matrix *without* assuming that the first column is properly sorted. Return a valid (sorted) `ZG`

. Shallow function.

`GEN `

**ZG_add**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

return `x+y`

; shallow function.

`GEN `

**ZG_neg**`(GEN x)`

return `-x`

; shallow function.

`GEN `

**ZG_sub**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

return `x-y`

; shallow function.

`GEN `

**ZG_mul**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

return `xy`

; shallow function.

`GEN `

**ZG_G_mul**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

given a `ZG`

`x`

and `y\in G`

, return `xy`

; shallow function.

`GEN `

**G_ZG_mul**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

given a `ZG`

`y`

and `x\in G`

, return `xy`

; shallow function.

`GEN `

**ZG_Z_mul**`(GEN x, GEN n)`

given a `ZG`

`x`

and `y\in `

**Z**, return `xy`

; shallow function.

`GEN `

**ZGC_G_mul**`(GEN v, GEN x)`

given `v`

a vector of `ZG`

and `x\in G`

return the vector (with the same type as `v`

with entries `v[i].x`

. Shallow function.

`void `

**ZGC_G_mul_inplace**`(GEN v, GEN x)`

as `ZGC_G_mul`

, modifying `v`

in place.

`GEN `

**ZGC_Z_mul**`(GEN v, GEN n)`

given `v`

a vector of `ZG`

and `n\in Z`

return the vector (with the same type as `v`

with entries `n.v[i]`

. Shallow function.

`GEN `

**G_ZGC_mul**`(GEN x, GEN v)`

given `v`

a vector of `ZG`

and `x\in G`

return the vector of `x.v[i]`

. Shallow function.

`GEN `

**ZGCs_add**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

add two sparse vectors of `ZG`

elements (see Blackbox linear algebra below).

A sparse column `zCs`

`v`

is a `t_COL`

with two components `C`

and `E`

which are `t_VECSMALL`

of the same length, representing *sum*`_i E[i]*e_{C[i]}`

, where `(e_j)`

is the canonical basis. A sparse matrix (`zMs`

) is a `t_VEC`

of `zCs`

.

`FpCs`

and `FpMs`

are identical to the above, but `E[i]`

is now interpreted as a *signed* C long integer representing an element of **F**`_p`

. This is important since `p`

can be so large that `p+E[i]`

would not fit in a C long.

`RgCs`

and `RgMs`

are similar, except that the type of the components of `E`

is now unspecified. Functions handling those later objects must not depend on the type of those components.

It is not possible to derive the space dimension (number of rows) from the above data. Thus most functions take an argument `nbrow`

which is the number of rows of the corresponding column/matrix in dense representation.

`GEN `

**zCs_to_ZC**`(GEN C, long nbrow)`

convert the sparse vector `C`

to a dense `ZC`

of dimension `nbrow`

.

`GEN `

**zMs_to_ZM**`(GEN M, long nbrow)`

convert the sparse matrix `M`

to a dense `ZM`

whose columns have dimension `nbrow`

.

`GEN `

**FpMs_FpC_mul**`(GEN M, GEN B, GEN p)`

multiply the sparse matrix `M`

(over **F**`_p`

) by the sparse vector `B`

. The result is an `FpC`

, i.e. a dense vector.

`GEN `

**zMs_ZC_mul**`(GEN M, GEN B, GEN p)`

multiply the sparse matrix `M`

by the sparse vector `B`

(over **Z**). The result is an `ZC`

, i.e. a dense vector.

`GEN `

**FpV_FpMs_mul**`(GEN B, GEN M, GEN p)`

multiply the sparse vector `B`

by the sparse matrix `M`

(over **F**`_p`

). The result is an `FpV`

, i.e. a dense vector.

`GEN `

**ZV_zMs_mul**`(GEN B, GEN M, GEN p)`

multiply the sparse vector `B`

(over **Z**) by the sparse matrix `M`

. The result is an `ZV`

, i.e. a dense vector.

`void `

**RgMs_structelim**`(GEN M, long nbrow, GEN A, GEN *p_col, GEN *p_row)`

`M`

being a RgMs with `nbrow`

rows, `A`

being a list of row indices, Perform structured elimination on `M`

by removing some rows and columns until the number of effectively present rows is equal to the number of columns. the result is stored in two `t_VECSMALL`

s, `*p_col`

and `*p_row`

: `*p_col`

is a map from the new columns indices to the old one. `*p_row`

is a map from the old rows indices to the new one (`0`

if removed).

`GEN `

**FpMs_leftkernel_elt**`(GEN M, long nbrow, GEN p)`

`M`

being a sparse matrix over **F**`_p`

, return a non-zero kbd{FpV} `X`

such that `X M`

components are almost all `0`

.

`GEN `

**FpMs_FpCs_solve**`(GEN M, GEN B, long nbrow, GEN p)`

solve the equation `M X = B`

, where `M`

is a sparse matrix and `B`

is a sparse vector, both over **F**`_p`

. Return either a solution as a `t_COL`

(dense vector), the index of a column which is linearly dependent from the others as a `t_VECSMALL`

with a single component, or `NULL`

(can happen if `B`

is not in the image of `M`

).

`GEN `

**FpMs_FpCs_solve_safe**`(GEN M, GEN B, long nbrow, GEN p)`

as above, but in the event that `p`

is not a prime and an impossible division occurs, return `NULL`

.

`GEN `

**ZpMs_ZpCs_solve**`(GEN M, GEN B, long nbrow, GEN p, long e)`

solve the equation `MX = B`

, where `M`

is a sparse matrix and `B`

is a sparse vector, both over **Z**`/p^e`

**Z**. Return either a solution as a `t_COL`

(dense vector), or the index of a column which is linearly dependent from the others as a `t_VECSMALL`

with a single component.

`GEN `

**gen_FpM_Wiedemann**`(void *E, GEN (*f)(void*, GEN), GEN B, GEN p)`

solve the equation `f(X) = B`

over **F**`_p`

, where `B`

is a `FpV`

, and `f`

is a blackbox endomorphism, where `f(E, X)`

computes the value of `f`

at the (dense) column vector `X`

. Returns either a solution `t_COL`

, or a kernel vector as a `t_VEC`

.

`GEN `

**gen_ZpM_Dixon**`(void *E, GEN (*f)(void*, GEN), GEN B, GEN p, long e)`

solve equation `f(X) = B`

over **Z**`/p^e`

**Z**, where `B`

is a `ZV`

, and `f`

is a blackbox endomorphism, where `f(E, X)`

computes the value of `f`

at the (dense) column vector `X`

. Returns either a solution `t_COL`

, or a kernel vector as a `t_VEC`

.

The functions in this section are kept for backward compatibility only and will eventually disappear.

`GEN `

**image2**`(GEN x)`

compute the image of `x`

using a very slow algorithm. Use `image`

instead.

`ZX`

`void `

**RgX_check_ZX**`(GEN x, const char *s)`

Assuming `x`

is a `t_POL`

raise an error if it is not a `ZX`

(`s`

should point to the name of the caller).

`GEN `

**ZX_copy**`(GEN x,GEN p)`

returns a copy of `x`

.

`long `

**ZX_max_lg**`(GEN x)`

returns the effective length of the longest component in `x`

.

`GEN `

**scalar_ZX**`(GEN x, long v)`

returns the constant `ZX`

in variable `v`

equal to the `t_INT`

`x`

.

`GEN `

**scalar_ZX_shallow**`(GEN x, long v)`

returns the constant `ZX`

in variable `v`

equal to the `t_INT`

`x`

. Shallow function not suitable for `gerepile`

and friends.

`GEN `

**ZX_renormalize**`(GEN x, long l)`

, as `normalizepol`

, where `l = lg(x)`

, in place.

`int `

**ZX_equal**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

returns `1`

if the two `ZX`

have the same `degpol`

and their coefficients are equal. Variable numbers are not checked.

`int `

**ZX_equal1**`(GEN x)`

returns `1`

if the `ZX`

is equal to `1`

and `0`

otherwise.

`GEN `

**ZX_add**`(GEN x,GEN y)`

adds `x`

and `y`

.

`GEN `

**ZX_sub**`(GEN x,GEN y)`

subtracts `x`

and `y`

.

`GEN `

**ZX_neg**`(GEN x,GEN p)`

returns `-x`

.

`GEN `

**ZX_Z_add**`(GEN x,GEN y)`

adds the integer `y`

to the `ZX`

`x`

.

`GEN `

**ZX_Z_add_shallow**`(GEN x,GEN y)`

shallow version of `ZX_Z_add`

.

`GEN `

**ZX_Z_sub**`(GEN x,GEN y)`

subtracts the integer `y`

to the `ZX`

`x`

.

`GEN `

**Z_ZX_sub**`(GEN x,GEN y)`

subtracts the `ZX`

`y`

to the integer `x`

.

`GEN `

**ZX_Z_mul**`(GEN x,GEN y)`

multiplies the `ZX`

`x`

by the integer `y`

.

`GEN `

**ZX_mulu**`(GEN x, ulong y)`

multiplies `x`

by the integer `y`

.

`GEN `

**ZX_shifti**`(GEN x, long n)`

shifts all coefficients of `x`

by `n`

bits, which can be negative.

`GEN `

**ZX_Z_divexact**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

returns `x/y`

assuming all divisions are exact.

`GEN `

**ZX_remi2n**`(GEN x, long n)`

reduces all coefficients of `x`

to `n`

bits, using `remi2n`

.

`GEN `

**ZX_mul**`(GEN x,GEN y)`

multiplies `x`

and `y`

.

`GEN `

**ZX_sqr**`(GEN x,GEN p)`

returns `x^2`

.

`GEN `

**ZX_mulspec**`(GEN a, GEN b, long na, long nb)`

. Internal routine: `a`

and `b`

are arrays of coefficients representing polynomials *sum*`_{i = 0}^{na-1} a[i] X^i`

and *sum*`_{i = 0}^{nb-1} b[i] X^i`

. Returns their product (as a true `GEN`

).

`GEN `

**ZX_sqrspec**`(GEN a, long na)`

. Internal routine: `a`

is an array of coefficients representing polynomial *sum*`_{i = 0}^{na-1} a[i] X^i`

. Return its square (as a true `GEN`

).

`GEN `

**ZX_rem**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

returns the remainder of the Euclidean division of `x`

mod `y`

. Assume that `x`

, `y`

are two `ZX`

and that `y`

is monic.

`GEN `

**ZX_mod_Xnm1**`(GEN T, ulong n)`

return `T`

modulo `X^n - 1)`

. Shallow function.

`GEN `

**ZX_div_by_X_1**`(GEN T, GEN *r)`

return the quotient of `T`

by `X-1`

. If `r`

is not `NULL`

set it to `T(1)`

.

`GEN `

**ZX_gcd**`(GEN x,GEN y)`

returns a gcd of the `ZX`

`x`

and `y`

. Not memory-clean, but suitable for `gerepileupto`

.

`GEN `

**ZX_gcd_all**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN *pX)`

. returns a gcd `d`

of `x`

and `y`

. If `pX`

is not `NULL`

, set `*pX`

to a (non-zero) integer multiple of `x/d`

. If `x`

and `y`

are both monic, then `d`

is monic and `*pX`

is exactly `x/d`

. Not memory clean if the gcd is `1`

(in that case `*pX`

is set to `x`

).

`GEN `

**ZX_content**`(GEN x)`

returns the content of the `ZX`

`x`

.

`long `

**ZX_val**`(GEN P)`

as `RgX_val`

, but assumes `P`

has `t_INT`

coefficients.

`long `

**ZX_valrem**`(GEN P, GEN *z)`

as `RgX_valrem`

, but assumes `P`

has `t_INT`

coefficients.

`GEN `

**ZX_to_monic**`(GEN q GEN *L)`

given `q`

a non-zero `ZX`

, returns a monic integral polynomial `Q`

such that `Q(x) = C q(x/L)`

, for some rational `C`

and positive integer `L > 0`

. If `L`

is not `NULL`

, set `*L`

to `L`

; if `L = 1`

, `*L`

is set to `gen_1`

. Not suitable for gerepileupto.

`GEN `

**ZX_primitive_to_monic**`(GEN q, GEN *L)`

as `ZX_to_monic`

except `q`

is assumed to have trivial content, which avoids recomputing it. The result is suboptimal if `q`

is not primitive (`L`

larger than necessary), but remains correct.

`GEN `

**ZX_Z_normalize**`(GEN q, GEN *L)`

a restricted version of `ZX_primitive_to_monic`

, where `q`

is a *monic* `ZX`

of degree ` > 0`

. Finds the largest integer `L > 0`

such that `Q(X) := L^{-`

*deg* ` q} q(Lx)`

is integral and return `Q`

; this is not well-defined if `q`

is a monomial, in that case, set `L = 1`

and `Q = q`

. If `L`

is not `NULL`

, set `*L`

to `L`

.

`GEN `

**ZX_Q_normalize**`(GEN q, GEN *L)`

a variant of `ZX_Z_normalize`

where `L > 0`

is allowed to be rational, the monic `Q\in `

**Z**`[X]`

has possibly smaller coefficients.

`long `

**ZX_deflate_order**`(GEN P)`

given a non-constant `ZX`

`P`

, returns the largest exponent `d`

such that `P`

is of the form `P(x^d)`

.

`long `

**ZX_deflate_max**`(GEN P, long *d)`

. Given a non-constant polynomial with integer coefficients `P`

, sets `d`

to `ZX_deflate_order(P)`

and returns `RgX_deflate(P,d)`

. Shallow function.

`GEN `

**ZX_rescale**`(GEN P, GEN h)`

returns `h^{`

*deg* `(P)} P(x/h)`

. `P`

is a `ZX`

and `h`

is a non-zero integer. Neither memory-clean nor suitable for `gerepileupto`

.

`GEN `

**ZX_rescale2n**`(GEN P, long n)`

returns `2^{n`

*deg* `(P)} P(x >> n)`

where `P`

is a `ZX`

. Neither memory-clean nor suitable for `gerepileupto`

.

`GEN `

**ZX_rescale_lt**`(GEN P)`

returns the monic integral polynomial `h^{`

*deg* `(P)-1} P(x/h)`

, where `P`

is a non-zero `ZX`

and `h`

is its leading coefficient. Neither memory-clean nor suitable for `gerepileupto`

.

`GEN `

**ZX_translate**`(GEN P, GEN c)`

assume `P`

is a `ZX`

and `c`

an integer. Returns `P(X + c)`

(optimized for `c = `

).*+-* 1

`GEN `

**ZX_unscale**`(GEN P, GEN h)`

given a `ZX`

`P`

and a `t_INT`

`h`

, returns `P(hx)`

. Not memory clean.

`GEN `

**ZX_unscale2n**`(GEN P, long n)`

given a `ZX`

`P`

, returns `P(x << n)`

. Not memory clean.

`GEN `

**ZX_unscale_div**`(GEN P, GEN h)`

given a `ZX`

`P`

and a `t_INT`

`h`

such that `h | P(0)`

, returns `P(hx)/h`

. Not memory clean.

`GEN `

**ZX_eval1**`(GEN P)`

returns the integer `P(1)`

.

`GEN `

**ZX_graeffe**`(GEN p)`

returns the Graeffe transform of `p`

, i.e. the `ZX`

`q`

such that `p(x)p(-x) = q(x^2)`

.

`GEN `

**ZX_deriv**`(GEN x)`

returns the derivative of `x`

.

`GEN `

**ZX_resultant**`(GEN A, GEN B)`

returns the resultant of the `ZX`

`A`

and `B`

.

`GEN `

**ZX_disc**`(GEN T)`

returns the discriminant of the `ZX`

`T`

.

`GEN `

**ZX_factor**`(GEN T)`

returns the factorization of the primitive part of `T`

over **Q**`[X]`

(the content is lost).

`int `

**ZX_is_squarefree**`(GEN T)`

returns `1`

if the `ZX`

`T`

is squarefree, `0`

otherwise.

`long `

**ZX_is_irred**`(GEN T)`

returns 1 it `T`

is irreducible, and 0 otherwise.

`GEN `

**ZX_squff**`(GEN T, GEN *E)`

write `T`

as a product *prod*` T_i^{e_i}`

with the `e_1 < e_2 < ...`

all distinct and the `T_i`

pairwise coprime. Return the vector of the `T_i`

, and set `*E`

to the vector of the `e_i`

, as a `t_VECSMALL`

.

`GEN `

**ZX_Uspensky**`(GEN P, GEN ab, long flag, long bitprec)`

let `P`

be a primitive `ZX`

polynomial whose real roots are simple and `bitprec`

is the relative precision in bits.

@3***** If `flag`

is 0 returns a list of intervals that isolate the real roots of `P`

. The return value is a column of elements which are either vectors `[a,b]`

meaning that there is a single root in the open interval `(a,b)`

or elements `x0`

such that `x0`

is a root of `P`

. There is no guarantee that all rational roots are found (at most those with denominator a power of `2`

can be found and even those are not guaranteed). Beware that the limits of the open intervals can be roots of the polynomial.

@3***** If `flag`

is 1 returns an approximation of the real roots of `P`

.

@3***** If `flag`

is 2 returns the number of roots.

The argument `ab`

specify the interval in which the roots are searched. The default interval is `(- oo , oo )`

. If `ab`

is an integer or fraction `a`

then the interval is `[a, oo )`

. If `ab`

is a vector `[a,b]`

, where `t_INT`

, `t_FRAC`

or `t_INFINITY`

are allowed for `a`

and `b`

, the interval is `[a,b]`

.

`long `

**ZX_sturm**`(GEN P)`

number of real roots of the non-constant squarefree `ZX`

`P`

. For efficiency, it is advised to make `P`

primitive first.

`long `

**ZX_sturmpart**`(GEN P, GEN ab)`

number of real roots of the non-constant squarefree `ZX`

`P`

in the interval specified by `ab`

: either `NULL`

(no restriction) or a `t_VEC`

`[a,b]`

with two real components (of type `t_INT`

, `t_FRAC`

or `t_INFINITY`

). For efficiency, it is advised to make `P`

primitive first.

`ZXQ`

`GEN `

**ZXQ_mul**`(GEN x,GEN y,GEN T)`

returns `x*y`

mod `T`

, assuming that all inputs are `ZX`

s and that `T`

is monic.

`GEN `

**ZXQ_sqr**`(GEN x,GEN T)`

returns `x^2`

mod `T`

, assuming that all inputs are `ZX`

s and that `T`

is monic.

`GEN `

**ZXQ_charpoly**`(GEN A, GEN T, long v)`

: let `T`

and `A`

be `ZX`

s, returns the characteristic polynomial of `Mod(A, T)`

. More generally, `A`

is allowed to be a `QX`

, hence possibly has rational coefficients, *assuming* the result is a `ZX`

, i.e. the algebraic number `Mod(A,T)`

is integral over `Z`

.

`GEN `

**ZX_ZXY_resultant**`(GEN A, GEN B)`

under the assumption that `A`

in **Z**`[Y]`

, `B`

in **Q**`[Y][X]`

, and `R = Res_Y(A, B) \in `

**Z**`[X]`

, returns the resultant `R`

.

`GEN `

**ZX_compositum_disjoint**`(GEN A, GEN B)`

given two irreducible `ZX`

defining linearly disjoint extensions, returns a `ZX`

defining their compositum.

`GEN `

**ZX_ZXY_rnfequation**`(GEN A, GEN B, long *lambda)`

, assume `A`

in **Z**`[Y]`

, `B`

in **Q**`[Y][X]`

, and `R = Res_Y(A, B) \in `

**Z**`[X]`

. If `lambda = NULL`

, returns `R`

as in `ZY_ZXY_resultant`

. Otherwise, `lambda`

must point to some integer, e.g. `0`

which is used as a seed. The function then finds a small *lambda*` \in `

**Z** (starting from `*lambda`

) such that `R_`

*lambda*`(X) := Res_Y(A, B(X + `

*lambda*` Y))`

is squarefree, resets `*lambda`

to the chosen value and returns `R_{`

*lambda*`}`

.

`ZXV`

`GEN `

**ZXV_equal**`(GEN x,GEN y)`

returns `1`

if the two vectors of `ZX`

are equal, as per `ZX_equal`

(variables are not checked to be equal) and `0`

otherwise.

`GEN `

**ZXV_Z_mul**`(GEN x,GEN y)`

multiplies the vector of `ZX`

`x`

by the integer `y`

.

`GEN `

**ZXV_remi2n**`(GEN x, long n)`

applies `ZX_remi2n`

to all coefficients of `x`

.

`GEN `

**ZXV_dotproduct**`(GEN x,GEN y)`

as `RgV_dotproduct`

assuming `x`

and `y`

have `ZX`

entries.

`ZXT`

`GEN `

**ZXT_remi2n**`(GEN x, long n)`

applies `ZX_remi2n`

to all leaves of the tree `x`

.

`ZXX`

`void `

**RgX_check_ZXX**`(GEN x, const char *s)`

Assuming `x`

is a `t_POL`

raise an error if it one of its coefficients is not an integer or a `ZX`

(`s`

should point to the name of the caller).

`GEN `

**ZXX_renormalize**`(GEN x, long l)`

, as `normalizepol`

, where `l = lg(x)`

, in place.

`long `

**ZXX_max_lg**`(GEN x)`

returns the effective length of the longest component in `x`

; assume all coefficients are `t_INT`

or `ZX`

s.

`GEN `

**ZXX_Z_mul**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

returns `x y`

.

`GEN `

**ZXX_Z_add_shallow**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

returns `x+y`

. Shallow function.

`GEN `

**ZXX_Z_divexact**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

returns `x/y`

assuming all integer divisions are exact.

`GEN `

**ZXX_to_Kronecker**`(GEN P, long n)`

Assuming `P(X,Y)`

is a polynomial of degree in `X`

strictly less than `n`

, returns `P(X,X^{2*n-1})`

, the Kronecker form of `P`

. Shallow function.

`GEN `

**ZXX_to_Kronecker_spec**`(GEN Q, long lQ, long n)`

return `ZXX_to_Kronecker`

`(P, n)`

, where `P`

is the polynomial *sum*`_{i = 0}^{lQ - 1} Q[i] x^i`

. To be used when splitting the coefficients of genuine polynomials into blocks. Shallow function.

`GEN `

**Kronecker_to_ZXX**`(GEN z, long n, long v)`

recover `P(X,Y)`

from its Kronecker form `P(X,X^{2 n-1})`

, `v`

is the variable number corresponding to `Y`

. Shallow function.

`GEN `

**ZXX_mul_Kronecker**`(GEN P, GEN Q, long n)`

return `ZX_mul`

applied to the Kronecker forms `P(X,X^{2 n-1})`

and `Q(X,X^{2 n-1})`

of `P`

and `Q`

. Not memory clean.

`GEN `

**ZXX_sqr_Kronecker**`(GEN P, long n)`

return `ZX_sqr`

applied to the Kronecker forms `P(X,X^{2 n-1})`

of `P`

. Not memory clean.

`QX`

`void `

**RgX_check_QX**`(GEN x, const char *s)`

Assuming `x`

is a `t_POL`

raise an error if it is not a `QX`

(`s`

should point to the name of the caller).

`GEN `

**QX_gcd**`(GEN x,GEN y)`

returns a gcd of the `QX`

`x`

and `y`

.

`GEN `

**QX_disc**`(GEN T)`

returns the discriminant of the `QX`

`T`

.

`GEN `

**QX_factor**`(GEN T)`

as `ZX_factor`

.

`GEN `

**QX_resultant**`(GEN A, GEN B)`

returns the resultant of the `QX`

`A`

and `B`

.

`GEN `

**QX_complex_roots**`(GEN p, long l)`

returns the complex roots of the `QX`

`p`

at accuracy `l`

, where real roots are returned as `t_REAL`

s. More efficient when `p`

is irreducible and primitive. Special case of `cleanroots`

.

`QXQ`

`GEN `

**QXQ_norm**`(GEN A, GEN B)`

`A`

being a `QX`

and `B`

being a `ZX`

, returns the norm of the algebraic number `A mod B`

, using a modular algorithm. To ensure that `B`

is a `ZX`

, one may replace it by `Q_primpart(B)`

, which of course does not change the norm.

If `A`

is not a `ZX`

--- it has a denominator ---, but the result is nevertheless known to be an integer, it is much more efficient to call `QXQ_intnorm`

instead.

`GEN `

**QXQ_intnorm**`(GEN A, GEN B)`

`A`

being a `QX`

and `B`

being a `ZX`

, returns the norm of the algebraic number `A mod B`

, *assuming* that the result is an integer, which is for instance the case is `A mod B`

is an algebraic integer, in particular if `A`

is a `ZX`

. To ensure that `B`

is a `ZX`

, one may replace it by `Q_primpart(B)`

(which of course does not change the norm).

If the result is not known to be an integer, you must use `QXQ_norm`

instead, which is slower.

`GEN `

**QXQ_inv**`(GEN A, GEN B)`

returns the inverse of `A`

modulo `B`

where `A`

is a `QX`

and `B`

is a `ZX`

. Should you need this for a `QX`

`B`

, just use

` QXQ_inv(A, Q_primpart(B));`

@3But in all cases where modular arithmetic modulo `B`

is desired, it is much more efficient to replace `B`

by `Q_primpart(B)`

once and for all.

`GEN `

**QXQ_charpoly**`(GEN A, GEN T, long v)`

where `A`

is a `QX`

and `T`

is a `ZX`

, returns the characteristic polynomial of `Mod(A, T)`

. If the result is known to be a `ZX`

, then calling `ZXQ_charpoly`

will be faster.

`GEN `

**QXQ_powers**`(GEN x, long n, GEN T)`

returns `[x^0,..., x^n]`

as `RgXQ_powers`

would, but in a more efficient way when `x`

has a huge integer denominator (we start by removing that denominator). Meant to be used to precompute powers of algebraic integers in **Q**`[t]/(T)`

. The current implementation does not require `x`

to be a `QX`

: any polynomial to which `Q_remove_denom`

can be applied is fine.

`GEN `

**QXQ_reverse**`(GEN f, GEN T)`

as `RgXQ_reverse`

, assuming `f`

is a `QX`

.

`GEN `

**QX_ZXQV_eval**`(GEN f, GEN nV, GEN dV)`

as `RgX_RgXQV_eval`

, except that `f`

is assumed to be a `QX`

, `V`

is given implicitly by a numerator `nV`

(`ZV`

) and denominator `dV`

(a positive `t_INT`

or `NULL`

for trivial denominator). Not memory clean, but suitable for `gerepileupto`

.

`GEN `

**QXV_QXQ_eval**`(GEN v, GEN a, GEN T)`

`v`

is a vector of `QX`

s (possibly scalars, i.e. rational numbers, for convenience), `a`

and `T`

both `QX`

. Return the vector of evaluations at `a`

modulo `T`

. Not memory clean, nor suitable for `gerepileupto`

.

`GEN `

**QXX_QXQ_eval**`(GEN P, GEN a, GEN T)`

`P(X,Y)`

is a `t_POL`

with `QX`

coefficients (possibly scalars, i.e. rational numbers, for convenience) , `a`

and `T`

both `QX`

. Return the `QX`

`P(X, a mod T)`

. Not memory clean, nor suitable for `gerepileupto`

.

`GEN `

**nfgcd**`(GEN P, GEN Q, GEN T, GEN den)`

given `P`

and `Q`

in **Z**`[X,Y]`

, `T`

monic irreducible in **Z**`[Y]`

, returns the primitive `d`

in **Z**`[X,Y]`

which is a gcd of `P`

, `Q`

in `K[X]`

, where `K`

is the number field **Q**`[Y]/(T)`

. If not `NULL`

, `den`

is a multiple of the integral denominator of the (monic) gcd of `P,Q`

in `K[X]`

.

`GEN `

**nfgcd_all**`(GEN P, GEN Q, GEN T, GEN den, GEN *Pnew)`

as `nfgcd`

. If `Pnew`

is not `NULL`

, set `*Pnew`

to a non-zero integer multiple of `P/d`

. If `P`

and `Q`

are both monic, then `d`

is monic and `*Pnew`

is exactly `P/d`

. Not memory clean if the gcd is `1`

(in that case `*Pnew`

is set to `P`

).

`zx`

`GEN `

**zero_zx**`(long sv)`

returns a zero `zx`

in variable `v`

.

`GEN `

**polx_zx**`(long sv)`

returns the variable `v`

as degree 1 `Flx`

.

`GEN `

**zx_renormalize**`(GEN x, long l)`

, as `Flx_renormalize`

, where `l = lg(x)`

, in place.

`GEN `

**zx_shift**`(GEN T, long n)`

returns `T`

multiplied by `x^n`

, assuming `n >= 0`

.

`RgX`

`long `

**RgX_type**`(GEN x, GEN *ptp, GEN *ptpol, long *ptprec)`

returns the ``natural'' base ring over which the polynomial `x`

is defined. Contrary to what its name suggests, this function also works for scalar types, `t_SER`

and `t_MAT`

`x`

.

Raise an error if it detects consistency problems in modular objects: incompatible rings (e.g. **F**`_p`

and **F**`_q`

for primes `p != q`

, **F**`_p[X]/(T)`

and **F**`_p[X]/(U)`

for `T != U`

). Minor discrepancies are supported if they make general sense (e.g. **F**`_p`

and **F**`_{p^k}`

, but not **F**`_p`

and **Q**`_p`

); `t_FFELT`

and `t_POLMOD`

of `t_INTMOD`

s are considered inconsistent, even if they define the same field: if you need to use simultaneously these different finite field implementations, multiply the polynomial by a `t_FFELT`

equal to `1`

first.

@3***** 0: none of the others (presumably multivariate, possibly inconsistent).

@3***** `t_INT`

: defined over **Q** (not necessarily **Z**).

@3***** `t_INTMOD`

: defined over **Z**`/p`

**Z**, where `*ptp`

is set to `p`

. It is not checked whether `p`

is prime.

@3***** `t_COMPLEX`

: defined over **C** (at least one `t_COMPLEX`

with at least one inexact floating point `t_REAL`

component). Set `*ptprec`

to the minimal accuracy (as per `precision`

) of inexact components.

@3***** `t_REAL`

: defined over **R** (at least one inexact floating point `t_REAL`

component). Set `*ptprec`

to the minimal accuracy (as per `precision`

) of inexact components.

@3***** `t_PADIC`

: defined over **Q**`_p`

, where `*ptp`

is set to `p`

and `*ptprec`

to the `p`

-adic accuracy.

@3***** `t_FFELT`

: defined over a finite field **F**`_{p^k}`

, where `*ptp`

is set to the field characteristic `p`

and `*ptpol`

is set to a `t_FFELT`

belonging to the field.

@3***** other values are composite corresponding to quotients `R[X]/(T)`

, with one primary type `t1`

, describing the form of the quotient, and a secondary type `t2`

, describing `R`

. If `t`

is the `RgX_type`

, `t1`

and `t2`

are recovered using

`void `

**RgX_type_decode**`(long t, long *t1, long *t2)`

`t1`

is one of

`t_POLMOD`

: at least one `t_POLMOD`

component, set `*ppol`

to the modulus,

`t_QUAD`

: no `t_POLMOD`

, at least one `t_QUAD`

component, set `*ppol`

to the modulus (`-.pol`

) of the `t_QUAD`

,

`t_COMPLEX`

: no `t_POLMOD`

or `t_QUAD`

, at least one `t_COMPLEX`

component, set `*ppol`

to `y^2 + 1`

.

and the underlying base ring `R`

is given by `t2`

, which is one of `t_INT`

, `t_INTMOD`

(set `*ptp`

) or `t_PADIC`

(set `*ptp`

and `*ptprec`

), with the same meaning as above.

`int `

**RgX_type_is_composite**`(long t)`

`t`

as returned by `RgX_type`

, return 1 if `t`

is a composite type, and 0 otherwise.

`GEN `

**RgX_get_0**`(GEN x)`

returns `0`

in the base ring over which `x`

is defined, to the proper accuracy (e.g. `0`

, `Mod(0,3)`

, `O(5^10)`

).

`GEN `

**RgX_get_1**`(GEN x)`

returns `1`

in the base ring over which `x`

is defined, to the proper accuracy (e.g. `0`

, `Mod(0,3)`

,

`long `

**RgX_degree**`(GEN x, long v)`

`x`

being a `t_POL`

and `v >= 0`

, returns the degree in `v`

of `x`

. Error if `x`

is not a polynomial in `v`

.

`int `

**RgX_isscalar**`(GEN x)`

return 1 if `x`

all the coefficients of `x`

of degree ` > 0`

are `0`

(as per `gequal0`

).

`int `

**RgX_is_rational**`(GEN P)`

return 1 if the `RgX`

`P`

has only rational coefficients (`t_INT`

and `t_FRAC`

), and 0 otherwise.

`int `

**RgX_is_QX**`(GEN P)`

return 1 if the `RgX`

`P`

has only `t_INT`

and `t_FRAC`

coefficients, and 0 otherwise.

`int `

**RgX_is_ZX**`(GEN P)`

return 1 if the `RgX`

`P`

has only `t_INT`

coefficients, and 0 otherwise.

`int `

**RgX_is_monomial**`(GEN x)`

returns 1 (true) if `x`

is a non-zero monomial in its main variable, 0 otherwise.

`long `

**RgX_equal**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

returns `1`

if the `t_POL`

s `x`

and `y`

have the same `degpol`

and their coefficients are equal (as per `gequal`

). Variable numbers are not checked. Note that this is more stringent than `gequal(x,y)`

, which only checks whether `x - y`

satisfies `gequal0`

; in particular, they may have different apparent degrees provided the extra leading terms are `0`

.

`long `

**RgX_equal_var**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

returns `1`

if `x`

and `y`

have the same variable number and `RgX_equal(x,y)`

is `1`

.

`GEN `

**RgX_coeff**`(GEN P, long n)`

return the coefficient of `x^n`

in `P`

, defined as `gen_0`

if `n < 0`

or `n > degpol(P)`

. Shallow function.

`int `

**RgX_blocks**`(GEN P, long n, long m)`

writes `P(X) = a_0(X)+X^n*a_1(X)*X^n+...+X^{n*(m-1)} a_{m-1}(X)`

, where the `a_i`

are polynomial of degree at most `n-1`

(except possibly for the last one) and returns `[a_0(X),a_1(X),...,a_{m-1}(X)]`

. Shallow function.

`void `

**RgX_even_odd**`(GEN p, GEN *pe, GEN *po)`

write `p(X) = E(X^2) + X O(X^2)`

and set `*pe = E`

, `*po = O`

. Shallow function.

`GEN `

**RgX_splitting**`(GEN P, long k)`

write `P(X) = a_0(X^k)+X a_1(X^k)+...+X^{k-1} a_{k-1}(X^k)`

and return `[a_0(X),a_1(X),...,a_{k-1}(X)]`

. Shallow function.

`GEN `

**RgX_copy**`(GEN x)`

returns (a deep copy of) `x`

.

`GEN `

**RgX_renormalize**`(GEN x)`

remove leading terms in `x`

which are equal to (necessarily inexact) zeros.

`GEN `

**RgX_renormalize_lg**`(GEN x, long lx)`

as `setlg(x, lx)`

followed by `RgX_renormalize(x)`

. Assumes that `lx <= lg(x)`

.

`GEN `

**RgX_recip**`(GEN P)`

returns the reverse of the polynomial `P`

, i.e. `X^{`

*deg* ` P} P(1/X)`

.

`GEN `

**RgX_recip_shallow**`(GEN P)`

shallow function of `RgX_recip`

.

`GEN `

**RgX_deflate**`(GEN P, long d)`

assuming `P`

is a polynomial of the form `Q(X^d)`

, return `Q`

. Shallow function, not suitable for `gerepileupto`

.

`long `

**RgX_deflate_order**`(GEN P)`

given a non-constant polynomial `P`

, returns the largest exponent `d`

such that `P`

is of the form `P(x^d)`

(use `gequal0`

to check whether coefficients are 0).

`long `

**RgX_deflate_max**`(GEN P, long *d)`

given a non-constant polynomial `P`

, sets `d`

to `RgX_deflate_order(P)`

and returns `RgX_deflate(P,d)`

. Shallow function.

`GEN `

**RgX_inflate**`(GEN P, long d)`

return `P(X^d)`

. Shallow function, not suitable for `gerepileupto`

.

`GEN `

**RgX_shift**`(GEN x, long n)`

returns `x * t^n`

if `n >= 0`

, and `x \t^{-n}`

otherwise.

`GEN `

**RgX_shift_shallow**`(GEN x, long n)`

as `RgX_shift`

, but shallow (coefficients are not copied).

`GEN `

**RgX_rotate_shallow**`(GEN P, long k, long p)`

returns `P * X^k (mod X^p-1)`

, assuming the degree of `P`

is strictly less than `p`

, and `k >= 0`

.

`void `

**RgX_shift_inplace_init**`(long v)`

`v >= 0`

, prepare for a later call to `RgX_shift_inplace`

. Reserves `v`

words on the stack.

`GEN `

**RgX_shift_inplace**`(GEN x, long v)`

`v >= 0`

, assume that `RgX_shift_inplace_init`

`(v)`

has been called (reserving `v`

words on the stack), immediately followed by a `t_POL`

`x`

. Return `RgX_shift`

`(x,v)`

by shifting `x`

in place. To be used as follows

```
RgX_shift_inplace_init(v);
av = avma;
...
x = gerepileupto(av, ...); /* a t_POL */
return RgX_shift_inplace(x, v);
```

`long `

**RgX_valrem**`(GEN P, GEN *pz)`

returns the valuation `v`

of the `t_POL`

`P`

with respect to its main variable `X`

. Check whether coefficients are `0`

using `gequal0`

. Set `*pz`

to `RgX_shift_shallow(P,-v)`

.

`long `

**RgX_val**`(GEN P)`

returns the valuation `v`

of the `t_POL`

`P`

with respect to its main variable `X`

. Check whether coefficients are `0`

using `gequal0`

.

`long `

**RgX_valrem_inexact**`(GEN P, GEN *z)`

as `RgX_valrem`

, using `isexactzero`

instead of `gequal0`

.

`GEN `

**RgX_add**`(GEN x,GEN y)`

adds `x`

and `y`

.

`GEN `

**RgX_sub**`(GEN x,GEN y)`

subtracts `x`

and `y`

.

`GEN `

**RgX_neg**`(GEN x)`

returns `-x`

.

`GEN `

**RgX_Rg_add**`(GEN y, GEN x)`

returns `x+y`

.

`GEN `

**RgX_Rg_add_shallow**`(GEN y, GEN x)`

returns `x+y`

; shallow function.

`GEN `

**Rg_RgX_sub**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

`GEN `

**RgX_Rg_sub**`(GEN y, GEN x)`

returns `x-y`

`GEN `

**RgX_Rg_mul**`(GEN y, GEN x)`

multiplies the `RgX`

`y`

by the scalar `x`

.

`GEN `

**RgX_muls**`(GEN y, long s)`

multiplies the `RgX`

`y`

by the `long`

`s`

.

`GEN `

**RgX_Rg_div**`(GEN y, GEN x)`

divides the `RgX`

`y`

by the scalar `x`

.

`GEN `

**RgX_divs**`(GEN y, long s)`

divides the `RgX`

`y`

by the `long`

`s`

.

`GEN `

**RgX_Rg_divexact**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

exact division of the `RgX`

`y`

by the scalar `x`

.

`GEN `

**RgX_Rg_eval_bk**`(GEN f, GEN x)`

returns `f(x)`

using Brent and Kung algorithm. (Use `poleval`

for Horner algorithm.)

`GEN `

**RgX_RgV_eval**`(GEN f, GEN V)`

as `RgX_Rg_eval_bk(f, x)`

, assuming `V`

was output by `gpowers(x, n)`

for some `n >= 1`

.

`GEN `

**RgXV_RgV_eval**`(GEN f, GEN V)`

apply `RgX_RgV_eval_bk(, V)`

to all the components of the vector `f`

.

`GEN `

**RgX_normalize**`(GEN x)`

divides `x`

by its leading coefficient. If the latter is `1`

, `x`

itself is returned, not a copy. Leading coefficients equal to `0`

are stripped, e.g.

` 0.*t^3 + Mod(0,3)*t^2 + 2*t`

@3is normalized to `t`

.

`GEN `

**RgX_mul**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

multiplies the two `t_POL`

(in the same variable) `x`

and `y`

. Uses Karatsuba algorithm.

`GEN `

**RgX_mul_normalized**`(GEN A, long a, GEN B, long b)`

returns `(X^a + A)(X^b + B) - X^(a+b)`

, where we assume that *deg* ` A < a`

and *deg* ` B < b`

are polynomials in the same variable `X`

.

`GEN `

**RgX_mulspec**`(GEN a, GEN b, long na, long nb)`

. Internal routine: `a`

and `b`

are arrays of coefficients representing polynomials *sum*`_{i = 0}^{na-1} a[i] X^i`

and *sum*`_{i = 0}^{nb-1} b[i] X^i`

. Returns their product (as a true `GEN`

).

`GEN `

**RgX_sqr**`(GEN x)`

squares the `t_POL`

`x`

. Uses Karatsuba algorithm.

`GEN `

**RgX_sqrspec**`(GEN a, long na)`

. Internal routine: `a`

is an array of coefficients representing polynomial *sum*`_{i = 0}^{na-1} a[i] X^i`

. Return its square (as a true `GEN`

).

`GEN `

**RgX_divrem**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN *r)`

by default, returns the Euclidean quotient and store the remainder in `r`

. Three special values of `r`

change that behavior ***** `NULL`

: do not store the remainder, used to implement `RgX_div`

,

@3***** `ONLY_REM`

: return the remainder, used to implement `RgX_rem`

,

@3***** `ONLY_DIVIDES`

: return the quotient if the division is exact, and `NULL`

otherwise.

`GEN `

**RgX_div**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

`GEN `

**RgX_div_by_X_x**`(GEN A, GEN a, GEN *r)`

returns the quotient of the `RgX`

`A`

by `(X - a)`

, and sets `r`

to the remainder `A(a)`

.

`GEN `

**RgX_rem**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

`GEN `

**RgX_pseudodivrem**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN *ptr)`

compute a pseudo-quotient `q`

and pseudo-remainder `r`

such that `lc(y)^{`

*deg* `(x) - `

*deg* `(y) + 1}x = qy + r`

. Return `q`

and set `*ptr`

to `r`

.

`GEN `

**RgX_pseudorem**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

return the remainder in the pseudo-division of `x`

by `y`

.

`GEN `

**RgXQX_pseudorem**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN T)`

return the remainder in the pseudo-division of `x`

by `y`

over `R[X]/(T)`

.

`int `

**ZXQX_dvd**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN T)`

let `T`

be a monic irreducible `ZX`

, let `x, y`

be `t_POL`

whose coefficients are either `t_INT`

s or `ZX`

in the same variable as `T`

. Assume further that the leading coefficient of `y`

is an integer. Return `1`

if `y | x`

in `(`

**Z**`[Y]/(T))[X]`

, and `0`

otherwise.

`GEN `

**RgXQX_pseudodivrem**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN T, GEN *ptr)`

compute a pseudo-quotient `q`

and pseudo-remainder `r`

such that `lc(y)^{`

*deg* `(x) - `

*deg* `(y) + 1}x = qy + r`

in `R[X]/(T)`

. Return `q`

and set `*ptr`

to `r`

.

`GEN `

**RgX_mulXn**`(GEN x, long n)`

returns `x * t^n`

. This may be a `t_FRAC`

if `n < 0`

and the valuation of `x`

is not large enough.

`GEN `

**RgX_gcd**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

returns the GCD of `x`

and `y`

, assumed to be `t_POL`

s in the same variable.

`GEN `

**RgX_gcd_simple**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

as `RgX_gcd`

using a standard extended Euclidean algorithm. Usually slower than `RgX_gcd`

.

`GEN `

**RgX_extgcd**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN *u, GEN *v)`

returns `d = GCD(x,y)`

, and sets `*u`

, `*v`

to the Bezout coefficients such that `*ux + *vy = d`

. Uses a generic subresultant algorithm.

`GEN `

**RgX_extgcd_simple**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN *u, GEN *v)`

as `RgX_extgcd`

using a standard extended Euclidean algorithm. Usually slower than `RgX_extgcd`

.

`GEN `

**RgX_disc**`(GEN x)`

returns the discriminant of the `t_POL`

`x`

with respect to its main variable.

`GEN `

**RgX_resultant_all**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN *sol)`

returns `resultant(x,y)`

. If `sol`

is not `NULL`

, sets it to the last non-constant remainder in the polynomial remainder sequence if it exists and to `gen_0`

otherwise (e.g. one polynomial has degree 0). Compared to `resultant_all`

, this function always uses the generic subresultant algorithm, hence always computes `sol`

.

`GEN `

**RgX_gtofp**`(GEN x, GEN prec)`

returns the polynomial obtained by applying

` gtofp(gel(x,i), prec)`

@3to all coefficients of `x`

.

`GEN `

**RgX_fpnorml2**`(GEN x, long prec)`

returns (a stack-clean variant of)

` gnorml2( RgX_gtofp(x, prec) )`

`GEN `

**RgX_deriv**`(GEN x)`

returns the derivative of `x`

with respect to its main variable.

`GEN `

**RgX_integ**`(GEN x)`

returns the primitive of `x`

vanishing at `0`

, with respect to its main variable.

`GEN `

**RgX_rescale**`(GEN P, GEN h)`

returns `h^{`

*deg* `(P)} P(x/h)`

. `P`

is an `RgX`

and `h`

is non-zero. (Leaves small objects on the stack. Suitable but inefficient for `gerepileupto`

.)

`GEN `

**RgX_unscale**`(GEN P, GEN h)`

returns `P(h x)`

. (Leaves small objects on the stack. Suitable but inefficient for `gerepileupto`

.)

`GEN `

**RgXV_unscale**`(GEN v, GEN h)`

apply `RgX_unscale`

to a vector of `RgX`

.

`GEN `

**RgX_translate**`(GEN P, GEN c)`

assume `c`

is a scalar or a polynomials whose main variable has lower priority than the main variable `X`

of `P`

. Returns `P(X + c)`

(optimized for `c = `

).*+-* 1

`GEN `

**RgX_act_Gl2Q**`(GEN g, long k)`

let `R`

be a commutative ring and `g = [a,b;c,d]`

be in `GL_2(`

**Q**`)`

, `g`

acts (on the left) on homogeneous polynomials of degree `k-2`

in `V := R[X,Y]_{k-2}`

via

` g.P := P(dX-cY, -bX+aY) = (`

*det* ` g)^{k-2} P((X,Y).g^{-1}).`

This function returns the matrix in `M_{k-1}(R)`

of `P:--->g.P`

in the basis `(X^{k-2},...,Y^{k-2})`

of `V`

.

`GEN `

**RgX_act_ZGl2Q**`(GEN z, long k)`

let `G := GL_2(`

**Q**`)`

, acting on `R[X,Y]_{k-2}`

and `z\in `

**Z**`[G]`

. Return the matrix giving `P:--->z.P`

in the basis `(X^{k-2},...,Y^{k-2})`

.

`RgXn`

`GEN `

**RgXn_red_shallow**`(GEN x, long n)`

return `x % t^n`

, where `n >= 0`

. Shallow function.

`GEN `

**RgXn_mul**`(GEN a, GEN b, long n)`

returns `a b`

modulo `X^n`

, where `a,b`

are two `t_POL`

in the same variable `X`

and `n >= 0`

. Uses Karatsuba algorithm (Mulders, Hanrot-Zimmermann variant).

`GEN `

**RgXn_sqr**`(GEN a, long n)`

returns `a^2`

modulo `X^n`

, where `a`

is a `t_POL`

in the variable `X`

and `n >= 0`

. Uses Karatsuba algorithm (Mulders, Hanrot-Zimmermann variant).

`GEN `

**RgXn_inv**`(GEN a, long n)`

returns `a^{-1}`

modulo `X^n`

, where `a`

is a `t_POL`

in the variable `X`

and `n >= 0`

. Uses Newton-Raphson algorithm.

`GEN `

**RgXn_powers**`(GEN x, long m, long n)`

returns `[x^0, ..., x^m]`

modulo `X^n`

as a `t_VEC`

of `RgXn`

s.

`GEN `

**RgXn_powu**`(GEN x, ulong m, long n)`

returns `x^m`

modulo `X^n`

.

`GEN `

**RgXn_powu_i**`(GEN x, ulong m, long n)`

as `RgXn_powu`

, not memory clean.

`GEN `

**RgXn_exp**`(GEN a, long n)`

returns `exp(a)`

modulo `X^n`

, assuming `a = 0 mod X`

. Uses Hanrot-Zimmermann algorithm.

`GEN `

**RgXn_eval**`(GEN Q, GEN x, long n)`

special case of `RgX_RgXQ_eval`

, when the modulus is a monomial: returns `Q(x)`

modulo `t^n`

, where `x \in R[t]`

.

`GEN `

**RgX_RgXn_eval**`(GEN f, GEN x, long n)`

returns `f(x)`

modulo `X^n`

.

`GEN `

**RgX_RgXnV_eval**`(GEN f, GEN V, long n)`

as `RgX_RgXn_eval(f, x, n)`

, assuming `V`

was output by `RgXn_powers(x, m, n)`

for some `m >= 1`

.

`GEN `

**RgXn_reverse**`(GEN f, long n)`

assuming that `f = a x mod {x^2}`

with `a`

invertible, returns a `t_POL`

`g`

of degree ` < n`

such that `(g o f)(x) = x`

modulo `x^n`

.

`RgXnV`

`GEN `

**RgXnV_red_shallow**`(GEN x, long n)`

apply `RgXn_red_shallow`

to all the components of the vector `x`

.

`RgXQ`

`GEN `

**RgXQ_mul**`(GEN y, GEN x, GEN T)`

computes `xy`

mod `T`

`GEN `

**RgXQ_sqr**`(GEN x, GEN T)`

computes `x^2`

mod `T`

`GEN `

**RgXQ_inv**`(GEN x, GEN T)`

return the inverse of `x`

mod `T`

.

`GEN `

**RgXQ_pow**`(GEN x, GEN n, GEN T)`

computes `x^n`

mod `T`

`GEN `

**RgXQ_powu**`(GEN x, ulong n, GEN T)`

computes `x^n`

mod `T`

, `n`

being an `ulong`

.

`GEN `

**RgXQ_powers**`(GEN x, long n, GEN T)`

returns `[x^0, ..., x^n]`

as a `t_VEC`

of `RgXQ`

s.

`GEN `

**RgXQ_matrix_pow**`(GEN y, long n, long m, GEN P)`

returns `RgXQ_powers(y,m-1,P)`

, as a matrix of dimension `n >= `

*deg* ` P`

.

`GEN `

**RgXQ_norm**`(GEN x, GEN T)`

returns the norm of `Mod(x, T)`

.

`GEN `

**RgXQ_charpoly**`(GEN x, GEN T, long v)`

returns the characteristic polynomial of `Mod(x, T)`

, in variable `v`

.

`GEN `

**RgX_RgXQ_eval**`(GEN f, GEN x, GEN T)`

returns `f(x)`

modulo `T`

.

`GEN `

**RgX_RgXQV_eval**`(GEN f, GEN V, GEN T)`

as `RgX_RgXQ_eval(f, x, T)`

, assuming `V`

was output by `RgXQ_powers(x, n, T)`

for some `n >= 1`

.

`int `

**RgXQ_ratlift**`(GEN x, GEN T, long amax, long bmax, GEN *P, GEN *Q)`

Assuming that `amax+bmax < `

*deg* ` T`

, attempts to recognize `x`

as a rational function `a/b`

, i.e. to find `t_POL`

s `P`

and `Q`

such that

@3***** `P = Q x`

modulo `T`

,

@3***** *deg* ` P <= amax`

, *deg* ` Q <= bmax`

,

@3***** *gcd* `(T,P) = `

*gcd* `(P,Q)`

.

@3If unsuccessful, the routine returns `0`

and leaves `P`

, `Q`

unchanged; otherwise it returns `1`

and sets `P`

and `Q`

.

`GEN `

**RgXQ_reverse**`(GEN f, GEN T)`

returns a `t_POL`

`g`

of degree ` < n = deg T`

such that `T(x)`

divides `(g o f)(x) - x`

, by solving a linear system. Low-level function underlying `modreverse`

: it returns a lift of \kbd[modreverse(f,T)]; faster than the high-level function since it needs not compute the characteristic polynomial of `f`

mod `T`

(often already known in applications). In the trivial case where `n <= 1`

, returns a scalar, not a constant `t_POL`

.

`RgXQV, RgXQC`

`GEN `

**RgXQC_red**`(GEN z, GEN T)`

`z`

a vector whose coefficients are `RgX`

s (arbitrary `GEN`

s in fact), reduce them to `RgXQ`

s (applying `grem`

coefficientwise) in a `t_COL`

.

`GEN `

**RgXQV_red**`(GEN z, GEN T)`

`z`

a `t_POL`

whose coefficients are `RgX`

s (arbitrary `GEN`

s in fact), reduce them to `RgXQ`

s (applying `grem`

coefficientwise) in a `t_VEC`

.

`GEN `

**RgXQV_RgXQ_mul**`(GEN z, GEN x, GEN T)`

`z`

multiplies the `RgXQV`

`z`

by the scalar (`RgXQ`

) `x`

.

`RgXQX`

`GEN `

**RgXQX_red**`(GEN z, GEN T)`

`z`

a `t_POL`

whose coefficients are `RgX`

s (arbitrary `GEN`

s in fact), reduce them to `RgXQ`

s (applying `grem`

coefficientwise).

`GEN `

**RgXQX_mul**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN T)`

`GEN `

**RgXQX_RgXQ_mul**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN T)`

multiplies the `RgXQX`

`y`

by the scalar (`RgXQ`

) `x`

.

`GEN `

**RgXQX_sqr**`(GEN x, GEN T)`

`GEN `

**RgXQX_divrem**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN T, GEN *pr)`

`GEN `

**RgXQX_div**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN T, GEN *r)`

`GEN `

**RgXQX_rem**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN T, GEN *r)`

`GEN `

**RgXQX_translate**`(GEN P, GEN c, GEN T)`

assume the main variable `X`

of `P`

has higher priority than the main variable `Y`

of `T`

and `c`

. Return a lift of `P(X+Mod(c(Y), T(Y)))`

.

`GEN `

**Kronecker_to_mod**`(GEN z, GEN T)`

`z\in R[X]`

represents an element `P(X,Y)`

in `R[X,Y]`

mod `T(Y)`

in Kronecker form, i.e. `z = P(X,X^{2*n-1})`

Let `R`

be some commutative ring, `n = `

*deg* ` T`

and let `P(X,Y)\in R[X,Y]`

lift a polynomial in `K[Y]`

, where `K := R[X]/(T)`

and *deg* `_X P < 2n-1`

--- such as would result from multiplying minimal degree lifts of two polynomials in `K[Y]`

. Let `z = P(t,t^{2*n-1})`

be a Kronecker form of `P`

, this function returns the image of `P(X,t)`

in `K[t]`

, with `t_POLMOD`

coefficients. Not stack-clean. Note that `t`

need not be the same variable as `Y`

!

libPARI - Black box algebraic structures

The generic routines like `gmul`

or `gadd`

allow handling objects belonging to a fixed list of basic types, with some natural polymorphism (you can mix rational numbers and polynomials, etc.), at the expense of efficiency and sometimes of clarity when the recursive structure becomes complicated, e.g. a few levels of `t_POLMOD`

s attached to different polynomials and variable numbers for quotient structures. This is the only possibility in GP.

On the other hand, the Level 2 Kernel allows dedicated routines to handle efficiently objects of a very specific type, e.g. polynomials with coefficients in the same finite field. This is more efficient, but imvolves a lot of code duplication since polymorphism is no longer possible.

A third and final option, still restricted to library programming, is to define an arbitrary algebraic structure (currently groups, fields, rings, algebras and **Z**`_p`

-modules) by providing suitable methods, then using generic algorithms. For instance naive Gaussian pivoting applies over all base fields and need only be implemented once. The difference with the first solution is that we no longer depend on the way functions like `gmul`

or `gadd`

will guess what the user is trying to do. We can then implement independently various groups / fields / algebras in a clean way.

A black box group is defined by a `bb_group`

struct, describing methods available to handle group elements:

```
struct bb_group
{
GEN (*mul)(void*, GEN, GEN);
GEN (*pow)(void*, GEN, GEN);
GEN (*rand)(void*);
ulong (*hash)(GEN);
int (*equal)(GEN, GEN);
int (*equal1)(GEN);
GEN (*easylog)(void *E, GEN, GEN, GEN);
};
```

`mul(E,x,y)`

returns the product `x y`

.

`pow(E,x,n)`

returns `x^n`

(`n`

integer, possibly negative or zero).

`rand(E)`

returns a random element in the group.

`hash(x)`

returns a hash value for `x`

(`hash_GEN`

is suitable for this field).

`equal(x,y)`

returns one if `x = y`

and zero otherwise.

`equal1(x)`

returns one if `x`

is the neutral element in the group, and zero otherwise.

`easylog(E,a,g,o)`

(optional) returns either NULL or the discrete logarithm `n`

such that `g^n = a`

, the element `g`

being of order `o`

. This provides a short-cut in situation where a better algorithm than the generic one is known.

A group is thus described by a `struct bb_group`

as above and auxiliary data typecast to `void*`

. The following functions operate on black box groups:

`GEN `

**gen_Shanks_log**`(GEN x, GEN g, GEN N, void *E, const struct bb_group *grp)`

\hbadness 10000

Generic baby-step/giant-step algorithm (Shanks's method). Assuming that `g`

has order `N`

, compute an integer `k`

such that `g^k = x`

. Return `cgetg(1, t_VEC)`

if there are no solutions. This requires `O(`

*sqrt* `{N})`

group operations and uses an auxiliary table containing `O(`

*sqrt* `{N})`

group elements.

The above is useful for a one-shot computation. If many discrete logs are desired: `GEN `

**gen_Shanks_init**`(GEN g, long n, void *E, const struct bb_group *grp)`

return an auxiliary data structure `T`

required to compute a discrete log in base `g`

. Compute and store all powers `g^i`

, `i < n`

.

`GEN `

**gen_Shanks**`(GEN T, GEN x, ulong N, void *E, const struct bb_group *grp)`

Let `T`

be computed by `gen_Shanks_init`

`(g,n,...)`

. Return `k < n N`

such that `g^k = x`

or `NULL`

if no such index exist. It uses `O(N)`

operation in the group and fast table lookups (in time `O(`

*log* ` n)`

). The interface is such that the function may be used when the order of the base `g`

is unknown, and hence compute it given only an upper bound `B`

for it: e.g. choose `n,N`

such that `nN >= B`

and compute the discrete log `l`

of `g^{-1}`

in base `g`

, then use `gen_order`

with multiple `N = l+1`

.

`GEN `

**gen_Pollard_log**`(GEN x, GEN g, GEN N, void *E, const struct bb_group *grp)`

\hbadness 10000

Generic Pollard rho algorithm. Assuming that `g`

has order `N`

, compute an integer `k`

such that `g^k = x`

. This requires `O(`

*sqrt* `{N})`

group operations in average and `O(1)`

storage. Will enter an infinite loop if there are no solutions.

`GEN `

**gen_plog**`(GEN x, GEN g, GEN N, void *E, const struct bb_group)`

Assuming that `g`

has prime order `N`

, compute an integer `k`

such that `g^k = x`

, using either `gen_Shanks_log`

or `gen_Pollard_log`

. Return `cgetg(1, t_VEC)`

if there are no solutions.

`GEN `

**gen_Shanks_sqrtn**`(GEN a, GEN n, GEN N, GEN *zetan, void *E, const struct bb_group *grp)`

\hbadness 10000 returns one solution of `x^n = a`

in a black box cyclic group of order `N`

. Return `NULL`

if no solution exists. If `zetan`

is not `NULL`

it is set to an element of exact order `n`

. This function uses `gen_plog`

for all prime divisors of *gcd* `(n,N)`

.

`GEN `

**gen_PH_log**`(GEN a, GEN g, GEN N, void *E, const struct bb_group *grp)`

returns an integer `k`

such that `g^k = x`

, assuming that `g`

has order `N`

, by Pohlig-Hellman algorithm. Return `cgetg(1, t_VEC)`

if there are no solutions. This calls `gen_plog`

repeatedly for all prime divisors `p`

of `N`

.

In the following functions the integer parameter `ord`

can be given in all the formats recognized for the argument of arithmetic functions, i.e. either as a positive `t_INT`

`N`

, or as its factorization matrix *faN*, or (preferred) as a pair `[N,`

*faN*`]`

.

`GEN `

**gen_order**`(GEN x, GEN ord, void *E, const struct bb_group *grp)`

computes the order of `x`

; `ord`

is a multiple of the order, for instance the group order.

`GEN `

**gen_factored_order**`(GEN x, GEN ord, void *E, const struct bb_group *grp)`

returns a pair `[o,F]`

, where `o`

is the order of `x`

and `F`

is the factorization of `o`

; `ord`

is as in `gen_order`

.

`GEN `

**gen_gener**`(GEN ord, void *E, const struct bb_group *grp)`

returns a random generator of the group, assuming it is of order exactly `ord`

.

`GEN `

**get_arith_Z**`(GEN ord)`

given `ord`

as above in one of the formats recognized for arithmetic functions, i.e. a positive `t_INT`

`N`

, its factorization *faN*, or the pair `[N, `

*faN*`]`

, return `N`

.

`GEN `

**get_arith_ZZM**`(GEN ord)`

given `ord`

as above, return the pair `[N, `

*faN*`]`

. This may require factoring `N`

.

`GEN `

**gen_select_order**`(GEN v, void *E, const struct bb_group *grp)`

Let `v`

be a vector of possible orders for the group; try to find the true order by checking orders of random points. This will not terminate if there is an ambiguity.

Theses functions handle groups of rank at most `2`

equipped with a family of bilinear pairings which behave like the Weil pairing on elliptic curves over finite field. In the descriptions below, the function `pairorder(E, P, Q, m, F)`

must return the order of the `m`

-pairing of `P`

and `Q`

, both of order dividing `m`

, where `F`

is the factorisation matrix of a multiple of `m`

.

`GEN `

**gen_ellgroup**`(GEN o, GEN d, GEN *pt_m, void *E, const struct bb_group *grp, GEN pairorder(void *E, GEN P, GEN Q, GEN m, GEN F))`

returns the elementary divisors `[d_1, d_2]`

of the group, assuming it is of order exactly `o > 1`

(which can be given by a factorization matrix), and that `d_2`

divides `d`

. If `d_2 = 1`

then `[o]`

is returned, otherwise `m = *pt_m`

is set to the order of the pairing required to verify a generating set which is to be used with `gen_ellgens`

.

`GEN `

**gen_ellgens**`(GEN d1, GEN d2, GEN m, void *E, const struct bb_group *grp, GEN pairorder(void *E, GEN P, GEN Q, GEN m, GEN F))`

the parameters `d_1`

, `d_2`

, `m`

being as returned by `gen_ellgroup`

, returns a pair of generators `[P,Q]`

such that `P`

is of order `d_1`

and the `m`

-pairing of `P`

and `Q`

is of order `m`

. (Note: `Q`

needs not be of order `d_2`

).

`const struct bb_group * `

**get_Flxq_star**`(void **E, GEN T, ulong p)`

`const struct bb_group * `

**get_FpXQ_star**`(void **E, GEN T, GEN p)`

returns a pointer to the black box group `(`

**F**`_p[x]/(T))^*`

.

`const struct bb_group * `

**get_FpE_group**`(void **pE, GEN a4, GEN a6, GEN p)`

returns a pointer to a black box group and set `*pE`

to the necessary data for computing in the group `E(`

**F**`_p)`

where `E`

is the elliptic curve `E:y^2 = x^3+a_4 x+a_6`

, with `a_4`

and `a_6`

in **F**`_p`

.

`const struct bb_group * `

**get_FpXQE_group**`(void **pE, GEN a4, GEN a6, GEN T, GEN p)`

returns a pointer to a black box group and set `*pE`

to the necessary data for computing in the group `E(`

**F**`_p[X]/(T))`

where `E`

is the elliptic curve `E:y^2 = x^3+a_4 x+a_6`

, with `a_4`

and `a_6`

in **F**`_p[X]/(T)`

.

`const struct bb_group * `

**get_FlxqE_group**`(void **pE, GEN a4, GEN a6, GEN T, ulong p)`

idem for small `p`

.

`const struct bb_group * `

**get_F2xqE_group**`(void **pE, GEN a2, GEN a6, GEN T)`

idem for `p = 2`

.

A black box finite field is defined by a `bb_field`

struct, describing methods available to handle field elements:

```
struct bb_field
{
GEN (*red)(void *E ,GEN);
GEN (*add)(void *E ,GEN, GEN);
GEN (*mul)(void *E ,GEN, GEN);
GEN (*neg)(void *E ,GEN);
GEN (*inv)(void *E ,GEN);
int (*equal0)(GEN);
GEN (*s)(void *E, long);
};
```

@3In contrast of black box group, elements can have non canonical forms, and only `red`

is required to return a canonical form.

`red(E,x)`

returns the canonical form of `x`

.

`add(E,x,y)`

returns the sum `x+y`

.

`mul(E,x,y)`

returns the product `x y`

.

`neg(E,x)`

returns `-x`

.

`inv(E,x)`

returns the inverse of `x`

.

`equal0(x)`

`x`

being in canonical form, returns one if `x = 0`

and zero otherwise.

`s(n)`

`n`

being a small signed integer, returns `n`

times the unit element.

@3A finite field is thus described by a `struct bb_field`

as above and auxiliary data typecast to `void*`

. The following functions operate on black box fields:

`GEN `

**gen_Gauss**`(GEN a, GEN b, void *E, const struct bb_field *ff)`

`GEN `

**gen_Gauss_pivot**`(GEN x, long *rr, void *E, const struct bb_field *ff)`

`GEN `

**gen_det**`(GEN a, void *E, const struct bb_field *ff)`

`GEN `

**gen_ker**`(GEN x, long deplin, void *E, const struct bb_field *ff)`

`GEN `

**gen_matcolmul**`(GEN a, GEN b, void *E, const struct bb_field *ff)`

`GEN `

**gen_matid**`(long n, void *E, const struct bb_field *ff)`

`GEN `

**gen_matmul**`(GEN a, GEN b, void *E, const struct bb_field *ff)`

`const struct bb_field * `

**get_Fp_field**`(void **pE, GEN p)`

`const struct bb_field * `

**get_Fq_field**`(void **pE, GEN T, GEN p)`

`const struct bb_field * `

**get_Flxq_field**`(void **pE, GEN T, ulong p)`

`const struct bb_field * `

**get_F2xq_field**`(void **pE, GEN T)`

`const struct bb_field * `

**get_nf_field**`(void **pE, GEN nf)`

A black box algebra is defined by a `bb_algebra`

struct, describing methods available to handle algebra elements:

```
struct bb_algebra
{
GEN (*red)(void *E, GEN x);
GEN (*add)(void *E, GEN x, GEN y);
GEN (*sub)(void *E, GEN x, GEN y);
GEN (*mul)(void *E, GEN x, GEN y);
GEN (*sqr)(void *E, GEN x);
GEN (*one)(void *E);
GEN (*zero)(void *E);
};
```

@3In contrast with black box groups, elements can have non canonical forms, but only `add`

is allowed to return a non canonical form.

`red(E,x)`

returns the canonical form of `x`

.

`add(E,x,y)`

returns the sum `x+y`

.

`sub(E,x,y)`

returns the difference `x-y`

.

`mul(E,x,y)`

returns the product `x y`

.

`sqr(E,x)`

returns the square `x^2`

.

`one(E)`

returns the unit element.

`zero(E)`

returns the zero element.

@3An algebra is thus described by a `struct bb_algebra`

as above and auxiliary data typecast to `void*`

. The following functions operate on black box algebra:

`GEN `

**gen_bkeval**`(GEN P, long d, GEN x, int use_sqr, void *E, const struct bb_algebra *ff, GEN cmul(void *E, GEN P, long a, GEN x))`

`x`

being an element of the black box algebra, and `P`

some black box polynomial of degree `d`

over the base field, returns `P(x)`

. The function `cmul(E,P,a,y)`

must return the coefficient of degree `a`

of `P`

multiplied by `y`

. `cmul`

is allowed to return a non canonical form; it is also allowed to return `NULL`

instead of an exact `0`

.

The flag `use_sqr`

has the same meaning as for `gen_powers`

. This implements an algorithm of Brent and Kung (1978).

`GEN `

**gen_bkeval_powers**`(GEN P, long d, GEN V, void *E, const struct bb_algebra *ff, GEN cmul(void *E, GEN P, long a, GEN x))`

as `gen_RgX_bkeval`

assuming `V`

was output by `gen_powers`

`(x, l, E, `

*ff*`)`

for some `l >= 1`

. For optimal performance, `l`

should be computed by `brent_kung_optpow`

.

`long `

**brent_kung_optpow**`(long d, long n, long m)`

returns the optimal parameter `l`

for the evaluation of `n/m`

polynomials of degree `d`

. Fractional values can be used if the evaluations are done with different accuracies, and thus have different weights.

`const struct bb_algebra * `

**get_FpX_algebra**`(void **E, GEN p, long v)`

return the algebra of polynomials over **F**`_p`

in variable `v`

.

`const struct bb_algebra * `

**get_FpXQ_algebra**`(void **E, GEN T, GEN p)`

return the algebra **F**`_p[X]/(T(X))`

.

`const struct bb_algebra * `

**get_FpXQX_algebra**`(void **E, GEN T, GEN p, long v)`

return the algebra of polynomials over **F**`_p[X]/(T(X))`

in variable `v`

.

`const struct bb_algebra * `

**get_FlxqXQ_algebra**`(void **E, GEN S, GEN T, ulong p)`

return the algebra **F**`_p[X,Y]/(S(X,Y),T(X))`

(for `ulong`

`p`

).

`const struct bb_algebra * `

**get_FpXQXQ_algebra**`(void **E, GEN S, GEN T, GEN p)`

return the algebra **F**`_p[X,Y]/(S(X,Y),T(X))`

.

`const struct bb_algebra * `

**get_Rg_algebra**`(void)`

return the generic algebra.

A black box ring is defined by a `bb_ring`

struct, describing methods available to handle ring elements:

```
struct bb_ring
{
GEN (*add)(void *E, GEN x, GEN y);
GEN (*mul)(void *E, GEN x, GEN y);
GEN (*sqr)(void *E, GEN x);
};
```

`add(E,x,y)`

returns the sum `x+y`

.

`mul(E,x,y)`

returns the product `x y`

.

`sqr(E,x)`

returns the square `x^2`

.

`GEN `

**gen_fromdigits**`(GEN v, GEN B, void *E, struct bb_ring *r)`

where `B`

is a ring element and `v = [c_0,...,c_{n-1}]`

a vector of ring elements, return *sum*`_{i = 0}^n c_i B^i`

using binary splitting.

`GEN `

**gen_digits**`(GEN x, GEN B, long n, void *E, struct bb_ring *r, GEN (*div)(void *E, GEN x, GEN y, GEN *r))`

(Require the ring to be Euclidean)

`div(E,x,y,&r)`

performs the Euclidean division of `x`

by `y`

in the ring `R`

, returning the quotient `q`

and setting `r`

to the residue so that `x = q y+r`

holds. The residue must belong to a fixed set of representatives of `R/(y)`

.

The argument `x`

being a ring element, `gen_digits`

returns a vector of ring elements `[c_0,...,c_{n-1}]`

such that `x = `

*sum*`_{i = 0}^n c_i B^i`

. Furthermore for all `i != n-1`

, the elements `c_i`

belonging to the fixed set of representatives of `R/(B)`

.

`_p`

-modules(Very experimental)

`GEN `

**gen_ZpX_Dixon**`(GEN F, GEN V, GEN q, GEN p, long N, void *E, GEN lin(void *E, GEN F, GEN z, GEN q), GEN invl(void *E, GEN z))`

Let `F`

be a `ZpXT`

representing the coefficients of some abstract linear mapping `f`

over **Z**`_p[X]`

seen as a free **Z**`_p`

-module, let `V`

be an element of **Z**`_p[X]`

and let `q = p^N`

. Return `y\in`

**Z**`_p[X]`

such that `f(y) = V (mod p^N)`

assuming the following holds for `n <= N`

:

@3***** `lin(E, FpX_red(F, p^n), z, p^n) = f(z) (mod p^n)`

@3***** `f(invl(E, z)) = z (mod p)`

The rationale for the argument `F`

being that it allows `gen_ZpX_Dixon`

to reduce it to the required `p`

-adic precision.

`GEN `

**gen_ZpX_Newton**`(GEN x, GEN p, long n, void *E, GEN eval(void *E, GEN a, GEN q), GEN invd(void *E, GEN b, GEN v, GEN q, long N))`

Let `x`

be an element of **Z**`_p[X]`

seen as a free **Z**`_p`

-module, and `f`

some differentiable function over **Z**`_p[X]`

such that `f(x) = 0 (mod p)`

. Return `y`

such that `f(y) = 0 (mod p^n)`

, assuming the following holds for all `a, b\in `

**Z**`_p[X]`

and `M <= N`

:

@3***** `v = eval(E,a,p^N)`

is a vector of elements of **Z**`_p[X]`

,

@3***** `w = invd(E,b,v,p^M,M)`

is an element in **Z**`_p[X]`

,

@3***** `v[1] = f(a) (mod p^N`

**Z**`_p[X])`

,

@3***** `df_a(w) = b (mod p^M`

**Z**`_p[X])`

@3and `df_a`

denotes the differential of `f`

at `a`

. Motivation: `eval`

allows to evaluate `f`

and `invd`

allows to invert its differential. Frequently, data useful to compute the differential appear as a subproduct of computing the function. The vector `v`

allows `eval`

to provide these to `invd`

. The implementation of `invd`

will generally involves the use of the function `gen_ZpX_Dixon`

.

\newpage

libPARI - Operations on general PARI objects

It is in general easier to use a direct conversion, e.g. `y = stoi(s)`

, than to allocate a target of correct type and sufficient size, then assign to it:

` GEN y = cgeti(3); affsi(s, y);`

These functions can still be moderately useful in complicated garbage collecting scenarios but you will be better off not using them.

`void `

**gaffsg**`(long s, GEN x)`

assigns the `long`

`s`

into the object `x`

.

`void `

**gaffect**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

assigns the object `x`

into the object `y`

. Both `x`

and `y`

must be scalar types. Type conversions (e.g. from `t_INT`

to `t_REAL`

or `t_INTMOD`

) occur if legitimate.

`int `

**is_universal_constant**`(GEN x)`

returns `1`

if `x`

is a global PARI constant you should never assign to (such as `gen_1`

), and `0`

otherwise.

`double `

**rtodbl**`(GEN x)`

applied to a `t_REAL`

`x`

, converts `x`

into a `double`

if possible.

`GEN `

**dbltor**`(double x)`

converts the `double`

`x`

into a `t_REAL`

.

`long `

**dblexpo**`(double x)`

returns `expo(dbltor(x))`

, but faster and without cluttering the stack.

`ulong `

**dblmantissa**`(double x)`

returns the most significant word in the mantissa of `dbltor(x)`

.

`double `

**gtodouble**`(GEN x)`

if `x`

is a real number (not necessarily a `t_REAL`

), converts `x`

into a `double`

if possible.

`long `

**gtos**`(GEN x)`

converts the `t_INT`

`x`

to a small integer if possible, otherwise raise an exception. This function is similar to `itos`

, slightly slower since it checks the type of `x`

.

`double `

**dbllog2r**`(GEN x)`

assuming that `x`

is a non-zero `t_REAL`

, returns an approximation to `log2(|x|)`

.

`double `

**dblmodulus**`(GEN x)`

return an approximation to `|x|`

.

`long `

**gtolong**`(GEN x)`

if `x`

is an integer (not necessarily a `t_INT`

), converts `x`

into a `long`

if possible.

`GEN `

**fractor**`(GEN x, long l)`

applied to a `t_FRAC`

`x`

, converts `x`

into a `t_REAL`

of length `prec`

.

`GEN `

**quadtofp**`(GEN x, long l)`

applied to a `t_QUAD`

`x`

, converts `x`

into a `t_REAL`

or `t_COMPLEX`

depending on the sign of the discriminant of `x`

, to precision `l`

`BIL`

-bit words.

`GEN `

**cxtofp**`(GEN x, long prec)`

converts the `t_COMPLEX`

`x`

to a a complex whose real and imaginary parts are `t_REAL`

of length `prec`

(special case of `gtofp`

.

`GEN `

**cxcompotor**`(GEN x, long prec)`

converts the `t_INT`

, `t_REAL`

or `t_FRAC`

`x`

to a `t_REAL`

of length `prec`

. These are all the real types which may occur as components of a `t_COMPLEX`

; special case of `gtofp`

(introduced so that the latter is not recursive and can thus be inlined).

`GEN `

**gtofp**`(GEN x, long prec)`

converts the complex number `x`

(`t_INT`

, `t_REAL`

, `t_FRAC`

, `t_QUAD`

or `t_COMPLEX`

) to either a `t_REAL`

or `t_COMPLEX`

whose components are `t_REAL`

of precision `prec`

; not necessarily of *length* `prec`

: a real `0`

may be given as `real_0(...)`

). If the result is a `t_COMPLEX`

extra care is taken so that its modulus really has accuracy `prec`

: there is a problem if the real part of the input is an exact `0`

; indeed, converting it to `real_0(prec)`

would be wrong if the imaginary part is tiny, since the modulus would then become equal to `0`

, as in `1.E-100 + 0.E-28 = 0.E-28`

.

`GEN `

**gtomp**`(GEN z, long prec)`

converts the real number `x`

(`t_INT`

, `t_REAL`

, `t_FRAC`

, real `t_QUAD`

) to either a `t_INT`

or a `t_REAL`

of precision `prec`

. Not memory clean if `x`

is a `t_INT`

: we return `x`

itself and not a copy.

`GEN `

**gcvtop**`(GEN x, GEN p, long l)`

converts `x`

into a `t_PADIC`

of precision `l`

. Works componentwise on recursive objects, e.g. `t_POL`

or `t_VEC`

. Converting `0`

yields `O(p^l)`

; converting a non-zero number yield a result well defined modulo `p^{v_p(x) + l}`

.

`GEN `

**cvtop**`(GEN x, GEN p, long l)`

as `gcvtop`

, assuming that `x`

is a scalar.

`GEN `

**cvtop2**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

`y`

being a `p`

-adic, converts the scalar `x`

to a `p`

-adic of the same accuracy. Shallow function.

`GEN `

**cvstop2**`(long s, GEN y)`

`y`

being a `p`

-adic, converts the scalar `s`

to a `p`

-adic of the same accuracy. Shallow function.

`GEN `

**gprec**`(GEN x, long l)`

returns a copy of `x`

whose precision is changed to `l`

digits. The precision change is done recursively on all components of `x`

. Digits means *decimal*, `p`

-adic and `X`

-adic digits for `t_REAL`

, `t_SER`

, `t_PADIC`

components, respectively.

`GEN `

**gprec_w**`(GEN x, long l)`

returns a shallow copy of `x`

whose `t_REAL`

components have their precision changed to `l`

*words*. This is often more useful than `gprec`

.

`GEN `

**gprec_wtrunc**`(GEN x, long l)`

returns a shallow copy of `x`

whose `t_REAL`

components have their precision *truncated* to `l`

*words*. Contrary to `gprec_w`

, this function may never increase the precision of `x`

.

`GEN `

**gmodulo**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

creates the object **Mod**`(x,y)`

on the PARI stack, where `x`

and `y`

are either both `t_INT`

s, and the result is a `t_INTMOD`

, or `x`

is a scalar or a `t_POL`

and `y`

a `t_POL`

, and the result is a `t_POLMOD`

.

`GEN `

**gmodulgs**`(GEN x, long y)`

same as **gmodulo** except `y`

is a `long`

.

`GEN `

**gmodulsg**`(long x, GEN y)`

same as **gmodulo** except `x`

is a `long`

.

`GEN `

**gmodulss**`(long x, long y)`

same as **gmodulo** except both `x`

and `y`

are `long`

s.

`GEN `

**lift_shallow**`(GEN x)`

shallow version of `lift`

`GEN `

**liftall_shallow**`(GEN x)`

shallow version of `liftall`

`GEN `

**liftint_shallow**`(GEN x)`

shallow version of `liftint`

`GEN `

**liftpol_shallow**`(GEN x)`

shallow version of `liftpol`

`GEN `

**centerlift0**`(GEN x,long v)`

DEPRECATED, kept for backward compatibility only: use either `lift0`

`(x,v)`

or `centerlift`

`(x)`

.

`GEN `

**gtopoly**`(GEN x, long v)`

converts or truncates the object `x`

into a `t_POL`

with main variable number `v`

. A common application would be the conversion of coefficient vectors (coefficients are given by decreasing degree). E.g. `[2,3]`

goes to `2*v + 3`

`GEN `

**gtopolyrev**`(GEN x, long v)`

converts or truncates the object `x`

into a `t_POL`

with main variable number `v`

, but vectors are converted in reverse order compared to `gtopoly`

(coefficients are given by increasing degree). E.g. `[2,3]`

goes to `3*v + 2`

. In other words the vector represents a polynomial in the basis `(1,v,v^2,v^3,...)`

.

`GEN `

**normalizepol**`(GEN x)`

applied to an unnormalized `t_POL`

`x`

(with all coefficients correctly set except that `leading_term(x)`

might be zero), normalizes `x`

correctly in place and returns `x`

. For internal use. Normalizing means deleting all leading *exact* zeroes (as per `isexactzero`

), except if the polynomial turns out to be `0`

, in which case we try to find a coefficient `c`

which is a non-rational zero, and return the constant polynomial `c`

. (We do this so that information about the base ring is not lost.)

`GEN `

**normalizepol_lg**`(GEN x, long l)`

applies `normalizepol`

to `x`

, pretending that `lg(x)`

is `l`

, which must be less than or equal to `lg(x)`

. If equal, the function is equivalent to `normalizepol(x)`

.

`GEN `

**normalizepol_approx**`(GEN x, long lx)`

as `normalizepol_lg`

, with the difference that we just delete all leading zeroes (as per `gequal0`

). This rougher normalization is used when we have no other choice, for instance before attempting a Euclidean division by `x`

.

The following routines do *not* copy coefficients on the stack (they only move pointers around), hence are very fast but not suitable for `gerepile`

calls. Recall that an `RgV`

(resp. an `RgX`

, resp. an `RgM`

) is a `t_VEC`

or `t_COL`

(resp. a `t_POL`

, resp. a `t_MAT`

) with arbitrary components. Similarly, an `RgXV`

is a `t_VEC`

or `t_COL`

with `RgX`

components, etc.

`GEN `

**RgV_to_RgX**`(GEN x, long v)`

converts the `RgV`

`x`

to a (normalized) polynomial in variable `v`

(as `gtopolyrev`

, without copy).

`GEN `

**RgV_to_RgX_reverse**`(GEN x, long v)`

converts the `RgV`

`x`

to a (normalized) polynomial in variable `v`

(as `gtopoly`

, without copy).

`GEN `

**RgX_to_RgC**`(GEN x, long N)`

converts the `t_POL`

`x`

to a `t_COL`

`v`

with `N`

components. Coefficients of `x`

are listed by increasing degree, so that `y[i]`

is the coefficient of the term of degree `i-1`

in `x`

.

`GEN `

**Rg_to_RgC**`(GEN x, long N)`

as `RgX_to_RgV`

, except that other types than `t_POL`

are allowed for `x`

, which is then considered as a constant polynomial.

`GEN `

**RgM_to_RgXV**`(GEN x, long v)`

converts the `RgM`

`x`

to a `t_VEC`

of `RgX`

, by repeated calls to `RgV_to_RgX`

.

`GEN `

**RgV_to_RgM**`(GEN v, long N)`

converts the vector `v`

to a `t_MAT`

with `N`

rows, by repeated calls to `Rg_to_RgV`

.

`GEN `

**RgXV_to_RgM**`(GEN v, long N)`

converts the vector of `RgX`

`v`

to a `t_MAT`

with `N`

rows, by repeated calls to `RgX_to_RgV`

.

`GEN `

**RgM_to_RgXX**`(GEN x, long v,long w)`

converts the `RgM`

`x`

into a `t_POL`

in variable `v`

, whose coefficients are `t_POL`

s in variable `w`

. This is a shortcut for

` RgV_to_RgX( RgM_to_RgXV(x, w), v );`

There are no consistency checks with respect to variable priorities: the above is an invalid object if `varncmp(v, w) >= 0`

.

`GEN `

**RgXX_to_RgM**`(GEN x, long N)`

converts the `t_POL`

`x`

with `RgX`

(or constant) coefficients to a matrix with `N`

rows.

`long `

**RgXY_degreex**`(GEN P)`

return the degree of `P`

with respect to the secondary variable.

`GEN `

**RgXY_swap**`(GEN P, long n, long w)`

converts the bivariate polynomial `P(u,v)`

(a `t_POL`

with `t_POL`

or scalar coefficients) to `P(pol_x[w],u)`

, assuming `n`

is an upper bound for *deg* `_v(P)`

.

`GEN `

**RgXY_swapspec**`(GEN C, long n, long w, long lP)`

as `RgXY_swap`

where the coefficients of `P`

are given by `gel(C,0),...,gel(C,lP-1)`

.

`GEN `

**RgX_to_ser**`(GEN x, long l)`

applied to a `t_POL`

`x`

, creates a *shallow* `t_SER`

of length `l >= 2`

starting with `x`

. Unless the polynomial is an exact zero, the coefficient of lowest degree `T^d`

of the result is not an exact zero (as per `isexactzero`

). The remainder is `O(T^{d+l})`

.

`GEN `

**RgX_to_ser_inexact**`(GEN x, long l)`

applied to a `t_POL`

`x`

, creates a *shallow* `t_SER`

of length `l`

starting with `x`

. Unless the polynomial is zero, the coefficient of lowest degree `T^d`

of the result is not zero (as per `gequal0`

). The remainder is `O(T^{d+l})`

.

`GEN `

**rfrac_to_ser**`(GEN x, long l)`

applied to a `t_RFRAC`

`x`

, creates a `t_SER`

of length `l`

congruent to `x`

. Not memory-clean but suitable for `gerepileupto`

.

`GEN `

**gtoser**`(GEN s, long v, long d)`

converts the object `s`

into a `t_SER`

with main variable number `v`

and `d > 0`

significant terms. More precisely

@3***** if `s`

is a scalar, we return a constant power series with `d`

significant terms.

@3***** if `s`

is a `t_POL`

, it is truncated to `d`

terms if needed.

@3***** If `s`

is a vector, the coefficients of the vector are understood to be the coefficients of the power series starting from the constant term (as in `Polrev`

), and the precision `d`

is *ignored*.

@3***** If `s`

is already a power series in `v`

, we retur a copy, and the precision `d`

is again *ignored*.

`GEN `

**gtocol**`(GEN x)`

converts the object `x`

into a `t_COL`

`GEN `

**gtomat**`(GEN x)`

converts the object `x`

into a `t_MAT`

.

`GEN `

**gtovec**`(GEN x)`

converts the object `x`

into a `t_VEC`

.

`GEN `

**gtovecsmall**`(GEN x)`

converts the object `x`

into a `t_VECSMALL`

.

`GEN `

**normalize**`(GEN x)`

applied to an unnormalized `t_SER`

`x`

(i.e. type `t_SER`

with all coefficients correctly set except that `x[2]`

might be zero), normalizes `x`

correctly in place. Returns `x`

. For internal use.

`GEN `

**serchop0**`(GEN s)`

given a `t_SER`

of the form `x^v s(x)`

, with `s(0) != 0`

, return `x^v(s - s(0))`

. Shallow function.

`GEN `

**zeropadic**`(GEN p, long n)`

creates a `0`

`t_PADIC`

equal to `O(p^n)`

.

`GEN `

**zeroser**`(long v, long n)`

creates a `0`

`t_SER`

in variable `v`

equal to `O(X^n)`

.

`GEN `

**scalarser**`(GEN x, long v, long prec)`

creates a constant `t_SER`

in variable `v`

and precision `prec`

, whose constant coefficient is (a copy of) `x`

, in other words `x + O(v^prec)`

. Assumes that `prec >= 0`

.

`GEN `

**pol_0**`(long v)`

Returns the constant polynomial `0`

in variable `v`

.

`GEN `

**pol_1**`(long v)`

Returns the constant polynomial `1`

in variable `v`

.

`GEN `

**pol_x**`(long v)`

Returns the monomial of degree `1`

in variable `v`

.

`GEN `

**pol_xn**`(long n, long v)`

Returns the monomial of degree `n`

in variable `v`

; assume that `n >= 0`

.

`GEN `

**pol_xnall**`(long n, long v)`

Returns the Laurent monomial of degree `n`

in variable `v`

; `n < 0`

is allowed.

`GEN `

**pol_x_powers**`(long N, long v)`

returns the powers of `pol_x(v)`

, of degree `0`

to `N-1`

, in a vector with `N`

components.

`GEN `

**scalarpol**`(GEN x, long v)`

creates a constant `t_POL`

in variable `v`

, whose constant coefficient is (a copy of) `x`

.

`GEN `

**deg1pol**`(GEN a, GEN b,long v)`

creates the degree 1 `t_POL`

`a pol_x(v) + b`

`GEN `

**zeropol**`(long v)`

is identical `pol_0`

.

`GEN `

**zerocol**`(long n)`

creates a `t_COL`

with `n`

components set to `gen_0`

.

`GEN `

**zerovec**`(long n)`

creates a `t_VEC`

with `n`

components set to `gen_0`

.

`GEN `

**col_ei**`(long n, long i)`

creates a `t_COL`

with `n`

components set to `gen_0`

, but for the `i`

-th one which is set to `gen_1`

(`i`

-th vector in the canonical basis).

`GEN `

**vec_ei**`(long n, long i)`

creates a `t_VEC`

with `n`

components set to `gen_0`

, but for the `i`

-th one which is set to `gen_1`

(`i`

-th vector in the canonical basis).

`GEN `

**trivial_fact**`(void)`

returns the trivial (empty) factorization `Mat([]~,[]~)`

`GEN `

**prime_fact**`(GEN x)`

returns the factorization `Mat([x]~, [1]~)`

`GEN `

**Rg_col_ei**`(GEN x, long n, long i)`

creates a `t_COL`

with `n`

components set to `gen_0`

, but for the `i`

-th one which is set to `x`

.

`GEN `

**vecsmall_ei**`(long n, long i)`

creates a `t_VECSMALL`

with `n`

components set to `0`

, but for the `i`

-th one which is set to `1`

(`i`

-th vector in the canonical basis).

`GEN `

**scalarcol**`(GEN x, long n)`

creates a `t_COL`

with `n`

components set to `gen_0`

, but the first one which is set to a copy of `x`

. (The name comes from `RgV_isscalar`

.)

`GEN `

**mkintmodu**`(ulong x, ulong y)`

creates the `t_INTMOD`

`Mod(x, y)`

. The inputs must satisfy `x < y`

.

`GEN `

**zeromat**`(long m, long n)`

creates a `t_MAT`

with `m`

x `n`

components set to `gen_0`

. Note that the result allocates a *single* column, so modifying an entry in one column modifies it in all columns. To fully allocate a matrix initialized with zero entries, use `zeromatcopy`

.

`GEN `

**zeromatcopy**`(long m, long n)`

creates a `t_MAT`

with `m`

x `n`

components set to `gen_0`

.

`GEN `

**matid**`(long n)`

identity matrix in dimension `n`

(with components `gen_1`

and`gen_0`

).

`GEN `

**scalarmat**`(GEN x, long n)`

scalar matrix, `x`

times the identity.

`GEN `

**scalarmat_s**`(long x, long n)`

scalar matrix, `stoi(x)`

times the identity.

`GEN `

**vecrange**`(GEN a, GEN b)`

returns the `t_VEC`

`[a..b]`

.

`GEN `

**vecrangess**`(long a, long b)`

returns the `t_VEC`

`[a..b]`

.

See also next section for analogs of the following functions:

`GEN `

**mkfraccopy**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

creates the `t_FRAC`

`x/y`

. Assumes that `y > 1`

and `(x,y) = 1`

.

`GEN `

**mkrfraccopy**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

creates the `t_RFRAC`

`x/y`

. Assumes that `y`

is a `t_POL`

, `x`

a compatible type whose variable has lower or same priority, with `(x,y) = 1`

.

`GEN `

**mkcolcopy**`(GEN x)`

creates a 1-dimensional `t_COL`

containing `x`

.

`GEN `

**mkmatcopy**`(GEN x)`

creates a 1-by-1 `t_MAT`

wrapping the `t_COL`

`x`

.

`GEN `

**mkveccopy**`(GEN x)`

creates a 1-dimensional `t_VEC`

containing `x`

.

`GEN `

**mkvec2copy**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

creates a 2-dimensional `t_VEC`

equal to `[x,y]`

.

`GEN `

**mkcols**`(long x)`

creates a 1-dimensional `t_COL`

containing `stoi(x)`

.

`GEN `

**mkcol2s**`(long x, long y)`

creates a 2-dimensional `t_COL`

containing `[stoi(x), stoi(y)] `

.

`GEN `

**mkcol3s**`(long x, long y, long z)`

creates a 3-dimensional `t_COL`

containing `[stoi(x), stoi(y), stoi(z)] `

.

`GEN `

**mkcol4s**`(long x, long y, long z, long t)`

creates a 4-dimensional `t_COL`

containing `[stoi(x), stoi(y), stoi(z), stoi(t)] `

.

`GEN `

**mkvecs**`(long x)`

creates a 1-dimensional `t_VEC`

containing `stoi(x)`

.

`GEN `

**mkvec2s**`(long x, long y)`

creates a 2-dimensional `t_VEC`

containing `[stoi(x), stoi(y)]`

.

`GEN `

**mkvec3s**`(long x, long y, long z)`

creates a 3-dimensional `t_VEC`

containing `[stoi(x), stoi(y), stoi(z)]`

.

`GEN `

**mkvec4s**`(long x, long y, long z, long t)`

creates a 4-dimensional `t_VEC`

containing `[stoi(x), stoi(y), stoi(z), stoi(t)]`

.

`GEN `

**mkvecsmall**`(long x)`

creates a 1-dimensional `t_VECSMALL`

containing `x`

.

`GEN `

**mkvecsmall2**`(long x, long y)`

creates a 2-dimensional `t_VECSMALL`

containing `[x, y]`

.

`GEN `

**mkvecsmall3**`(long x, long y, long z)`

creates a 3-dimensional `t_VECSMALL`

containing `[x, y, z]`

.

`GEN `

**mkvecsmall4**`(long x, long y, long z, long t)`

creates a 4-dimensional `t_VECSMALL`

containing `[x, y, z, t]`

.

`GEN `

**mkvecsmalln**`(long n, ...)`

returns the `t_VECSMALL`

whose `n`

coefficients (`long`

) follow. *Warning:* since this is a variadic function, C type promotion is not performed on the arguments by the compiler, thus you have to make sure that all the arguments are of type `long`

, in particular integer constants need to be written with the `L`

suffix: `mkvecsmalln(2, 1L, 2L)`

is correct, but `mkvecsmalln(2, 1, 2)`

is not.

Contrary to the policy of general PARI functions, the functions in this subsection do *not* copy their arguments, nor do they produce an object a priori suitable for `gerepileupto`

. In particular, they are faster than their clean equivalent (which may not exist). *If* you restrict their arguments to universal objects (e.g `gen_0`

), then the above warning does not apply.

`GEN `

**mkcomplex**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

creates the `t_COMPLEX`

`x + iy`

.

`GEN `

**mulcxI**`(GEN x)`

creates the `t_COMPLEX`

`ix`

. The result in general contains data pointing back to the original `x`

. Use `gcopy`

if this is a problem. But in most cases, the result is to be used immediately, before `x`

is subject to garbage collection.

`GEN `

**mulcxmI**`(GEN x)`

, as `mulcxI`

, but returns the `t_COMPLEX`

`-ix`

.

`GEN `

**mkquad**`(GEN n, GEN x, GEN y)`

creates the `t_QUAD`

`x + yw`

, where `w`

is a root of `n`

, which is of the form `quadpoly(D)`

.

`GEN `

**mkfrac**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

creates the `t_FRAC`

`x/y`

. Assumes that `y > 1`

and `(x,y) = 1`

.

`GEN `

**mkrfrac**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

creates the `t_RFRAC`

`x/y`

. Assumes that `y`

is a `t_POL`

, `x`

a compatible type whose variable has lower or same priority, with `(x,y) = 1`

.

`GEN `

**mkcol**`(GEN x)`

creates a 1-dimensional `t_COL`

containing `x`

.

`GEN `

**mkcol2**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

creates a 2-dimensional `t_COL`

equal to `[x,y]`

.

`GEN `

**mkcol3**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN z)`

creates a 3-dimensional `t_COL`

equal to `[x,y,z]`

.

`GEN `

**mkcol4**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN z, GEN t)`

creates a 4-dimensional `t_COL`

equal to `[x,y,z,t]`

.

`GEN `

**mkcol5**`(GEN a1, GEN a2, GEN a3, GEN a4, GEN a5)`

creates the 5-dimensional `t_COL`

equal to `[a_1,a_2,a_3,a_4,a_5]`

.

`GEN `

**mkcol6**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN z, GEN t, GEN u, GEN v)`

creates the `6`

-dimensional column vector `[x,y,z,t,u,v] `

.

`GEN `

**mkintmod**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

creates the `t_INTMOD`

`Mod(x, y)`

. The inputs must be `t_INT`

s satisfying `0 <= x < y`

.

`GEN `

**mkpolmod**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

creates the `t_POLMOD`

`Mod(x, y)`

. The input must satisfy *deg* ` x < `

*deg* ` y`

with respect to the main variable of the `t_POL`

`y`

. `x`

may be a scalar.

`GEN `

**mkmat**`(GEN x)`

creates a 1-column `t_MAT`

with column `x`

(a `t_COL`

).

`GEN `

**mkmat2**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

creates a 2-column `t_MAT`

with columns `x`

, `y`

(`t_COL`

s of the same length).

`GEN `

**mkmat3**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN z)`

creates a 3-column `t_MAT`

with columns `x`

, `y`

, `z`

(`t_COL`

s of the same length).

`GEN `

**mkmat4**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN z, GEN t)`

creates a 4-column `t_MAT`

with columns `x`

, `y`

, `z`

, `t`

(`t_COL`

s of the same length).

`GEN `

**mkmat5**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN z, GEN t, GEN u)`

creates a 5-column `t_MAT`

with columns `x`

, `y`

, `z`

, `t`

, `u`

(`t_COL`

s of the same length).

`GEN `

**mkvec**`(GEN x)`

creates a 1-dimensional `t_VEC`

containing `x`

.

`GEN `

**mkvec2**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

creates a 2-dimensional `t_VEC`

equal to `[x,y]`

.

`GEN `

**mkvec3**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN z)`

creates a 3-dimensional `t_VEC`

equal to `[x,y,z]`

.

`GEN `

**mkvec4**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN z, GEN t)`

creates a 4-dimensional `t_VEC`

equal to `[x,y,z,t]`

.

`GEN `

**mkvec5**`(GEN a1, GEN a2, GEN a3, GEN a4, GEN a5)`

creates the 5-dimensional `t_VEC`

equal to `[a_1,a_2,a_3,a_4,a_5]`

.

`GEN `

**mkqfi**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN z)`

creates `t_QFI`

equal to `Qfb(x,y,z)`

, assuming that `y^2 - 4xz < 0`

.

`GEN `

**mkerr**`(long n)`

returns a `t_ERROR`

with error code `n`

(`enum err_list`

).

It is sometimes useful to return such a container whose entries are not universal objects, but nonetheless suitable for `gerepileupto`

. If the entries can be computed at the time the result is returned, the following macros achieve this effect:

`GEN `

**retmkvec**`(GEN x)`

returns a vector containing the single entry `x`

, where the vector root is created just before the function argument `x`

is evaluated. Expands to

```
{
GEN res = cgetg(2, t_VEC);
gel(res, 1) = x; /* or rather, the I<expansion> of x */
return res;
}
```

@3For instance, the `retmkvec(gcopy(x))`

returns a clean object, just like `return mkveccopy(x)`

would.

`GEN `

**retmkvec2**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

returns the `2`

-dimensional `t_VEC`

`[x,y]`

.

`GEN `

**retmkvec3**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN z)`

returns the `3`

-dimensional `t_VEC`

`[x,y,z]`

.

`GEN `

**retmkvec4**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN z, GEN t)`

returns the `4`

-dimensional `t_VEC`

`[x,y,z,t]`

.

`GEN `

**retmkvec5**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN z, GEN t, GEN u)`

returns the `5`

-dimensional row vector `[x,y,z,t,u]`

.

`GEN `

**retconst_vec**`(long n, GEN x)`

returns the `n`

-dimensional `t_VEC`

whose entries are constant and all equal to `x`

.

`GEN `

**retmkcol**`(GEN x)`

returns the `1`

-dimensional `t_COL`

`[x] `

.

`GEN `

**retmkcol2**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

returns the `2`

-dimensional `t_COL`

`[x,y] `

.

`GEN `

**retmkcol3**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN z)`

returns the `3`

-dimensional `t_COL`

`[x,y,z] `

.

`GEN `

**retmkcol4**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN z, GEN t)`

returns the `4`

-dimensional `t_COL`

`[x,y,z,t] `

.

`GEN `

**retmkcol5**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN z, GEN t, GEN u)`

returns the `5`

-dimensional column vector `[x,y,z,t,u] `

.

`GEN `

**retmkcol6**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN z, GEN t, GEN u, GEN v)`

returns the `6`

-dimensional column vector `[x,y,z,t,u,v] `

.

`GEN `

**retconst_col**`(long n, GEN x)`

returns the `n`

-dimensional `t_COL`

whose entries are constant and all equal to `x`

.

`GEN `

**retmkmat**`(GEN x)`

returns the `1`

-column `t_MAT`

with colum `x`

.

`GEN `

**retmkmat2**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

returns the `2`

-column `t_MAT`

with columns `x`

, `y`

.

`GEN `

**retmkmat3**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN z)`

returns the `3`

-dimensional `t_MAT`

with columns `x`

, `y`

, `z`

.

`GEN `

**retmkmat4**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN z, GEN t)`

returns the `4`

-dimensional `t_MAT`

with columns `x`

, `y`

, `z`

, `t`

.

`GEN `

**retmkmat5**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN z, GEN t, GEN u)`

returns the `5`

-dimensional `t_MAT`

with columns `x`

, `y`

, `z`

, `t`

, `u`

.

`GEN `

**retmkcomplex**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

returns the `t_COMPLEX`

`x + I*y`

.

`GEN `

**retmkfrac**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

returns the `t_FRAC`

`x / y`

. Assume `x`

and `y`

are coprime and `y > 1`

.

`GEN `

**retmkrfrac**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

returns the `t_RFRAC`

`x / y`

. Assume `x`

and `y`

are coprime and more generally that the rational function cannot be simplified.

`GEN `

**retmkintmod**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

returns the `t_INTMOD`

`Mod(x, y)`

.

`GEN `

**retmkqfi**`(GEN a, GEN b, GEN c)`

.

`GEN `

**retmkqfr**`(GEN a, GEN b, GEN c, GEN d)`

.

`GEN `

**retmkquad**`(GEN n, GEN a, GEN b)`

.

`GEN `

**retmkpolmod**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

returns the `t_POLMOD`

`Mod(x, y)`

.

`GEN `

**mkintn**`(long n, ...)`

returns the non-negative `t_INT`

whose development in base `2^{32}`

is given by the following `n`

32bit-words (`unsigned int`

).

` mkintn(3, a2, a1, a0);`

@3returns `a_2 2^{64} + a_1 2^{32} + a_0`

.

`GEN `

**mkpoln**`(long n, ...)`

Returns the `t_POL`

whose `n`

coefficients (`GEN`

) follow, in order of decreasing degree.

` mkpoln(3, gen_1, gen_2, gen_0);`

@3returns the polynomial `X^2 + 2X`

(in variable `0`

, use `setvarn`

if you want other variable numbers). Beware that `n`

is the number of coefficients, hence *one more* than the degree.

`GEN `

**mkvecn**`(long n, ...)`

returns the `t_VEC`

whose `n`

coefficients (`GEN`

) follow.

`GEN `

**mkcoln**`(long n, ...)`

returns the `t_COL`

whose `n`

coefficients (`GEN`

) follow.

`GEN `

**scalarcol_shallow**`(GEN x, long n)`

creates a `t_COL`

with `n`

components set to `gen_0`

, but the first one which is set to a shallow copy of `x`

. (The name comes from `RgV_isscalar`

.)

`GEN `

**scalarmat_shallow**`(GEN x, long n)`

creates an `n x n`

scalar matrix whose diagonal is set to shallow copies of the scalar `x`

.

`GEN `

**diagonal_shallow**`(GEN x)`

returns a diagonal matrix whose diagonal is given by the vector `x`

. Shallow function.

`GEN `

**scalarpol_shallow**`(GEN a, long v)`

returns the degree 0 `t_POL`

`a pol_x(v)^0`

.

`GEN `

**deg1pol_shallow**`(GEN a, GEN b,long v)`

returns the degree 1 `t_POL`

`apol_x(v) + b`

`GEN `

**zeropadic_shallow**`(GEN p, long n)`

returns a (shallow) `0`

`t_PADIC`

equal to `O(p^n)`

.

`GEN `

**deg1_from_roots**`(GEN L, long v)`

given a vector `L`

of scalars, returns the vector of monic linear polynomials in variable `v`

whose roots are the `L[i]`

, i.e. the `x - L[i]`

.

`GEN `

**roots_from_deg1**`(GEN L)`

given a vector `L`

of monic linear polynomials, return their roots, i.e. the `- L[i](0)`

.

`GEN `

**roots_to_pol**`(GEN L, long v)`

given a vector of scalars `L`

, returns the monic polynomial in variable `v`

whose roots are the `L[i]`

. Leaves some garbage on stack, but suitable for `gerepileupto`

.

`GEN `

**roots_to_pol_r1**`(GEN L, long v, long r1)`

as `roots_to_pol`

assuming the first `r_1`

roots are ``real'', and the following ones are representatives of conjugate pairs of ``complex'' roots. So if `L`

has `r_1 + r_2`

elements, we obtain a polynomial of degree `r_1 + 2r_2`

. In most applications, the roots are indeed real and complex, but the implementation assumes only that each ``complex'' root `z`

introduces a quadratic factor `X^2 - trace(z) X + norm(z)`

. Leaves some garbage on stack, but suitable for `gerepileupto`

.

`GEN `

**gfloor**`(GEN x)`

creates the floor of `x`

, i.e. the (true) integral part.

`GEN `

**gfrac**`(GEN x)`

creates the fractional part of `x`

, i.e. `x`

minus the floor of `x`

.

`GEN `

**gceil**`(GEN x)`

creates the ceiling of `x`

.

`GEN `

**ground**`(GEN x)`

rounds towards `+ oo `

the components of `x`

to the nearest integers.

`GEN `

**grndtoi**`(GEN x, long *e)`

same as `ground`

, but in addition sets `*e`

to the binary exponent of `x - ground(x)`

. If this is positive, all significant bits are lost. This kind of situation raises an error message in **ground** but not in **grndtoi**.

`GEN `

**gtrunc**`(GEN x)`

truncates `x`

. This is the false integer part if `x`

is a real number (i.e. the unique integer closest to `x`

among those between 0 and `x`

). If `x`

is a `t_SER`

, it is truncated to a `t_POL`

; if `x`

is a `t_RFRAC`

, this takes the polynomial part.

`GEN `

**gtrunc2n**`(GEN x, long n)`

creates the floor of `2^n`

`x`

, this is only implemented for `t_INT`

, `t_REAL`

, `t_FRAC`

and `t_COMPLEX`

of those.

`GEN `

**gcvtoi**`(GEN x, long *e)`

analogous to **grndtoi** for `t_REAL`

inputs except that rounding is replaced by truncation. Also applies componentwise for vector or matrix inputs; otherwise, sets `*e`

to `-HIGHEXPOBIT`

(infinite real accuracy) and return `gtrunc(x)`

.

`GEN `

**gshift[z]**`(GEN x, long n[, GEN z])`

yields the result of shifting (the components of) `x`

left by `n`

(if `n`

is non-negative) or right by `-n`

(if `n`

is negative). Applies only to `t_INT`

and vectors/matrices of such. For other types, it is simply multiplication by `2^{n}`

.

`GEN `

**gmul2n[z]**`(GEN x, long n[, GEN z])`

yields the product of `x`

and `2^{n}`

. This is different from `gshift`

when `n`

is negative and `x`

is a `t_INT`

: **gshift** truncates, while **gmul2n** creates a fraction if necessary.

`long `

**gvaluation**`(GEN x, GEN p)`

returns the greatest exponent `e`

such that `p^e`

divides `x`

, when this makes sense.

`long `

**gval**`(GEN x, long v)`

returns the highest power of the variable number `v`

dividing the `t_POL`

`x`

.

`long `

**gcmp**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

comparison of `x`

with `y`

: returns `1`

(`x > y`

), `0`

(`x = y`

) or `-1`

(`x < y`

). Two `t_STR`

are compared using the standard lexicographic ordering; a `t_STR`

is considered strictly larger than any non-string type. If neither `x`

nor `y`

is a `t_STR`

, their allowed types are `t_INT`

, `t_REAL`

or `t_FRAC`

. Used `cmp_universal`

to compare arbitrary `GEN`

s.

`long `

**lexcmp**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

comparison of `x`

with `y`

for the lexicographic ordering; when comparing objects of different lengths whose components are all equal up to the smallest of their length, consider that the longest is largest. Consider scalars as `1`

-component vectors. Return `gcmp`

`(x,y)`

if both arguments are scalars.

`int `

**gequalX**`(GEN x)`

return 1 (true) if `x`

is a variable (monomial of degree `1`

with `t_INT`

coefficients equal to `1`

and `0`

), and `0`

otherwise

`long `

**gequal**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

returns 1 (true) if `x`

is equal to `y`

, 0 otherwise. A priori, this makes sense only if `x`

and `y`

have the same type, in which case they are recursively compared componentwise. When the types are different, a `true`

result means that `x - y`

was successfully computed and that `gequal0`

found it equal to `0`

. In particular

` gequal(cgetg(1, t_VEC), gen_0)`

@3is true, and the relation is not transitive. E.g. an empty `t_COL`

and an empty `t_VEC`

are not equal but are both equal to `gen_0`

.

`long `

**gidentical**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

returns 1 (true) if `x`

is identical to `y`

, 0 otherwise. In particular, the types and length of `x`

and `y`

must be equal. This test is much stricter than `gequal`

, in particular, `t_REAL`

with different accuracies are tested different. This relation is transitive.

`int `

**isexactzero**`(GEN x)`

returns 1 (true) if `x`

is exactly equal to 0 (including `t_INTMOD`

s like `Mod(0,2)`

), and 0 (false) otherwise. This includes recursive objects, for instance vectors, whose components are `0`

.

`GEN `

**gisexactzero**`(GEN x)`

returns `NULL`

unless `x`

is exactly equal to 0 (as per `isexactzero`

). When `x`

is an exact zero return the attached scalar zero as a `t_INT`

(`gen_0`

), a `t_INTMOD`

(`Mod(0,N)`

for the largest possible `N`

) or a `t_FFELT`

.

`int `

**isrationalzero**`(GEN x)`

returns 1 (true) if `x`

is equal to an integer 0 (excluding `t_INTMOD`

s like `Mod(0,2)`

), and 0 (false) otherwise. Contrary to `isintzero`

, this includes recursive objects, for instance vectors, whose components are `0`

.

`int `

**ismpzero**`(GEN x)`

returns 1 (true) if `x`

is a `t_INT`

or a `t_REAL`

equal to 0.

`int `

**isintzero**`(GEN x)`

returns 1 (true) if `x`

is a `t_INT`

equal to 0.

`int `

**isint1**`(GEN x)`

returns 1 (true) if `x`

is a `t_INT`

equal to 1.

`int `

**isintm1**`(GEN x)`

returns 1 (true) if `x`

is a `t_INT`

equal to `-1`

.

`int `

**equali1**`(GEN n)`

Assuming that `x`

is a `t_INT`

, return 1 (true) if `x`

is equal to `1`

, and return 0 (false) otherwise.

`int `

**equalim1**`(GEN n)`

Assuming that `x`

is a `t_INT`

, return 1 (true) if `x`

is equal to `-1`

, and return 0 (false) otherwise.

`int `

**is_pm1**`(GEN x)`

. Assuming that `x`

is a *non-zero* `t_INT`

, return 1 (true) if `x`

is equal to `-1`

or `1`

, and return 0 (false) otherwise.

`int `

**gequal0**`(GEN x)`

returns 1 (true) if `x`

is equal to 0, 0 (false) otherwise.

`int `

**gequal1**`(GEN x)`

returns 1 (true) if `x`

is equal to 1, 0 (false) otherwise.

`int `

**gequalm1**`(GEN x)`

returns 1 (true) if `x`

is equal to `-1`

, 0 (false) otherwise.

`long `

**gcmpsg**`(long s, GEN x)`

`long `

**gcmpgs**`(GEN x, long s)`

comparison of `x`

with the `long`

`s`

.

`GEN `

**gmaxsg**`(long s, GEN x)`

`GEN `

**gmaxgs**`(GEN x, long s)`

returns the largest of `x`

and the `long`

`s`

(converted to `GEN`

)

`GEN `

**gminsg**`(long s, GEN x)`

`GEN `

**gmings**`(GEN x, long s)`

returns the smallest of `x`

and the `long`

`s`

(converted to `GEN`

)

`long `

**gequalsg**`(long s, GEN x)`

`long `

**gequalgs**`(GEN x, long s)`

returns 1 (true) if `x`

is equal to the `long`

`s`

, 0 otherwise.

`int `

**isrationalzeroscalar**`(GEN x)`

equivalent to, but faster than,

` is_scalar_t(typ(x)) && isrationalzero(x)`

`int `

**isinexact**`(GEN x)`

returns 1 (true) if `x`

has an inexact component, and 0 (false) otherwise.

`int `

**isinexactreal**`(GEN x)`

return 1 if `x`

has an inexact `t_REAL`

component, and 0 otherwise.

`int `

**isrealappr**`(GEN x, long e)`

applies (recursively) to complex inputs; returns `1`

if `x`

is approximately real to the bit accuracy `e`

, and 0 otherwise. This means that any `t_COMPLEX`

component must have imaginary part `t`

satisfying `gexpo(t) < e`

.

`int `

**isint**`(GEN x, GEN *n)`

returns 0 (false) if `x`

does not round to an integer. Otherwise, returns 1 (true) and set `n`

to the rounded value.

`int `

**issmall**`(GEN x, long *n)`

returns 0 (false) if `x`

does not round to a small integer (suitable for `itos`

). Otherwise, returns 1 (true) and set `n`

to the rounded value.

`long `

**iscomplex**`(GEN x)`

returns 1 (true) if `x`

is a complex number (of component types embeddable into the reals) but is not itself real, 0 if `x`

is a real (not necessarily of type `t_REAL`

), or raises an error if `x`

is not embeddable into the complex numbers.

The following less convenient comparison functions and Boolean operators were used by the historical GP interpreter. They are provided for backward compatibility only and should not be used:

`GEN `

**gle**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

`GEN `

**glt**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

`GEN `

**gge**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

`GEN `

**ggt**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

`GEN `

**geq**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

`GEN `

**gne**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

`GEN `

**gor**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

`GEN `

**gand**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

`GEN `

**gnot**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

`GEN `

**sort**`(GEN x)`

sorts the vector `x`

in ascending order using a mergesort algorithm, and `gcmp`

as the underlying comparison routine (returns the sorted vector). This routine copies all components of `x`

, use `gen_sort_inplace`

for a more memory-efficient function.

`GEN `

**lexsort**`(GEN x)`

, as `sort`

, using `lexcmp`

instead of `gcmp`

as the underlying comparison routine.

`GEN `

**vecsort**`(GEN x, GEN k)`

, as `sort`

, but sorts the vector `x`

in ascending *lexicographic* order, according to the entries of the `t_VECSMALL`

`k`

. For example, if `k = [2,1,3]`

, sorting will be done with respect to the second component, and when these are equal, with respect to the first, and when these are equal, with respect to the third.

`GEN `

**indexsort**`(GEN x)`

as `sort`

, but only returns the permutation which, applied to `x`

, would sort the vector. The result is a `t_VECSMALL`

.

`GEN `

**indexlexsort**`(GEN x)`

, as `indexsort`

, using `lexcmp`

instead of `gcmp`

as the underlying comparison routine.

`GEN `

**indexvecsort**`(GEN x, GEN k)`

, as `vecsort`

, but only returns the permutation that would sort the vector `x`

.

`long `

**vecindexmin**`(GEN x)`

returns the index for a maximal element of `x`

(`t_VEC`

, `t_COL`

or `t_VECSMALL`

).

`long `

**vecindexmax**`(GEN x)`

returns the index for a maximal element of `x`

(`t_VEC`

, `t_COL`

or `t_VECSMALL`

).

`long `

**vecindexmax**`(GEN x)`

The following routines allow to use an arbitrary comparison function `int (*cmp)(void* data, GEN x, GEN y)`

, such that `cmp(data,x,y)`

returns a negative result if `x < y`

, a positive one if `x > y`

and 0 if `x = y`

. The `data`

argument is there in case your `cmp`

requires additional context.

`GEN `

**gen_sort**`(GEN x, void *data, int (*cmp)(void *,GEN,GEN))`

, as `sort`

, with an explicit comparison routine.

`GEN `

**gen_sort_uniq**`(GEN x, void *data, int (*cmp)(void *,GEN,GEN))`

, as `gen_sort`

, removing duplicate entries.

`GEN `

**gen_indexsort**`(GEN x, void *data, int (*cmp)(void*,GEN,GEN))`

, as `indexsort`

.

`GEN `

**gen_indexsort_uniq**`(GEN x, void *data, int (*cmp)(void*,GEN,GEN))`

, as `indexsort`

, removing duplicate entries.

`void `

**gen_sort_inplace**`(GEN x, void *data, int (*cmp)(void*,GEN,GEN), GEN *perm)`

sort `x`

in place, without copying its components. If `perm`

is non-`NULL`

, it is set to the permutation that would sort the original `x`

.

`GEN `

**gen_setminus**`(GEN A, GEN B, int (*cmp)(GEN,GEN))`

given two sorted vectors `A`

and `B`

, returns the vector of elements of `A`

not belonging to `B`

.

`GEN `

**sort_factor**`(GEN y, void *data, int (*cmp)(void *,GEN,GEN))`

: assuming `y`

is a factorization matrix, sorts its rows in place (no copy is made) according to the comparison function `cmp`

applied to its first column.

`GEN `

**merge_sort_uniq**`(GEN x,GEN y, void *data, int (*cmp)(void *,GEN,GEN))`

assuming `x`

and `y`

are sorted vectors, with respect to the `cmp`

comparison function, return a sorted concatenation, with duplicates removed.

`GEN `

**merge_factor**`(GEN fx, GEN fy, void *data, int (*cmp)(void *,GEN,GEN))`

let `fx`

and `fy`

be factorization matrices for `X`

and `Y`

sorted with respect to the comparison function `cmp`

(see `sort_factor`

), returns the factorization of `X * Y`

.

`long `

**gen_search**`(GEN v, GEN y, long flag, void *data, int (*cmp)(void*,GEN,GEN))`

.\hfil

Let `v`

be a vector sorted according to `cmp(data,a,b)`

; look for an index `i`

such that `v[i]`

is equal to `y`

. `flag`

has the same meaning as in `setsearch`

: if `flag`

is 0, return `i`

if it exists and 0 otherwise; if `flag`

is non-zero, return `0`

if `i`

exists and the index where `y`

should be inserted otherwise.

`long `

**tablesearch**`(GEN T, GEN x, int (*cmp)(GEN,GEN))`

is a faster implementation for the common case `gen_search(T,x,0,cmp,cmp_nodata)`

.

`int `

**cmp_universal**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

a somewhat arbitrary universal comparison function, devoid of sensible mathematical meaning. It is transitive, and returns 0 if and only if `gidentical(x,y)`

is true. Useful to sort and search vectors of arbitrary data.

`int `

**cmp_nodata**`(void *data, GEN x, GEN y)`

. This function is a hack used to pass an existing basic comparison function lacking the `data`

argument, i.e. with prototype `int (*cmp)(GEN x, GEN y)`

. Instead of `gen_sort(x, NULL, cmp)`

which may or may not work depending on how your compiler handles typecasts between incompatible function pointers, one should use `gen_sort(x, (void*)cmp, cmp_nodata)`

.

Here are a few basic comparison functions, to be used with `cmp_nodata`

:

`int `

**ZV_cmp**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

compare two `ZV`

, which we assume have the same length (lexicographic order).

`int `

**cmp_Flx**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

compare two `Flx`

, which we assume have the same main variable (lexicographic order).

`int `

**cmp_RgX**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

compare two polynomials, which we assume have the same main variable (lexicographic order). The coefficients are compared using `gcmp`

.

`int `

**cmp_prime_over_p**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

compare two prime ideals, which we assume divide the same prime number. The comparison is ad hoc but orders according to increasing residue degrees.

`int `

**cmp_prime_ideal**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

compare two prime ideals in the same *nf*. Orders by increasing primes, breaking ties using `cmp_prime_over_p`

.

`int `

**cmp_padic**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

compare two `t_PADIC`

(for the same prime `p`

).

Finally a more elaborate comparison function:

`int `

**gen_cmp_RgX**`(void *data, GEN x, GEN y)`

compare two polynomials, ordering first by increasing degree, then according to the coefficient comparison function:

` int (*cmp_coeff)(GEN,GEN) = (int(*)(GEN,GEN)) data;`

`GEN `

**gdivexact**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

returns the quotient `x / y`

, assuming `y`

divides `x`

. Not stack clean if `y = 1`

(we return `x`

, not a copy).

`int `

**gdvd**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

returns 1 (true) if `y`

divides `x`

, 0 otherwise.

`GEN `

**gdiventres**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

creates a 2-component vertical vector whose components are the true Euclidean quotient and remainder of `x`

and `y`

.

`GEN `

**gdivent[z]**`(GEN x, GEN y[, GEN z])`

yields the true Euclidean quotient of `x`

and the `t_INT`

or `t_POL`

`y`

, as per the `\`

GP operator.

`GEN `

**gdiventsg**`(long s, GEN y[, GEN z])`

, as `gdivent`

except that `x`

is a `long`

.

`GEN `

**gdiventgs[z]**`(GEN x, long s[, GEN z])`

, as `gdivent`

except that `y`

is a `long`

.

`GEN `

**gmod[z]**`(GEN x, GEN y[, GEN z])`

yields the remainder of `x`

modulo the `t_INT`

or `t_POL`

`y`

, as per the `%`

GP operator. A `t_REAL`

or `t_FRAC`

`y`

is also allowed, in which case the remainder is the unique real `r`

such that `0 <= r < |y|`

and `y = qx + r`

for some (in fact unique) integer `q`

.

`GEN `

**gmodsg**`(long s, GEN y[, GEN z])`

as `gmod`

, except `x`

is a `long`

.

`GEN `

**gmodgs**`(GEN x, long s[, GEN z])`

as `gmod`

, except `y`

is a `long`

.

`GEN `

**gdivmod**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN *r)`

If `r`

is not equal to `NULL`

or `ONLY_REM`

, creates the (false) Euclidean quotient of `x`

and `y`

, and puts (the address of) the remainder into `*r`

. If `r`

is equal to `NULL`

, do not create the remainder, and if `r`

is equal to `ONLY_REM`

, create and output only the remainder. The remainder is created after the quotient and can be disposed of individually with a `cgiv(r)`

.

`GEN `

**poldivrem**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN *r)`

same as **gdivmod** but specifically for `t_POL`

s `x`

and `y`

, not necessarily in the same variable. Either of `x`

and `y`

may also be scalars, treated as polynomials of degree `0`

.

`GEN `

**gdeuc**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

creates the Euclidean quotient of the `t_POL`

s `x`

and `y`

. Either of `x`

and `y`

may also be scalars, treated as polynomials of degree `0`

.

`GEN `

**grem**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

creates the Euclidean remainder of the `t_POL`

`x`

divided by the `t_POL`

`y`

. Either of `x`

and `y`

may also be scalars, treated as polynomials of degree `0`

.

`GEN `

**gdivround**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

if `x`

and `y`

are real (`t_INT`

, `t_REAL`

, `t_FRAC`

), return the rounded Euclidean quotient of `x`

and `y`

as per the `\/`

GP operator. Operate componentwise if `x`

is a `t_COL`

, `t_VEC`

or `t_MAT`

. Otherwise as **gdivent**.

`GEN `

**centermod_i**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN y2)`

, as `centermodii`

, componentwise.

`GEN `

**centermod**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

, as `centermod_i`

, except that `y2`

is computed (and left on the stack for efficiency).

`GEN `

**ginvmod**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

creates the inverse of `x`

modulo `y`

when it exists. `y`

must be of type `t_INT`

(in which case `x`

is of type `t_INT`

) or `t_POL`

(in which case `x`

is either a scalar type or a `t_POL`

).

`GEN `

**resultant**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

creates the resultant of the `t_POL`

s `x`

and `y`

computed using Sylvester's matrix (inexact inputs), a modular algorithm (inputs in **Q**`[X]`

) or the subresultant algorithm, as optimized by Lazard and Ducos. Either of `x`

and `y`

may also be scalars (treated as polynomials of degree `0`

)

`GEN `

**ggcd**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

creates the GCD of `x`

and `y`

.

`GEN `

**glcm**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

creates the LCM of `x`

and `y`

.

`GEN `

**gbezout**`(GEN x,GEN y, GEN *u,GEN *v)`

returns the GCD of `x`

and `y`

, and puts (the addresses of) objects `u`

and `v`

such that `ux+vy = `

*gcd* `(x,y)`

into `*u`

and `*v`

.

`GEN `

**subresext**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN *U, GEN *V)`

returns the resultant of `x`

and `y`

, and puts (the addresses of) polynomials `u`

and `v`

such that `ux+vy = Res(x,y)`

into `*U`

and `*V`

.

`GEN `

**content**`(GEN x)`

returns the GCD of all the components of `x`

.

`GEN `

**primitive_part**`(GEN x, GEN *c)`

sets `c`

to `content(x)`

and returns the primitive part `x`

/ `c`

. A trivial content is set to `NULL`

.

`GEN `

**primpart**`(GEN x)`

as above but the content is lost. (For efficiency, the content remains on the stack.)

`long `

**Q_pval**`(GEN x, GEN p)`

valuation at the `t_INT`

`p`

of the `t_INT`

or `t_FRAC`

`x`

.

`long `

**Q_pvalrem**`(GEN x, GEN p, GEN *r)`

returns the valuation `e`

at the `t_INT`

`p`

of the `t_INT`

or `t_FRAC`

`x`

. The quotient `x/p^{e}`

is returned in `*r`

.

`GEN `

**Q_abs**`(GEN x)`

absolute value of the `t_INT`

or `t_FRAC`

`x`

.

`GEN `

**Qdivii**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

, assuming `x`

and `y`

are both of type `t_INT`

, return the quotient `x/y`

as a `t_INT`

or `t_FRAC`

; marginally faster than `gdiv`

.

`GEN `

**Q_abs_shallow**`(GEN x)`

`x`

being a `t_INT`

or a `t_FRAC`

, returns a shallow copy of `|x|`

, in particular returns `x`

itself when `x >= 0`

, and `gneg(x)`

otherwise.

`GEN `

**Q_gcd**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

gcd of the `t_INT`

or `t_FRAC`

`x`

and `y`

.

In the following functions, arguments belong to a `M\otimes_`

**Z****Q** for some natural **Z**-module `M`

, e.g. multivariate polynomials with integer coefficients (or vectors/matrices recursively built from such objects), and an element of `M`

is said to be *integral*. We are interested in contents, denominators, etc. with respect to this canonical integral structure; in particular, contents belong to **Q**, denominators to **Z**. For instance the **Q**-content of `(1/2)xy`

is `(1/2)`

, and its **Q**-denominator is `2`

, whereas `content`

would return `y/2`

and `denom`

1.

`GEN `

**Q_content**`(GEN x)`

the **Q**-content of `x`

`GEN `

**Q_denom**`(GEN x)`

the **Q**-denominator of `x`

. Shallow function.

`GEN `

**Q_primitive_part**`(GEN x, GEN *c)`

sets `c`

to the **Q**-content of `x`

and returns `x / c`

, which is integral.

`GEN `

**Q_primpart**`(GEN x)`

as above but the content is lost. (For efficiency, the content remains on the stack.)

`GEN `

**Q_remove_denom**`(GEN x, GEN *ptd)`

sets `d`

to the **Q**-denominator of `x`

and returns `x * d`

, which is integral. Shallow function.

`GEN `

**Q_div_to_int**`(GEN x, GEN c)`

returns `x / c`

, assuming `c`

is a rational number (`t_INT`

or `t_FRAC`

) and the result is integral.

`GEN `

**Q_mul_to_int**`(GEN x, GEN c)`

returns `x * c`

, assuming `c`

is a rational number (`t_INT`

or `t_FRAC`

) and the result is integral.

`GEN `

**Q_muli_to_int**`(GEN x, GEN d)`

returns `x * c`

, assuming `c`

is a `t_INT`

and the result is integral.

`GEN `

**mul_content**`(GEN cx, GEN cy)`

`cx`

and `cy`

are as set by `primitive_part`

: either a `GEN`

or `NULL`

representing the trivial content `1`

. Returns their product (either a `GEN`

or `NULL`

).

`GEN `

**mul_denom**`(GEN dx, GEN dy)`

`dx`

and `dy`

are as set by `Q_remove_denom`

: either a `t_INT`

or `NULL`

representing the trivial denominator `1`

. Returns their product (either a `t_INT`

or `NULL`

).

`GEN `

**gneg[z]**`(GEN x[, GEN z])`

yields `-x`

.

`GEN `

**gneg_i**`(GEN x)`

shallow function yielding `-x`

.

`GEN `

**gabs[z]**`(GEN x[, GEN z])`

yields `|x|`

.

`GEN `

**gsqr**`(GEN x)`

creates the square of `x`

.

`GEN `

**ginv**`(GEN x)`

creates the inverse of `x`

.

Let ``*op*'' be a binary operation among

*op* = **add**: addition (`x + y`

).

*op* = **sub**: subtraction (`x - y`

).

*op* = **mul**: multiplication (`x * y`

).

*op* = **div**: division (`x / y`

).

@3The names and prototypes of the functions corresponding to *op* are as follows:

@3`GEN `

**g***op*`(GEN x, GEN y)`

@3`GEN `

**g***op***gs**`(GEN x, long s)`

@3`GEN `

**g***op***sg**`(long s, GEN y)`

@3Explicitly

`GEN `

**gadd**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

, `GEN `

**gaddgs**`(GEN x, long s)`

, `GEN `

**gaddsg**`(long s, GEN x)`

`GEN `

**gmul**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

, `GEN `

**gmulgs**`(GEN x, long s)`

, `GEN `

**gmulsg**`(long s, GEN x)`

`GEN `

**gsub**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

, `GEN `

**gsubgs**`(GEN x, long s)`

, `GEN `

**gsubsg**`(long s, GEN x)`

`GEN `

**gdiv**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

, `GEN `

**gdivgs**`(GEN x, long s)`

, `GEN `

**gdivsg**`(long s, GEN x)`

`GEN `

**gpow**`(GEN x, GEN y, long l)`

creates `x^{y}`

. If `y`

is a `t_INT`

, return `powgi(x,y)`

(the precision `l`

is not taken into account). Otherwise, the result is *exp* `(y*`

*log* `(x))`

where exact arguments are converted to floats of precision `l`

in case of need; if there is no need, for instance if `x`

is a `t_REAL`

, `l`

is ignored. Indeed, if `x`

is a `t_REAL`

, the accuracy of *log* ` x`

is determined from the accuracy of `x`

, it is no problem to multiply by `y`

, even if it is an exact type, and the accuracy of the exponential is determined, exactly as in the case of the initial *log* ` x`

.

`GEN `

**gpowgs**`(GEN x, long n)`

creates `x^{n}`

using binary powering. To treat the special case `n = 0`

, we consider `gpowgs`

as a series of `gmul`

, so we follow the rule of returning result which is as exact as possible given the input. More precisely, we return

@3***** `gen_1`

if `x`

has type `t_INT`

, `t_REAL`

, `t_FRAC`

, or `t_PADIC`

@3***** `Mod(1,N)`

if `x`

is a `t_INTMOD`

modulo `N`

.

@3***** `gen_1`

for `t_COMPLEX`

, `t_QUAD`

unless one component is a `t_INTMOD`

, in which case we return `Mod(1, N)`

for a suitable `N`

(the gcd of the moduli that appear).

@3***** `FF_1`

`(x)`

for a `t_FFELT`

.

@3***** `RgX_get_1`

`(x)`

for a `t_POL`

.

@3***** `qfi_1`

`(x)`

and `qfr_1`

`(x)`

for `t_QFI`

and `t_QFR`

.

@3***** the identity permutation for `t_VECSMALL`

.

@3***** etc.

Of course, the only practical use of this routine for `n = 0`

is to obtain the multiplicative neutral element in the base ring (or to treat marginal cases that should be special cased anyway if there is the slightest doubt about what the result should be).

`GEN `

**powgi**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

creates `x^{y}`

, where `y`

is a `t_INT`

, using left-shift binary powering. The case where `y = 0`

(as all cases where `y`

is small) is handled by `gpowgs(x, 0)`

.

`GEN `

**gpowers**`(GEN x, long n)`

returns the vector `[1,x,...,x^n]`

.

`GEN `

**grootsof1**`(long n, long prec)`

returns the vector `[1,x,...,x^{n-1}]`

, where `x`

is the `n`

-th root of unity *exp* `(2i`

*pi*`/n)`

.

`GEN `

**gsqrpowers**`(GEN x, long n)`

returns the vector `[x,x^4,...,x^{n^2}]`

.

In addition we also have the obsolete forms:

`void `

**gaddz**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN z)`

`void `

**gsubz**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN z)`

`void `

**gmulz**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN z)`

`void `

**gdivz**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN z)`

To describe the following functions, we use the following private typedefs to simplify the description:

```
typedef (*F0)(void *);
typedef (*F1)(void *, GEN);
typedef (*F2)(void *, GEN, GEN);
```

@3They correspond to generic functions with one and two arguments respectively (the `void*`

argument provides some arbitrary evaluation context).

`GEN `

**gen_product**`(GEN v, void *D, F2 op)`

Given two objects `x,y`

, assume that `op(D, x, y)`

implements an associative binary operator. If `v`

has `k`

entries, return

`v[1] `

*op*` v[2] `

*op*` ... `

*op*` v[k];`

returns `gen_1`

if `k = 0`

and a copy of `v[1]`

if `k = 1`

. Use divide and conquer strategy. Leave some garbage on stack, but suitable for `gerepileupto`

if `mul`

is.

`GEN `

**gen_pow**`(GEN x, GEN n, void *D, F1 sqr, F2 mul)`

`n > 0`

a `t_INT`

, returns `x^n`

; `mul(D, x, y)`

implements the multiplication in the underlying monoid; `sqr`

is a (presumably optimized) shortcut for `mul(D, x, x)`

.

`GEN `

**gen_powu**`(GEN x, ulong n, void *D, F1 sqr, F2 mul)`

`n > 0`

, returns `x^n`

. See `gen_pow`

.

`GEN `

**gen_pow_i**`(GEN x, GEN n, void *E, F1 sqr, F2 mul)`

internal variant of `gen_pow`

, not memory-clean.

`GEN `

**gen_powu_i**`(GEN x, ulong n, void *E, F1 sqr, F2 mul)`

internal variant of `gen_powu`

, not memory-clean.

`GEN `

**gen_pow_fold**`(GEN x, GEN n, void *D, F1 sqr, F1 msqr)`

variant of `gen_pow`

, where `mul`

is replaced by `msqr`

, with `msqr(D, y)`

returning `xy^2`

. In particular `D`

must implicitly contain `x`

.

`GEN `

**gen_pow_fold_i**`(GEN x, GEN n, void *E, F1 sqr, F1 msqr)`

internal variant of the function `gen_pow_fold`

, not memory-clean.

`GEN `

**gen_powu_fold**`(GEN x, ulong n, void *D, F1 sqr, F1 msqr)`

, see `gen_pow_fold`

.

`GEN `

**gen_powu_fold_i**`(GEN x, ulong n, void *E, F1 sqr, F1 msqr)`

see `gen_pow_fold_i`

.

`GEN `

**gen_powers**`(GEN x, long n, long usesqr, void *D, F1 sqr, F2 mul, F0 one)`

returns `[x^0,..., x^n]`

as a `t_VEC`

; `mul(D, x, y)`

implements the multiplication in the underlying monoid; `sqr`

is a (presumably optimized) shortcut for `mul(D, x, x)`

; `one`

returns the monoid unit. The flag `usesqr`

should be set to `1`

if squaring are faster than multiplication by `x`

.

`GEN `

**gen_factorback**`(GEN L, GEN e, F2 mul, F2 pow, void *D)`

generic form of `factorback`

. The pair `[L,e]`

is of the form

@3***** `[fa, NULL]`

, `fa`

a two-column factorization matrix: expand it.

@3***** `[v, NULL]`

, `v`

a vector of objects: return their product.

@3***** or `[v, e]`

, `v`

a vector of objects, `e`

a vector of integral exponents: return the product of the `v[i]^{e[i]}`

.

@3`mul(D, x, y)`

and `pow(D, x, n)`

return `xy`

and `x^n`

respectively.

This section concerns only standard norms of **R** and **C** vector spaces, not algebraic norms given by the determinant of some multiplication operator. We have already seen type-specific functions like `ZM_supnorm`

or `RgM_fpnorml2`

and limit ourselves to generic functions assuming nothing about their `GEN`

argument; these functions allow the following scalar types: `t_INT`

, `t_FRAC`

, `t_REAL`

, `t_COMPLEX`

, `t_QUAD`

and are defined recursively (in terms of norms of their components) for the following ``container'' types: `t_POL`

, `t_VEC`

, `t_COL`

and `t_MAT`

. They raise an error if some other type appears in the argument.

`GEN `

**gnorml2**`(GEN x)`

The norm of a scalar is the square of its complex modulus, the norm of a recursive type is the sum of the norms of its components. For polynomials, vectors or matrices of complex numbers one recovers the *square* of the usual `L^2`

norm. In most applications, the missing square root computation can be skipped.

`GEN `

**gnorml1**`(GEN x, long prec)`

The norm of a scalar is its complex modulus, the norm of a recursive type is the sum of the norms of its components. For polynomials, vectors or matrices of complex numbers one recovers the usual `L^1`

norm. One must include a real precision `prec`

in case the inputs include `t_COMPLEX`

or `t_QUAD`

with exact rational components: a square root must be computed and we must choose an accuracy.

`GEN `

**gnorml1_fake**`(GEN x)`

as `gnorml1`

, except that the norm of a `t_QUAD`

`x + wy`

or `t_COMPLEX`

`x + Iy`

is defined as `|x| + |y|`

, where we use the ordinary real absolute value. This is still a norm of **R** vector spaces, which is easier to compute than `gnorml1`

and can often be used in its place.

`GEN `

**gsupnorm**`(GEN x, long prec)`

The norm of a scalar is its complex modulus, the norm of a recursive type is the max of the norms of its components. A precision `prec`

must be included for the same reason as in `gnorml1`

.

`void `

**gsupnorm_aux**`(GEN x, GEN *m, GEN *m2, long prec)`

is the low-level function underlying `gsupnorm`

, used as follows:

```
GEN m = NULL, m2 = NULL;
gsupnorm_aux(x, &m, &m2);
```

After the call, the sup norm of `x`

is the min of `m`

and the square root of `m2`

; one or both of `m`

, `m2`

may be `NULL`

, in which case it must be omitted. You may initially set `m`

and `m2`

to non-`NULL`

values, in which case, the above procedure yields the max of (the initial) `m`

, the square root of (the initial) `m2`

, and the sup norm of `x`

.

The strange interface is due to the fact that `|z|^2`

is easier to compute than `|z|`

for a `t_QUAD`

or `t_COMPLEX`

`z`

: `m2`

is the max of those `|z|^2`

, and `m`

is the max of the other `|z|`

.

`GEN `

**gsubst**`(GEN x, long v, GEN y)`

substitutes the object `y`

into `x`

for the variable number `v`

.

`GEN `

**poleval**`(GEN q, GEN x)`

evaluates the `t_POL`

or `t_RFRAC`

`q`

at `x`

. For convenience, a `t_VEC`

or `t_COL`

is also recognized as the `t_POL`

`gtovecrev(q)`

.

`GEN `

**RgX_cxeval**`(GEN T, GEN x, GEN xi)`

evaluate the `t_POL`

`T`

at `x`

via Horner's scheme. If *xi* is not `NULL`

it must be equal to `1/x`

and we evaluate `x^{`

*deg* ` T}T(1/x)`

instead. This is useful when `|x| > 1`

is a `t_REAL`

or an inexact `t_COMPLEX`

and `T`

has ``balanced'' coefficients, since the evaluation becomes numerically stable.

`GEN `

**RgX_RgM_eval**`(GEN q, GEN x)`

evaluates the `t_POL`

`q`

at the square matrix `x`

.

`GEN `

**RgX_RgMV_eval**`(GEN f, GEN V)`

returns the evaluation `f(x)`

, assuming that `V`

was computed by `FpXQ_powers(x, n)`

for some `n > 1`

.

`GEN `

**qfeval**`(GEN q, GEN x)`

evaluates the quadratic form `q`

(symmetric matrix) at `x`

(column vector of compatible dimensions).

`GEN `

**qfevalb**`(GEN q, GEN x, GEN y)`

evaluates the polar bilinear form attached to the quadratic form `q`

(symmetric matrix) at `x`

, `y`

(column vectors of compatible dimensions).

`GEN `

**hqfeval**`(GEN q, GEN x)`

evaluates the Hermitian form `q`

(a Hermitian complex matrix) at `x`

.

`GEN `

**qf_apply_RgM**`(GEN q, GEN M)`

`q`

is a symmetric `n x n`

matrix, `M`

an `n x k`

matrix, return `M' q M`

.

`GEN `

**qf_apply_ZM**`(GEN q, GEN M)`

as above assuming that both `q`

and `M`

have integer entries.

\newpage

libPARI - Miscellaneous mathematical functions

`GEN `

**absfrac**`(GEN x)`

returns the absolute value of the `t_FRAC`

`x`

.

`GEN `

**absfrac_shallow**`(GEN x)`

`x`

being a `t_FRAC`

, returns a shallow copy of `|x|`

, in particular returns `x`

itself when `x >= 0`

, and `gneg(x)`

otherwise.

`GEN `

**sqrfrac**`(GEN x)`

returns the square of the `t_FRAC`

`x`

.

`GEN `

**R_abs**`(GEN x)`

`x`

being a `t_INT`

, a `t_REAL`

or a `t_FRAC`

, returns `|x|`

.

`GEN `

**R_abs_shallow**`(GEN x)`

`x`

being a `t_INT`

, a `t_REAL`

or a `t_FRAC`

, returns a shallow copy of `|x|`

, in particular returns `x`

itself when `x >= 0`

, and `gneg(x)`

otherwise.

`GEN `

**modRr_safe**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

let `x`

be a `t_INT`

, a `t_REAL`

or `t_FRAC`

and let `y`

be a `t_REAL`

. Return `x% y`

unless the input accuracy is unsufficient to compute the floor or `x/y`

in which case we return `NULL`

.

`GEN `

**imag**`(GEN x)`

returns a copy of the imaginary part of `x`

.

`GEN `

**real**`(GEN x)`

returns a copy of the real part of `x`

. If `x`

is a `t_QUAD`

, returns the coefficient of `1`

in the ``canonical'' integral basis `(1,`

*omega*`)`

.

The last two functions are shallow, and not suitable for `gerepileupto`

:

`GEN `

**imag_i**`(GEN x)`

as `gimag`

, returns a pointer to the imaginary part. `GEN `

**real_i**`(GEN x)`

as `greal`

, returns a pointer to the real part.

`GEN `

**mulreal**`(GEN x, GEN)`

returns the real part of `xy`

; `x,y`

have type `t_INT`

, `t_FRAC`

, `t_REAL`

or `t_COMPLEX`

. See also `RgM_mulreal`

.

`GEN `

**cxnorm**`(GEN x)`

norm of the `t_COMPLEX`

`x`

(modulus squared).

`GEN `

**cxexpm1**`(GEN x)`

returns *exp* `(x)-1`

, for a `t_COMPLEX`

`x`

.

`GEN `

**quad_disc**`(GEN x)`

returns the discriminant of the `t_QUAD`

`x`

.

`GEN `

**quadnorm**`(GEN x)`

norm of the `t_QUAD`

`x`

.

`GEN `

**qfb_disc**`(GEN x)`

returns the discriminant of the `t_QFI`

or `t_QFR`

`x`

.

`GEN `

**qfb_disc3**`(GEN x, GEN y, GEN z)`

returns `y^2 - 4xz`

assuming all inputs are `t_INT`

s. Not stack-clean.

`GEN `

**qfb_apply_ZM**`(GEN q, GEN g)`

returns `q o g`

.

`GEN `

**qfbforms**`(GEN D)`

given a discriminant `D < 0`

, return the list of reduced forms of discriminant `D`

as `t_VECSMALL`

with 3 components. The primitive forms in the list enumerate the class group of the quadratic order of discriminant `D`

; if `D`

is fundamental, all returned forms are automatically primitive.

`GEN `

**truecoeff**`(GEN x, long n)`

returns `polcoeff0(x,n, -1)`

, i.e. the coefficient of the term of degree `n`

in the main variable.

`GEN `

**polcoeff_i**`(GEN x, long n, long v)`

internal shallow function. Rewrite `x`

as a Laurent polynomial in the variable `v`

and returns its coefficient of degree `n`

(`gen_0`

if this falls outside the coefficient array). Allow `t_POL`

, `t_SER`

, `t_RFRAC`

and scalars.

`long `

**degree**`(GEN x)`

returns `poldegree(x, -1)`

, the degree of `x`

with respect to its main variable, with the usual meaning if the leading coefficient of `x`

is non-zero. If the sign of `x`

is `0`

, this function always returns `-1`

. Otherwise, we return the index of the leading coefficient of `x`

, i.e. the coefficient of largest index stored in `x`

. For instance the ``degrees'' of

```
0. E-38 * x^4 + 0.E-19 * x + 1
Mod(0,2) * x^0 \\ sign is 0 !
```

@3are `4`

and `-1`

respectively.

`long `

**degpol**`(GEN x)`

is a simple macro returning `lg(x) - 3`

. This is the degree of the `t_POL`

`x`

with respect to its main variable, *if* its leading coefficient is non-zero (a rational `0`

is impossible, but an inexact `0`

is allowed, as well as an exact modular `0`

, e.g. `Mod(0,2)`

). If `x`

has no coefficients (rational `0`

polynomial), its length is `2`

and we return the expected `-1`

.

`GEN `

**characteristic**`(GEN x)`

returns the characteristic of the base ring over which the polynomial is defined (as defined by `t_INTMOD`

and `t_FFELT`

components). The function raises an exception if incompatible primes arise from `t_FFELT`

and `t_PADIC`

components. Shallow function.

`GEN `

**residual_characteristic**`(GEN x)`

returns a kind of ``residual characteristic'' of the base ring over which the polynomial is defined. This is defined as the gcd of all moduli `t_INTMOD`

s occurring in the structure, as well as primes `p`

arising from `t_PADIC`

s or `t_FFELT`

s. The function raises an exception if incompatible primes arise from `t_FFELT`

and `t_PADIC`

components. Shallow function.

`GEN `

**resultant**`(GEN x,GEN y)`

resultant of `x`

and `y`

, with respect to the main variable of highest priority. Uses either the subresultant algorithm (generic case), a modular algorithm (inputs in **Q**`[X]`

) or Sylvester's matrix (inexact inputs).

`GEN `

**resultant2**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

resultant of `x`

and `y`

, with respect to the main variable of highest priority. Computes the determinant of Sylvester's matrix.

`GEN `

**resultant_all**`(GEN u, GEN v, GEN *sol)`

returns `resultant(x,y)`

. If `sol`

is not `NULL`

, sets it to the last non-constant remainder in the polynomial remainder sequence if such a sequence was computed, and to `gen_0`

otherwise (e.g. polynomials of degree 0, `u,v`

in **Q**`[X]`

).

`GEN `

**cleanroots**`(GEN x, long prec)`

returns the complex roots of the complex polynomial `x`

(with coefficients `t_INT`

, `t_FRAC`

, `t_REAL`

or `t_COMPLEX`

of the above). The roots are returned as `t_REAL`

or `t_COMPLEX`

of `t_REAL`

s of precision `prec`

(guaranteeing a non-`0`

imaginary part). See `QX_complex_roots`

.

`double `

**fujiwara_bound**`(GEN x)`

return a quick upper bound for the logarithm in base `2`

of the modulus of the largest complex roots of the polynomial `x`

(complex coefficients).

`double `

**fujiwara_bound_real**`(GEN x, long sign)`

return a quick upper bound for the logarithm in base `2`

of the absolute value of the largest real root of sign *sign* (`1`

or `-1`

), for the polynomial `x`

(real coefficients).

`GEN `

**polmod_to_embed**`(GEN x, long prec)`

return the vector of complex embeddings of the `t_POLMOD`

`x`

(with complex coefficients). Shallow function, simple complex variant of `conjvec`

.

`GEN `

**sertoser**`(GEN x, long prec)`

return the `t_SER`

`x`

truncated or extended (with zeros) to `prec`

terms. Shallow function, assume that `prec >= 0`

.

`GEN `

**derivser**`(GEN x)`

returns the derivative of the `t_SER`

`x`

with respect to its main variable.

`GEN `

**integser**`(GEN x)`

returns the primitive of the `t_SER`

`x`

with respect to its main variable.

`GEN `

**truecoeff**`(GEN x, long n)`

returns `polcoeff0(x,n, -1)`

, i.e. the coefficient of the term of degree `n`

in the main variable.

`GEN `

**ser_unscale**`(GEN P, GEN h)`

return `P(h x)`

, not memory clean.

`GEN `

**ser_normalize**`(GEN x)`

divide `x`

by its ``leading term'' so that the series is either `0`

or equal to `t^v(1+O(t))`

. Shallow function if the ``leading term'' is `1`

.

`int `

**ser_isexactzero**`(GEN x)`

return `1`

if `x`

is a zero series, all of whose known coefficients are exact zeroes; this implies that `sign(x) = 0`

and `lg(x) <= 3`

.

`GEN `

**ser_inv**`(GEN x)`

return the inverse of the `t_SER`

`x`

using Newton iteration. This is in general slower than `ginv`

unless the precision is huge (hundreds of terms, where the threshold depends strongly on the base field).

`t_FFELT`

These functions define the public interface of the `t_FFELT`

type to use in generic functions. However, in specific functions, it is better to use the functions class `FpXQ`

and/or `Flxq`

as appropriate.

`GEN `

**FF_p**`(GEN a)`

returns the characteristic of the definition field of the `t_FFELT`

element `a`

.

`long `

**FF_f**`(GEN a)`

returns the dimension of the definition field over its prime field; the cardinality of the dimension field is thus `p^f`

.

`GEN `

**FF_p_i**`(GEN a)`

shallow version of `FF_p`

.

`GEN `

**FF_q**`(GEN a)`

returns the cardinality of the definition field of the `t_FFELT`

element `a`

.

`GEN `

**FF_mod**`(GEN a)`

returns the polynomial (with reduced `t_INT`

coefficients) defining the finite field, in the variable used to display `a`

.

`GEN `

**FF_to_FpXQ**`(GEN a)`

converts the `t_FFELT`

`a`

to a polynomial `P`

with reduced `t_INT`

coefficients such that `a = P(g)`

where `g`

is the generator of the finite field returned by `ffgen`

, in the variable used to display `g`

.

`GEN `

**FF_to_FpXQ_i**`(GEN a)`

shallow version of `FF_to_FpXQ`

.

`GEN `

**FF_to_F2xq**`(GEN a)`

converts the `t_FFELT`

`a`

to a `F2x`

`P`

such that `a = P(g)`

where `g`

is the generator of the finite field returned by `ffgen`

, in the variable used to display `g`

. This only work if the characteristic is `2`

.

`GEN `

**FF_to_F2xq_i**`(GEN a)`

shallow version of `FF_to_F2xq`

.

`GEN `

**FF_to_Flxq**`(GEN a)`

converts the `t_FFELT`

`a`

to a `Flx`

`P`

such that `a = P(g)`

where `g`

is the generator of the finite field returned by `ffgen`

, in the variable used to display `g`

. This only work if the characteristic is small enough.

`GEN `

**FF_to_Flxq_i**`(GEN a)`

shallow version of `FF_to_Flxq`

.

`GEN `

**p_to_FF**`(GEN p, long v)`

returns a `t_FFELT`

equal to `1`

in the finite field **Z**`/p`

**Z**. Useful for generic code that wants to handle (inefficiently) **Z**`/p`

**Z** as if it were not a prime field.

`GEN `

**Tp_to_FF**`(GEN T, GEN p)`

returns a `t_FFELT`

equal to `1`

in the finite field **F**`_p/(T)`

, where `T`

is a `ZX`

, assumed to be irreducible modulo `p`

, or `NULL`

in which case the routine acts as `p_to_FF(p,0)`

. No checks.

`GEN `

**Fq_to_FF**`(GEN x, GEN ff)`

returns a `t_FFELT`

equal to `x`

in the finite field defined by the `t_FFELT`

`ff`

, where `x`

is an `Fq`

(either a `t_INT`

or a `ZX`

: a `t_POL`

with `t_INT`

coefficients). No checks.

`GEN `

**FqX_to_FFX**`(GEN x, GEN ff)`

given an `FqX`

`x`

, return the polynomial with `t_FFELT`

coefficients obtained by applying `Fq_to_FF`

coefficientwise. No checks, and no normalization if the leading coefficient maps to `0`

.

`GEN `

**FF_1**`(GEN a)`

returns the unity in the definition field of the `t_FFELT`

element `a`

.

`GEN `

**FF_zero**`(GEN a)`

returns the zero element of the definition field of the `t_FFELT`

element `a`

.

`int `

**FF_equal0**`(GEN a)`

returns `1`

if the `t_FFELT`

`a`

is equal to `0`

else returns `0`

.

`int `

**FF_equal1**`(GEN a)`

returns `1`

if the `t_FFELT`

`a`

is equal to `1`

else returns `0`

.

`int `

**FF_equalm1**`(GEN a)`

returns `-1`

if the `t_FFELT`

`a`

is equal to `1`

else returns `0`

.

`int `

**FF_equal**`(GEN a, GEN b)`

return `1`

if the `t_FFELT`

`a`

and `b`

have the same definition field and are equal, else `0`

.

`int `

**FF_samefield**`(GEN a, GEN b)`

return `1`

if the `t_FFELT`

`a`

and `b`

have the same definition field, else `0`

.

`int `

**Rg_is_FF**`(GEN c, GEN *ff)`

to be called successively on many objects, setting `*ff = NULL`

(unset) initially. Returns `1`

as long as `c`

is a `t_FFELT`

defined over the same field as `*ff`

(setting `*ff = c`

if unset), and `0`

otherwise.

`int `

**RgC_is_FFC**`(GEN x, GEN *ff)`

apply `Rg_is_FF`

successively to all components of the `t_VEC`

or `t_COL`

`x`

. Return `0`

if one call fails, and `1`

otherwise.

`int `

**RgM_is_FFM**`(GEN x, GEN *ff)`

apply `Rg_is_FF`

to all components of the `t_MAT`

. Return `0`

if one call fails, and `1`

otherwise.

`GEN `

**FF_add**`(GEN a, GEN b)`

returns `a+b`

where `a`

and `b`

are `t_FFELT`

having the same definition field.

`GEN `

**FF_Z_add**`(GEN a, GEN x)`

returns `a+x`

, where `a`

is a `t_FFELT`

, and `x`

is a `t_INT`

, the computation being performed in the definition field of `a`

.

`GEN `

**FF_Q_add**`(GEN a, GEN x)`

returns `a+x`

, where `a`

is a `t_FFELT`

, and `x`

is a `t_RFRAC`

, the computation being performed in the definition field of `a`

.

`GEN `

**FF_sub**`(GEN a, GEN b)`

returns `a-b`

where `a`

and `b`

are `t_FFELT`

having the same definition field.

`GEN `

**FF_mul**`(GEN a, GEN b)`

returns `a b`

where `a`

and `b`

are `t_FFELT`

having the same definition field.

`GEN `

**FF_Z_mul**`(GEN a, GEN b)`

returns `a b`

, where `a`

is a `t_FFELT`

, and `b`

is a `t_INT`

, the computation being performed in the definition field of `a`

.

`GEN `

**FF_div**`(GEN a, GEN b)`

returns `a/b`

where `a`

and `b`

are `t_FFELT`

having the same definition field.

`GEN `

**FF_neg**`(GEN a)`

returns `-a`

where `a`

is a `t_FFELT`

.

`GEN `

**FF_neg_i**`(GEN a)`

shallow function returning `-a`

where `a`

is a `t_FFELT`

.

`GEN `

**FF_inv**`(GEN a)`

returns `a^{-1}`

where `a`

is a `t_FFELT`

.

`GEN `

**FF_sqr**`(GEN a)`

returns `a^2`

where `a`

is a `t_FFELT`

.

`GEN `

**FF_mul2n**`(GEN a, long n)`

returns `a 2^n`

where `a`

is a `t_FFELT`

.

`GEN `

**FF_pow**`(GEN x, GEN n)`

returns `a^n`

where `a`

is a `t_FFELT`

and`n`

is a `t_INT`

.

`GEN `

**FF_Z_Z_muldiv**`(GEN a, GEN x, GEN y)`

returns `a y/z`

, where `a`

is a `t_FFELT`

, and `x`

and `y`

are `t_INT`

, the computation being performed in the definition field of `a`

.

`GEN `

**Z_FF_div**`(GEN x, GEN a)`

return `x/a`

where `a`

is a `t_FFELT`

, and `x`

is a `t_INT`

, the computation being performed in the definition field of `a`

.

`GEN `

**FF_norm**`(GEN a)`

returns the norm of the `t_FFELT`

`a`

with respect to its definition field.

`GEN `

**FF_trace**`(GEN a)`

returns the trace of the `t_FFELT`

`a`

with respect to its definition field.

`GEN `

**FF_conjvec**`(GEN a)`

returns the vector of conjugates `[a,a^p,a^{p^2},...,a^{p^{n-1}}]`

where the `t_FFELT`

`a`

belong to a field with `p^n`

elements.

`GEN `

**FF_charpoly**`(GEN a)`

returns the characteristic polynomial) of the `t_FFELT`

`a`

with respect to its definition field.

`GEN `

**FF_minpoly**`(GEN a)`

returns the minimal polynomial of the `t_FFELT`

`a`

.

`GEN `

**FF_sqrt**`(GEN a)`

returns an `t_FFELT`

`b`

such that `a = b^2`

if it exist, where `a`

is a `t_FFELT`

.

`long `

**FF_issquareall**`(GEN x, GEN *pt)`

returns `1`

if `x`

is a square, and `0`

otherwise. If `x`

is indeed a square, set `pt`

to its square root.

`long `

**FF_issquare**`(GEN x)`

returns `1`

if `x`

is a square and `0`

otherwise.

`long `

**FF_ispower**`(GEN x, GEN K, GEN *pt)`

Given `K`

a positive integer, returns `1`

if `x`

is a `K`

-th power, and `0`

otherwise. If `x`

is indeed a `K`

-th power, set `pt`

to its `K`

-th root.

`GEN `

**FF_sqrtn**`(GEN a, GEN n, GEN *zn)`

returns an `n`

-th root of `a`

if it exist. If `zn`

is non-`NULL`

set it to a primitive `n`

-th root of the unity.

`GEN `

**FF_log**`(GEN a, GEN g, GEN o)`

the `t_FFELT`

`g`

being a generator for the definition field of the `t_FFELT`

`a`

, returns a `t_INT`

`e`

such that `a^e = g`

. If `e`

does not exists, the result is currently undefined. If `o`

is not `NULL`

it is assumed to be a factorization of the multiplicative order of `g`

(as set by `FF_primroot`

)

`GEN `

**FF_order**`(GEN a, GEN o)`

returns the order of the `t_FFELT`

`a`

. If `o`

is non-`NULL`

, it is assumed that `o`

is a multiple of the order of `a`

.

`GEN `

**FF_primroot**`(GEN a, GEN *o)`

returns a generator of the multiplicative group of the definition field of the `t_FFELT`

`a`

. If `o`

is not `NULL`

, set it to the factorization of the order of the primitive root (to speed up `FF_log`

).

`GEN `

**FFX_factor**`(GEN f, GEN a)`

returns the factorization of the univariate polynomial `f`

over the definition field of the `t_FFELT`

`a`

. The coefficients of `f`

must be of type `t_INT`

, `t_INTMOD`

or `t_FFELT`

and compatible with `a`

.

`GEN `

**FFX_roots**`(GEN f, GEN a)`

returns the roots (`t_FFELT`

) of the univariate polynomial `f`

over the definition field of the `t_FFELT`

`a`

. The coefficients of `f`

must be of type `t_INT`

, `t_INTMOD`

or `t_FFELT`

and compatible with `a`

.

`GEN `

**FFM_FFC_mul**`(GEN M, GEN C, GEN ff)`

returns the product of the matrix `M`

(`t_MAT`

) and the column vector `C`

(`t_COL`

) over the finite field given by `ff`

(`t_FFELT`

).

`GEN `

**FFM_ker**`(GEN M, GEN ff)`

returns the kernel of the `t_MAT`

`M`

defined over the finite field given by the `t_FFELT`

`ff`

(obtained by `RgM_is_FFM(M,&ff)`

).

`GEN `

**FFM_det**`(GEN M, GEN ff)`

`GEN `

**FFM_image**`(GEN M, GEN ff)`

`GEN `

**FFM_inv**`(GEN M, GEN ff)`

`GEN `

**FFM_mul**`(GEN M, GEN N, GEN ff)`

returns the product of the matrices `M`

and `N`

(`t_MAT`

) over the finite field given by `ff`

(`t_FFELT`

).

`long `

**FFM_rank**`(GEN M, GEN ff)`

The following two functions are only useful when interacting with `gp`

, to manipulate its internal default precision (expressed as a number of decimal digits, not in words as used everywhere else):

`long `

**getrealprecision**`(void)`

returns `realprecision`

.

`long `

**setrealprecision**`(long n, long *prec)`

sets the new `realprecision`

to `n`

, which is returned. As a side effect, set `prec`

to the corresponding number of words `ndec2prec(n)`

.

`t_REAL`

argumentsIn the following routines, `x`

is assumed to be a `t_REAL`

and the result is a `t_REAL`

(sometimes a `t_COMPLEX`

with `t_REAL`

components), with the largest accuracy which can be deduced from the input. The naming scheme is inconsistent here, since we sometimes use the prefix `mp`

even though `t_INT`

inputs are forbidden:

`GEN `

**sqrtr**`(GEN x)`

returns the square root of `x`

.

`GEN `

**cbrtr**`(GEN x)`

returns the real cube root of `x`

.

`GEN `

**sqrtnr**`(GEN x, long n)`

returns the `n`

-th root of `x`

, assuming `n >= 1`

and `x > 0`

. Not stack clean.

`GEN `

**mpcos[z]**`(GEN x[, GEN z])`

returns *cos* `(x)`

.

`GEN `

**mpsin[z]**`(GEN x[, GEN z])`

returns *sin* `(x)`

.

`GEN `

**mplog[z]**`(GEN x[, GEN z])`

returns *log* `(x)`

. We must have `x > 0`

since the result must be a `t_REAL`

. Use `glog`

for the general case, where you want such computations as *log* `(-1) = I`

.

`GEN `

**mpexp[z]**`(GEN x[, GEN z])`

returns *exp* `(x)`

.

`GEN `

**mpexpm1**`(GEN x)`

returns *exp* `(x)-1`

, but is more accurate than `subrs(mpexp(x), 1)`

, which suffers from catastrophic cancellation if `|x|`

is very small.

`void `

**mpsincosm1**`(GEN x, GEN *s, GEN *c)`

sets `s`

and `c`

to *sin* `(x)`

and *cos* `(x)-1`

respectively, where `x`

is a `t_REAL`

; the latter is more accurate than `subrs(mpcos(y), 1)`

, which suffers from catastrophic cancellation if `|x|`

is very small.

`GEN `

**mpveceint1**`(GEN C, GEN eC, long n)`

as `veceint1`

; assumes that `C > 0`

is a `t_REAL`

and that `eC`

is `NULL`

or `mpexp(C)`

.

`GEN `

**mpeint1**`(GEN x, GEN expx)`

returns `eint1`

`(x)`

, for a `t_REAL`

`x >= 0`

, assuming that `expx`

is `mpexp`

`(x)`

.

`GEN `

**mplambertW**`(GEN y)`

solution `x`

of the implicit equation `x `

*exp* `(x) = y`

, for `y > 0`

a `t_REAL`

.

@3Useful low-level functions which *disregard* the sign of `x`

:

`GEN `

**sqrtr_abs**`(GEN x)`

returns *sqrt* `{|x|}`

assuming `x != 0`

.

`GEN `

**cbrtr_abs**`(GEN x)`

returns `|x|^{1/3}`

assuming `x != 0`

.

`GEN `

**exp1r_abs**`(GEN x)`

returns *exp* `(|x|) - 1`

, assuming `x != 0`

.

`GEN `

**logr_abs**`(GEN x)`

returns *log* `(|x|)`

, assuming `x != 0`

.

`GEN `

**szeta**`(long s, long prec)`

returns the value of Riemann's zeta function at the (possibly negative) integer `s != 1`

, in relative accuracy `prec`

.

`GEN `

**veczeta**`(GEN a, GEN b, long N, long prec)`

returns in a vector all the *zeta*`(aj + b)`

, where `j = 0, 1,..., N-1`

, where `a`

and `b`

are real numbers (of arbitrary type, although `t_INT`

is treated more efficiently) and `b > 1`

.

`GEN `

**ggamma1m1**`(GEN x, long prec)`

return *Gamma*`(1+x) - 1`

assuming `|x| < 1`

. Guard against cancellation when `x`

is small.

@3A few variants on sin and cos:

`void `

**mpsincos**`(GEN x, GEN *s, GEN *c)`

sets `s`

and `c`

to *sin* `(x)`

and *cos* `(x)`

respectively, where `x`

is a `t_REAL`

`GEN `

**expIr**`(GEN x)`

returns *exp* `(ix)`

, where `x`

is a `t_REAL`

. The return type is `t_COMPLEX`

unless the imaginary part is equal to `0`

to the current accuracy (its sign is `0`

).

`GEN `

**expIxy**`(GEN x, GEN y, long prec)`

returns *exp* `(ixy)`

. Efficient when `x`

is real and `y`

pure imaginary.

`void `

**gsincos**`(GEN x, GEN *s, GEN *c, long prec)`

general case.

`GEN `

**rootsof1_cx**`(GEN d, long prec)`

return `e(1/d)`

at precision `prec`

, `e(x) = `

*exp* `(2i`

*pi*` x)`

.

`GEN `

**rootsof1u_cx**`(ulong d, long prec)`

return `e(1/d)`

at precision `prec`

.

@3A generalization of `affrr_fixlg`

`GEN `

**affc_fixlg**`(GEN x, GEN res)`

assume `res`

was allocated using `cgetc`

, and that `x`

is either a `t_REAL`

or a `t_COMPLEX`

with `t_REAL`

components. Assign `x`

to `res`

, first shortening the components of `res`

if needed (in a `gerepile`

-safe way). Further convert `res`

to a `t_REAL`

if `x`

is a `t_REAL`

.

`GEN `

**trans_eval**`(const char *fun, GEN (*f) (GEN, long), GEN x, long prec)`

evaluate the transcendental function `f`

(named `"fun"`

at the argument `x`

and precision `prec`

. This is a quick way to implement a transcendental function to be made available under GP, starting from a `C`

function handling only `t_REAL`

and `t_COMPLEX`

arguments. This routine first converts `x`

to a suitable type:

@3***** `t_INT`

/`t_FRAC`

to `t_REAL`

of precision `prec`

, `t_QUAD`

to `t_REAL`

or `t_COMPLEX`

of precision `prec`

.

@3***** `t_POLMOD`

to a `t_COL`

of complex embeddings (as in `conjvec`

)

Then evaluates the function at `t_VEC`

, `t_COL`

, `t_MAT`

arguments coefficientwise.

`t_PADIC`

arguments`GEN `

**Qp_exp**`(GEN x)`

shortcut for `gexp(x, /*ignored*/prec)`

`GEN `

**Qp_gamma**`(GEN x)`

shortcut for `ggamma(x, /*ignored*/prec)`

`GEN `

**Qp_log**`(GEN x)`

shortcut for `glog(x, /*ignored*/prec)`

`GEN `

**Qp_sqrt**`(GEN x)`

shortcut for `gsqrt(x, /*ignored*/prec)`

Return `NULL`

if `x`

is not a square.

`GEN `

**Qp_sqrtn**`(GEN x, GEN n, GEN *z)`

shortcut for `gsqrtn(x, n, z, /*ignored*/prec)`

. Return `NULL`

if `x`

is not an `n`

-th power.

The cached constant is returned at its current precision, which may be larger than `prec`

. One should always use the `mp`

*xxx* variant: `mppi`

, `mpeuler`

, or `mplog2`

.

`GEN `

**consteuler**`(long prec)`

precomputes Euler-Mascheroni's constant at precision `prec`

.

`GEN `

**constcatalan**`(long prec)`

precomputes Catalan's constant at precision `prec`

.

`GEN `

**constpi**`(long prec)`

precomputes *pi* at precision `prec`

.

`GEN `

**constlog2**`(long prec)`

precomputes *log* `(2)`

at precision `prec`

.

`void `

**mpbern**`(long n, long prec)`

precomputes the `n`

even Bernoulli numbers `B_2,...,B_{2n}`

as `t_FRAC`

or `t_REAL`

s of precision `prec`

. For any `2 <= k <= 2n`

, if a floating point approximation of `B_k`

to accuracy `prec`

is enough to reconstruct it exactly, a `t_FRAC`

is stored; otherwise a `t_REAL`

at the requested accuracy. No more than `n`

Bernoulli numbers will ever be stored (by `bernfrac`

or `bernreal`

), unless a subsequent call to `mpbern`

increases the cache. If `prec`

is `0`

, the `B_k`

are computed exactly.

The following functions use cached data if `prec`

is smaller than the precision of the cached value; otherwise the newly computed data replaces the old cache.

`GEN `

**mppi**`(long prec)`

returns *pi* at precision `prec`

.

`GEN `

**Pi2n**`(long n, long prec)`

returns `2^n`

*pi* at precision `prec`

.

`GEN `

**PiI2**`(long n, long prec)`

returns the complex number `2`

*pi*` i`

at precision `prec`

.

`GEN `

**PiI2n**`(long n, long prec)`

returns the complex number `2^n`

*pi*` i`

at precision `prec`

.

`GEN `

**mpeuler**`(long prec)`

returns Euler-Mascheroni's constant at precision `prec`

.

`GEN `

**mpeuler**`(long prec)`

returns Catalan's number at precision `prec`

.

`GEN `

**mplog2**`(long prec)`

returns *log* ` 2`

at precision `prec`

.

`GEN `

**bernreal**`(long i, long prec)`

returns the Bernoulli number `B_i`

as a `t_REAL`

at precision `prec`

. If `mpbern(n, p)`

was called previously with `n >= i`

and `p >= prec`

, then the cached value is (converted to a `t_REAL`

of accuracy `prec`

then) returned. Otherwise, the missing value is computed. In the latter case, if `n >= i`

, the cached table is updated.

`GEN `

**bernfrac**`(long i)`

returns the Bernoulli number `B_i`

as a rational number (`t_FRAC`

or `t_INT`

). If a cached table includes `B_i`

as a rational number, the latter is returned. Otherwise, the missing value is computed. In the latter case, the cached Bernoulli table may be updated.

@3Permutation are represented in two different ways

@3***** (`perm`

) a `t_VECSMALL`

`p`

representing the bijection `i:--->p[i]`

; unless mentioned otherwise, this is the form used in the functions below for both input and output,

@3***** (`cyc`

) a `t_VEC`

of `t_VECSMALL`

s representing a product of disjoint cycles.

`GEN `

**identity_perm**`(long n)`

return the identity permutation on `n`

symbols.

`GEN `

**cyclic_perm**`(long n, long d)`

return the cyclic permutation mapping `i`

to `i+d`

(mod `n`

) in `S_n`

. Assume that `d <= n`

.

`GEN `

**perm_mul**`(GEN s, GEN t)`

multiply `s`

and `t`

(composition `s o t`

)

`GEN `

**perm_conj**`(GEN s, GEN t)`

return `sts^{-1}`

.

`int `

**perm_commute**`(GEN p, GEN q)`

return `1`

if `p`

and `q`

commute, 0 otherwise.

`GEN `

**perm_inv**`(GEN p)`

returns the inverse of `p`

.

`GEN `

**perm_pow**`(GEN p, long n)`

returns `p^n`

`GEN `

**cyc_pow_perm**`(GEN p, long n)`

the permutation `p`

is given as a product of disjoint cycles (`cyc`

); return `p^n`

(as a `perm`

).

`GEN `

**cyc_pow**`(GEN p, long n)`

the permutation `p`

is given as a product of disjoint cycles (`cyc`

); return `p^n`

(as a `cyc`

).

`GEN `

**perm_cycles**`(GEN p)`

return the cyclic decomposition of `p`

.

`long `

**perm_order**`(GEN p)`

returns the order of the permutation `p`

(as the lcm of its cycle lengths).

`GEN `

**vecperm_orbits**`(GEN p, long n)`

the permutation `p\in S_n`

being given as a product of disjoint cycles, return the orbits of the subgroup generated by `p`

on `{1,2,...,n}`

.

`GEN `

**Z_to_perm**`(long n, GEN x)`

as `numtoperm`

, returning a `t_VECSMALL`

.

`GEN `

**perm_to_Z**`(GEN v)`

as `permtonum`

for a `t_VECSMALL`

input.

The small (finite) groups facility is meant to deal with subgroups of Galois groups obtained by `galoisinit`

and thus is currently limited to weakly super-solvable groups.

A group *grp* of order `n`

is represented by its regular representation (for an arbitrary ordering of its element) in `S_n`

. A subgroup of such group is represented by the restriction of the representation to the subgroup. A *small group* can be either a group or a subgroup. Thus it is embedded in some `S_n`

, where `n`

is the multiple of the order. Such an `n`

is called the *domain* of the small group. The domain of a trivial subgroup cannot be derived from the subgroup data, so some functions require the subgroup domain as argument.

The small group *grp* is represented by a `t_VEC`

with two components:

*grp*`[1]`

is a generating subset `[s_1,...,s_g]`

of *grp* expressed as a vector of permutations of length `n`

.

*grp*`[2]`

contains the relative orders `[o_1,...,o_g]`

of the generators *grp*`[1]`

.

See `galoisinit`

for the technical details.

`GEN `

**checkgroup**`(GEN gal, GEN *elts)`

checks whether *gal* is a small group or a Galois group. Returns the underlying small group and set *elts* to the list of elements or to `NULL`

if it is not known.

`GEN `

**galois_group**`(GEN gal)`

return the underlying small group of the Galois group *gal*.

`GEN `

**cyclicgroup**`(GEN g, long s)`

returns the cyclic group with generator `g`

of order `s`

.

`GEN `

**trivialgroup**`(void)`

returns the trivial group.

`GEN `

**dicyclicgroup**`(GEN g1, GEN g2, long s1, long s2)`

returns the group with generators *g1*, *g2* with respecting relative orders *s1*, *s2*.

`GEN `

**abelian_group**`(GEN v)`

let v be a `t_VECSMALL`

seen as the SNF of a small abelian group, return its regular representation.

`long `

**group_domain**`(GEN grp)`

returns the `domain`

of the *non-trivial* small group *grp*. Return an error if *grp* is trivial.

`GEN `

**group_elts**`(GEN grp, long n)`

returns the list of elements of the small group *grp* of domain *n* as permutations.

`GEN `

**group_set**`(GEN grp, long n)`

returns a *F2v* `b`

such that `b[i]`

is set if and only if the small group *grp* of domain *n* contains a permutation sending `1`

to `i`

.

`GEN `

**groupelts_set**`(GEN elts, long n)`

, where *elts* is the list of elements of a small group of domain *n*, returns a *F2v* `b`

such that `b[i]`

is set if and only if the small group contains a permutation sending `1`

to `i`

.

`long `

**group_order**`(GEN grp)`

returns the order of the small group *grp* (which is the product of the relative orders).

`long `

**group_isabelian**`(GEN grp)`

returns `1`

if the small group *grp* is Abelian, else `0`

.

`GEN `

**group_abelianHNF**`(GEN grp, GEN elts)`

if *grp* is not Abelian, returns `NULL`

, else returns the HNF matrix of *grp* with respect to the generating family *grp*`[1]`

. If *elts* is no `NULL`

, it must be the list of elements of *grp*.

`GEN `

**group_abelianSNF**`(GEN grp, GEN elts)`

if *grp* is not Abelian, returns `NULL`

, else returns its cyclic decomposition. If *elts* is no `NULL`

, it must be the list of elements of *grp*.

`long `

**group_subgroup_isnormal**`(GEN G, GEN H)`

, `H`

being a subgroup of the small group `G`

, returns `1`

if `H`

is normal in `G`

, else `0`

.

`long `

**group_isA4S4**`(GEN grp)`

returns `1`

if the small group *grp* is isomorphic to `A_4`

, `2`

if it is isomorphic to `S_4`

and `0`

else. This is mainly to deal with the idiosyncrasy of the format.

`GEN `

**group_leftcoset**`(GEN G, GEN g)`

where `G`

is a small group and `g`

a permutation of the same domain, the left coset `gG`

as a vector of permutations.

`GEN `

**group_rightcoset**`(GEN G, GEN g)`

where `G`

is a small group and `g`

a permutation of the same domain, the right coset `Gg`

as a vector of permutations.

`long `

**group_perm_normalize**`(GEN G, GEN g)`

where `G`

is a small group and `g`

a permutation of the same domain, return `1`

if `gGg^{-1} = G`

, else `0`

.

`GEN `

**group_quotient**`(GEN G, GEN H)`

, where `G`

is a small group and `H`

is a subgroup of `G`

, returns the quotient map `G-->G/H`

as an abstract data structure.

`GEN `

**quotient_perm**`(GEN C, GEN g)`

where `C`

is the quotient map `G-->G/H`

for some subgroup `H`

of `G`

and `g`

an element of `G`

, return the image of `g`

by `C`

(i.e. the coset `gH`

).

`GEN `

**quotient_group**`(GEN C, GEN G)`

where `C`

is the quotient map `G-->G/H`

for some *normal* subgroup `H`

of `G`

, return the quotient group `G/H`

as a small group.

`GEN `

**quotient_subgroup_lift**`(GEN C, GEN H, GEN S)`

where `C`

is the quotient map `G-->G/H`

for some group `G`

normalizing `H`

and `S`

is a subgroup of `G/H`

, return the inverse image of `S`

by `C`

.

`GEN `

**group_subgroups**`(GEN grp)`

returns the list of subgroups of the small group *grp* as a `t_VEC`

.

`GEN `

**subgroups_tableset**`(GEN S, long n)`

where `S`

is a vector of subgroups of domain `n`

, returns a table which matchs the set of elements of the subgroups against the index of the subgroups.

`long `

**tableset_find_index**`(GEN tbl, GEN set)`

searchs the set `set`

in the table `tbl`

and returns its attached index, or `0`

if not found.

`GEN `

**groupelts_abelian_group**`(GEN elts)`

where *elts* is the list of elements of an *Abelian* small group, returns the corresponding small group.

`GEN `

**groupelts_center**`(GEN elts)`

where *elts* is the list of elements of a small group, returns the list of elements of the center of the group.

`GEN `

**group_export**`(GEN grp, long format)`

exports a small group to another format, see `galoisexport`

.

`long `

**group_ident**`(GEN grp, GEN elts)`

returns the index of the small group *grp* in the GAP4 Small Group library, see `galoisidentify`

. If *elts* is not `NULL`

, it must be the list of elements of *grp*.

`long `

**group_ident_trans**`(GEN grp, GEN elts)`

returns the index of the regular representation of the small group *grp* in the GAP4 Transitive Group library, see `polgalois`

. If *elts* is no `NULL`

, it must be the list of elements of *grp*.

\newpage

libPARI - Standard data structures

`char *`

`char* `

**pari_strdup**`(const char *s)`

returns a malloc'ed copy of `s`

(uses `pari_malloc`

).

`char* `

**pari_strndup**`(const char *s, long n)`

returns a malloc'ed copy of at most `n`

chars from `s`

(uses `pari_malloc`

). If `s`

is longer than `n`

, only `n`

characters are copied and a terminal null byte is added.

`char* `

**stack_strdup**`(const char *s)`

returns a copy of `s`

, allocated on the PARI stack (uses `stack_malloc`

).

`char* `

**stack_strcat**`(const char *s, const char *t)`

returns the concatenation of `s`

and `t`

, allocated on the PARI stack (uses `stack_malloc`

).

`char* `

**stack_sprintf**`(const char *fmt, ...)`

runs `pari_sprintf`

on the given arguments, returning a string allocated on the PARI stack.

`char* `

**itostr**`(GEN x)`

writes the `t_INT`

`x`

to a `stack_malloc`

'ed string.

`char* `

**GENtostr**`(GEN x)`

, using the current default output format (`GP_DATA- > fmt`

, which contains the output style and the number of significant digits to print), converts `x`

to a malloc'ed string. Simple variant of `pari_sprintf`

.

`char* `

**GENtostr_raw**`(GEN x)`

as `GENtostr`

with the following differences: 1) the output format is `f_RAW`

; 2) the result is allocated on the stack and *must not* be freed.

`char* `

**GENtostr_unquoted**`(GEN x)`

as `GENtostr_raw`

with the following additional difference: a `t_STR`

`x`

is printed without enclosing quotes (to be used by `print`

.

`char* `

**GENtoTeXstr**`(GEN x)`

, as `GENtostr`

, except that `f_TEX`

overrides the output format from `GP_DATA- > fmt`

.

`char* `

**RgV_to_str**`(GEN g, long flag)`

`g`

being a vector of `GEN`

s, returns a malloc'ed string, the concatenation of the `GENtostr`

applied to its elements, except that `t_STR`

are printed without enclosing quotes. `flag`

determines the output format: `f_RAW`

, `f_PRETTYMAT`

or `f_TEX`

.

`t_STR`

`GEN `

**strtoGENstr**`(const char *s)`

returns a `t_STR`

with content `s`

.

`GEN `

**strntoGENstr**`(const char *s, long n)`

returns a `t_STR`

containing the first `n`

characters of `s`

.

`GEN `

**chartoGENstr**`(char c)`

returns a `t_STR`

containing the character `c`

.

`GEN `

**GENtoGENstr**`(GEN x)`

returns a `t_STR`

containing the printed form of `x`

(in `raw`

format). This is often easier to use that `GENtostr`

(which returns a malloc-ed `char*`

) since there is no need to free the string after use.

`GEN `

**GENtoGENstr_nospace**`(GEN x)`

as `GENtoGENstr`

, removing all spaces from the output.

`GEN `

**Str**`(GEN g)`

as `RgV_to_str`

with output format `f_RAW`

, but returns a `t_STR`

, not a malloc'ed string.

`GEN `

**Strtex**`(GEN g)`

as `RgV_to_str`

with output format `f_TEX`

, but returns a `t_STR`

, not a malloc'ed string.

`GEN `

**Strexpand**`(GEN g)`

as `RgV_to_str`

with output format `f_RAW`

, performing tilde and environment expansion on the result. Returns a `t_STR`

, not a malloc'ed string.

`GEN `

**gsprintf**`(const char *fmt, ...)`

equivalent to `pari_sprintf(fmt,...`

, followed by `strtoGENstr`

. Returns a `t_STR`

, not a malloc'ed string.

`GEN `

**gvsprintf**`(const char *fmt, va_list ap)`

variadic version of `gsprintf`

An output coutext, of type `PariOUT`

, is a `struct`

that models a stream and contains the following function pointers:

```
void (*putch)(char); /* fputc()-alike */
void (*puts)(const char*); /* fputs()-alike */
void (*flush)(void); /* fflush()-alike */
```

The methods `putch`

and `puts`

are used to print a character or a string respectively. The method `flush`

is called to finalize a messages.

The generic functions `pari_putc`

, `pari_puts`

, `pari_flush`

and `pari_printf`

print according to a *default output context*, which should be sufficient for most purposes. Lower level functions are available, which take an explicit output context as first argument:

`void `

**out_putc**`(PariOUT *out, char c)`

essentially equivalent to `out- > putc(c)`

. In addition, registers whether the last character printed was a `\n`

.

`void `

**out_puts**`(PariOUT *out, const char *s)`

essentially equivalent to `out- > puts(s)`

. In addition, registers whether the last character printed was a `\n`

.

`void `

**out_printf**`(PariOUT *out, const char *fmt, ...)`

`void `

**out_vprintf**`(PariOUT *out, const char *fmt, va_list ap)`

@3N.B. The function `out_flush`

does not exist since it would be identical to `out- > flush()`

`int `

**pari_last_was_newline**`(void)`

returns a non-zero value if the last character printed via `out_putc`

or `out_puts`

was `\ n`

, and `0`

otherwise.

`void `

**pari_set_last_newline**`(int last)`

sets the boolean value to be returned by the function `pari_last_was_newline`

to *last*.

They are defined by the global variables `pariOut`

and `pariErr`

for normal outputs and warnings/errors, and you probably do not want to change them. If you *do* change them, diverting output in non-trivial ways, this probably means that you are rewriting `gp`

. For completeness, we document in this section what the default output contexts do.

@3**pariOut.** writes output to the `FILE*`

`pari_outfile`

, initialized to `stdout`

. The low-level methods are actually the standard `putc`

/ `fputs`

, plus some magic to handle a log file if one is open.

@3**pariErr.** prints to the `FILE*`

`pari_errfile`

, initialized to `stderr`

. The low-level methods are as above.

You can stick with the default `pariOut`

output context and change PARI's standard output, redirecting `pari_outfile`

to another file, using

`void `

**switchout**`(const char *name)`

where `name`

is a character string giving the name of the file you want to write to; the output is *appended* at the end of the file. To close the file and revert to outputting to `stdout`

, call `switchout(NULL)`

.

In this section we describe the low-level functions used to implement GP's color scheme, attached to the `colors`

default. The following symbolic names are attached to gp's output strings:

@3***** `c_ERR`

an error message

@3***** `c_HIST`

a history number (as in `%1 = ...`

)

@3***** `c_PROMPT`

a prompt

@3***** `c_INPUT`

an input line (minus the prompt part)

@3***** `c_OUTPUT`

an output

@3***** `c_HELP`

a help message

@3***** `c_TIME`

a timer

@3***** `c_NONE`

everything else

*If* the `colors`

default is set to a non-empty value, before gp outputs a string, it first outputs an ANSI colors escape sequence --- understood by most terminals ---, according to the `colors`

specifications. As long as this is in effect, the following strings are rendered in color, possibly in bold or underlined.

`void `

**term_color**`(long c)`

prints (as if using `pari_puts`

) the ANSI color escape sequence attached to output object `c`

. If `c`

is `c_NONE`

, revert to default printing style.

`void `

**out_term_color**`(PariOUT *out, long c)`

as `term_color`

, using output context `out`

.

`char* `

**term_get_color**`(char *s, long c)`

returns as a character string the ANSI color escape sequence attached to output object `c`

. If `c`

is `c_NONE`

, the value used to revert to default printing style is returned. The argument `s`

is either `NULL`

(string allocated on the PARI stack), or preallocated storage (in which case, it must be able to hold at least 16 chars, including the final `\0`

).

These variants of `void `

**output**`(GEN x)`

, which prints `x`

, followed by a newline and a buffer flush are complicated to use and less flexible than what we saw above, or than the `pari_printf`

variants. They are provided for backward compatibility and are scheduled to disappear.

`void `

**brute**`(GEN x, char format, long dec)`

`void `

**matbrute**`(GEN x, char format, long dec)`

`void `

**texe**`(GEN x, char format, long dec)`

The following routines are trivial wrappers around system functions (possibly around one of several functions depending on availability). They are usually integrated within PARI's diagnostics system, printing messages if `DEBUGFILES`

is high enough.

`int `

**pari_is_dir**`(const char *name)`

returns `1`

if `name`

points to a directory, `0`

otherwise.

`int `

**pari_is_file**`(const char *name)`

returns `1`

if `name`

points to a directory, `0`

otherwise.

`int `

**file_is_binary**`(FILE *f)`

returns `1`

if the file `f`

is a binary file (in the `writebin`

sense), `0`

otherwise.

`void `

**pari_unlink**`(const char *s)`

deletes the file named `s`

. Warn if the operation fails.

`void `

**pari_fread_chars**`(void *b, size_t n, FILE *f)`

read `n`

chars from stream `f`

, storing the result in pre-allocated buffer `b`

(assumed to be large enough).

`char* `

**path_expand**`(const char *s)`

perform tilde and environment expansion on `s`

. Returns a `malloc`

'ed buffer.

`void `

**strftime_expand**`(const char *s, char *buf, long max)`

perform time expansion on `s`

, storing the result (at most `max`

chars) in buffer `buf`

. Trivial wrapper around

```
time_t t = time(NULL);
strftime(but, max, s, localtime(&t);
```

`char* `

**pari_get_homedir**`(const char *user)`

expands `~ user`

constructs, returning the home directory of user `user`

, or `NULL`

if it could not be determined (in particular if the operating system has no such concept). The return value may point to static area and may be overwritten by subsequent system calls: use immediately or `strdup`

it.

`int `

**pari_stdin_isatty**`(void)`

returns `1`

if our standard input `stdin`

is attached to a terminal. Trivial wrapper around `isatty`

.

PARI maintains a linked list of open files, to reclaim resources (file descriptors) on error or interrupts. The corresponding data structure is a `pariFILE`

, which is a wrapper around a standard `FILE*`

, containing further the file name, its type (regular file, pipe, input or output file, etc.). The following functions create and manipulate this structure; they are integrated within PARI's diagnostics system, printing messages if `DEBUGFILES`

is high enough.

`pariFILE* `

**pari_fopen**`(const char *s, const char *mode)`

wrapper around `fopen(s, mode)`

, return `NULL`

on failure.

`pariFILE* `

**pari_fopen_or_fail**`(const char *s, const char *mode)`

simple wrapper around `fopen(s, mode)`

; error on failure.

`pariFILE* `

**pari_fopengz**`(const char *s)`

opens the file whose name is `s`

, and associates a (read-only) `pariFILE`

with it. If `s`

is a compressed file (`.gz`

suffix), it is uncompressed on the fly. If `s`

cannot be opened, also try to open `s.gz`

. Returns `NULL`

on failure.

`void `

**pari_fclose**`(pariFILE *f)`

closes the underlying file descriptor and deletes the `pariFILE`

struct.

`pariFILE* `

**pari_safefopen**`(const char *s, const char *mode)`

creates a *new* file `s`

(a priori for writing) with `600`

permissions. Error if the file already exists. To avoid symlink attacks, a symbolic link exists, regardless of where it points to.

PARI has its own idea of the system temp directory derived from an environment variable (`GPTMPDIR, else TMPDIR`

), or the first writable directory among `/tmp`

, `/var/tmp`

and `.`

.

`char* `

**pari_unique_dir**`(const char *s)`

creates a ``unique directory'' and return its name built from the string `s`

, the user id and process pid (on Unix systems). This directory is itself located in the temp directory mentioned above. The name returned is `malloc`

'ed.

`char* `

**pari_unique_filename**`(const char *s)`

creates a *new* empty file in the temp directory, whose name contains the id-string `s`

(truncated to its first `8`

chars), followed by a system-dependent suffix (incorporating the ids of both the user and the running process, for instance). The function returns the tempfile name. The name returned is `malloc`

'ed.

This section documents the various error classes, and the corresponding arguments to `pari_err`

. The general syntax is

`void `

**pari_err**`(numerr,...)`

@3In the sequel, we mostly use sequences of arguments of the form

```
const char *s
const char *fmt, ...
```

@3where `fmt`

is a PARI format, producing a string `s`

from the remaining arguments. Since providing the correct arguments to `pari_err`

is quite error-prone, we also provide specialized routines `pari_err_`

*ERRORCLASS*`(...)`

instead of `pari_err(e_`

*ERRORCLASS*`,...)`

so that the C compiler can check their arguments.

@3We now inspect the list of valid keywords (error classes) for `numerr`

, and the corresponding required arguments.

`s`

is not available on this architecture or operating system.` pari_err(e_ARCH)`

@3prints the error message

`sorry, 's' not available on this system`

.

`s`

.```
pari_err(e_BUG, const char *s)
pari_err_BUG(const char *s)
```

@3prints the error message

`Bug in s, please report`

.

```
pari_err(e_FILE, const char *what, const char *name)
pari_err_FILE(const char *what, const char *name)
```

@3prints the error message

`error opening `

*what*`: ``

*name*`'`

.

`s`

is not implemented.```
pari_err(e_IMPL, const char *s)
pari_err_IMPL(const char *s)
```

@3prints the error message

`sorry, s is not yet implemented`

.

`s`

.```
pari_err(e_PACKAGE, const char *s)
pari_err_PACKAGE(const char *s)
```

@3prints the error message

`package s is required, please install it`

`s`

have inconsistent dimensions. E.g., when solving a linear system, or trying to compute the determinant of a non-square matrix.```
pari_err(e_DIM, const char *s)
pari_err_DIM(const char *s)
```

@3prints the error message

`inconsistent dimensions in s`

.

`s`

.```
pari_err(e_FLAG, const char *s)
pari_err_FLAG(const char *s)
```

@3prints the error message

`invalid flag in s`

.

`GEN`

which is not a `t_CLOSURE`

in a function call syntax (as in `f = 1; f(2);`

).` pari_err(e_NOTFUNC, GEN fun)`

@3prints the error message

`not a function in a function call`

.

`O(2) + O(3)`

it is valid to add two `t_PADIC`

s, provided the underlying prime is the same; so the addition is not forbidden a priori for type reasons, it only becomes so when inspecting the objects and trying to perform the operation.

```
pari_err(e_OP, const char *op, GEN x, GEN y)
pari_err_OP(const char *op, GEN x, GEN y)
```

@3As `e_TYPE2`

, replacing `forbidden`

by `inconsistent`

.

`o`

in function `s`

contains variables whose priority is incompatible with the expected operation. E.g. `Pol([x,1], 'y)`

this raises an error because it's not possible to create a polynomial whose coefficients involve variables with higher priority than the main variable.

```
pari_err(e_PRIORITY, const char *s, GEN o, const char *op, long v)
pari_err_PRIORITY(const char *s, GEN o, const char *op, long v)
```

@3prints the error message: `incorrect priority in s, variable v_o `

*op*` v`

, were `v_o`

is `gvar(o)`

.

` pari_err(e_SYNTAX, const char *msg, const char *e, const char *entry)`

@3where `msg`

is a complete error message, and `e`

and `entry`

point into the *same* character string, which is the input that was incorrectly parsed

`e`

points to the character where the parser failed, and `entry <= e`

points somewhat before.

@3Prints the error message: `msg`

, followed by a colon, then a part of the input character string (in general `entry`

itself, but an initial segment may be truncated if `e-entry`

is large); a caret points at `e`

, indicating where the error took place.

`x`

of function `s`

had an unexpected type. (As in `factor("blah")`

.)```
pari_err(e_TYPE, const char *s, GEN x)
pari_err_TYPE(const char *s, GEN x)
```

@3prints the error message

`incorrect type in s (t_x)`

, where `t_x`

is the type of `x`

.

`Mod(1,2) + Pi`

.)```
pari_err(e_TYPE2, const char *op, GEN x, GEN y)
pari_err_TYPE2(const char *op, GEN x, GEN y)
```

@3prints the error message

`forbidden`

`s`

`t_x`

*op* `t_y`

, where `t_z`

denotes the type of `z`

. Here, `s`

denotes the spelled out name of the operator *op*`\in{+, *, /, %, = }`

, e.g. *addition* for `"+"`

or *assignment* for `" = "`

. If *op* is not in the above operator, list, it is taken to be the already spelled out name of a function, e.g. `"gcd"`

, and the error message becomes `forbidden`

*op* `t_x`

, `t_y`

.

`x`

and `y`

submitted to function `s`

have inconsistent variables. E.g., considering the algebraic number `Mod(t,t^2+1)`

in `nfinit(x^2+1)`

.```
pari_err(e_VAR, const char *s, GEN x, GEN y)
pari_err_VAR(const char *s, GEN x, GEN y)
```

@3prints the error message

`inconsistent variables in s X != Y`

, where `X`

and `Y`

are the names of the variables of `x`

and `y`

, respectively.

the index is less than `1`

or greater than the allowed length.

```
pari_err(e_COMPONENT, const char *f, const char *op, GEN lim, GEN x)
pari_err_COMPONENT(const char *f, const char *op, GEN lim, GEN x)
```

@3prints the error message: `non-existent component in f: index `

*op* *lim*. Special case: if `f`

is the empty string (no meaningful public function name can be used), we ignore it and print the message: `non-existent component: index `

*op* *lim*.

`x`

is not in the function's domain (as in `moebius(0)`

or `zeta(1)`

).```
pari_err(e_DOMAIN, char *f, char *v, char *op, GEN lim, GEN x)
pari_err_DOMAIN(char *f, char *v, char *op, GEN lim, GEN x)
```

@3prints the error message

`domain error in f: v `

*op* *lim*. Special case: if *op* is the empty string, we ignore *lim* and print the error message: `domain error in f: v out of range`

.

```
pari_err(e_MAXPRIME, ulong c)
pari_err_MAXPRIME(ulong c)
```

@3prints the error message

`not enough precomputed primes, need primelimit ~ c`

if `c`

is non-zero. And simply `not enough precomputed primes`

otherwise.

`pari_malloc`

or `pari_realloc`

failed.` pari_err(e_MEM)`

@3prints the error message

`not enough memory`

.

`s`

becomes too large to be represented within PARI's hardcoded limits. (As in `2^2^2^10`

or `exp(1e100)`

, which overflow in `lg`

and `expo`

.)```
pari_err(e_OVERFLOW, const char *s)
pari_err_OVERFLOW(const char *s)
```

@3prints the error message

`overflow in s`

.

`s`

fails because input accuracy is too low. (As in `floor(1e100)`

at default accuracy.)```
pari_err(e_PREC, const char *s)
pari_err_PREC(const char *s)
```

@3prints the error message

`precision too low in s`

.

` pari_err(e_STACK)`

@3prints the error message

`the PARI stack overflows !`

as well as some statistics concerning stack usage.

`alarm`

function.` pari_err(e_ALARM, const char *fmt, ...)`

@3prints the error message

`s`

.

`error`

(`g_1,...,g_n)`

in GP.` pari_err(e_USER, GEN g)`

@3prints the error message

`user error:`

, then the entries of the vector `g`

.

`s`

is a constant polynomial, which does not make sense. (As in `galoisinit(Pol(1))`

.)```
pari_err(e_CONSTPOL, const char *s)
pari_err_CONSTPOL(const char *s)
```

@3prints the error message

`constant polynomial in s`

.

`s`

expected two coprime arguments, and did receive `x`

, `y`

which were not.```
pari_err(e_COPRIME, const char *s, GEN x, GEN y)
pari_err_COPRIME(const char *s, GEN x, GEN y)
```

@3prints the error message

`elements not coprime in s: x, y`

.

`x`

.```
pari_err(e_INV, const char *s, GEN x)
pari_err_INV(const char *s, GEN x)
```

@3prints the error message

`impossible inverse in s: x`

. If `x = Mod(a,b)`

is a `t_INTMOD`

and `a`

is not `0`

mod `b`

, this allows to factor the modulus, as `gcd`

`(a,b)`

is a non-trivial divisor of `b`

.

`s`

expected an irreducible polynomial, and did not receive one. (As in `nfinit(x^2-1)`

.)```
pari_err(e_IRREDPOL, const char *s, GEN x)
pari_err_IRREDPOL(const char *s, GEN x)
```

@3prints the error message

`not an irreducible polynomial in s: x`

.

` pari_err(e_MISC, const char *fmt, ...)`

@3prints the error message

`s`

.

`x`

and `y`

submitted to function `s`

are inconsistent. E.g., considering the algebraic number `Mod(t,t^2+1)`

in `nfinit(t^3-2)`

.```
pari_err(e_MODULUS, const char *s, GEN x, GEN y)
pari_err_MODULUS(const char *s, GEN x, GEN y)
```

@3prints the error message

`inconsistent moduli in s`

, then the moduli.

`s`

expected a prime number, and did receive `p`

, which was not. (As in `idealprimedec(nf, 4)`

.)```
pari_err(e_PRIME, const char *s, GEN x)
pari_err_PRIME(const char *s, GEN x)
```

@3prints the error message

`not a prime in s: x`

.

`s`

is a zero polynomial, and we need to consider its roots. (As in `polroots(0)`

.)```
pari_err(e_ROOTS0, const char *s)
pari_err_ROOTS0(const char *s)
```

@3prints the error message

`zero polynomial in s`

.

`n`

-th root of `x`

, which does not exist, in function `s`

. (As in `sqrt(Mod(-1,3))`

.)```
pari_err(e_SQRTN, GEN x)
pari_err_SQRTN(GEN x)
```

@3prints the error message

`not an n-th power residue in s: x`

.

`long `

**name_numerr**`(const char *s)`

return the error number corresponding to an error name. E.g. `name_numerr("e_DIM")`

returns `e_DIM`

.

`const char* `

**numerr_name**`(long errnum)`

returns the error name corresponding to an error number. E.g. `name_numerr(e_DIM)`

returns `"e_DIM"`

.

`char* `

**pari_err2str**`(GEN err)`

returns the error message that would be printed on `t_ERROR`

`err`

. The name is allocated on the PARI stack and must not be freed.

A `hashtable`

, or associative array, is a set of pairs `(k,v)`

of keys and values. PARI implements general extensible hashtables for fast data retrieval: when creating a table, we may either choose to use the PARI stack, or `malloc`

so as to be stack-independent. A hashtable is implemented as a table of linked lists, each list containing all entries sharing the same hash value. The table length is a prime number, which roughly doubles as the table overflows by gaining new entries; both the current number of entries and the threshold before the table grows are stored in the table. Finally the table remembers the functions used to hash the entries's keys and to test for equality two entries hashed to the same value.

An entry, or `hashentry`

, contains

@3***** a key/value pair `(k,v)`

, both of type `void*`

for maximal flexibility,

@3***** the hash value of the key, for the table hash function. This hash is mapped to a table index (by reduction modulo the table length), but it contains more information, and is used to bypass costly general equality tests if possible,

@3***** a link pointer to the next entry sharing the same table cell.

```
typedef struct {
void *key, *val;
ulong hash; /* hash(key) */
struct hashentry *next;
} hashentry;
typedef struct {
ulong len; /* table length */
hashentry **table; /* the table */
ulong nb, maxnb; /* number of entries stored and max nb before enlarging */
ulong pindex; /* prime index */
ulong (*hash) (void *k); /* hash function */
int (*eq) (void *k1, void *k2); /* equality test */
int use_stack; /* use the PARI stack, resp. malloc */
} hashtable;
```

@3

`hashtable* `

**hash_create**`(size, hash, eq, use_stack)`

\vskip -0.5em

```
ulong size;
ulong (*hash)(void*);
int (*eq)(void*,void*);
int use_stack;
```

creates a hashtable with enough room to contain `size`

entries. The functions `hash`

and `eq`

compute the hash value of keys and test keys for equality, respectively. If `use_stack`

is non zero, the resulting table will use the PARI stack; otherwise, we use `malloc`

.

`hashtable* `

**hash_create_ulong**`(ulong size, long stack)`

special case when the keys are `ulongs`

with ordinary equality test.

`hashtable* `

**hash_create_str**`(ulong size, long stack)`

special case when the keys are character strings with string equality test (and `hash_str`

hash function).

`void `

**hash_insert**`(hashtable *h, void *k, void *v)`

inserts `(k,v)`

in hashtable `h`

. No copy is made: `k`

and `v`

themselves are stored. The implementation does not prevent one to insert two entries with equal keys `k`

, but which of the two is affected by later commands is undefined.

`void `

**hash_insert2**`(hashtable *h, void *k, void *v, ulong hash)`

as `hash_insert`

, assuming `h- > hash(k)`

is `hash`

.

`hashentry* `

**hash_search**`(hashtable *h, void *k)`

look for an entry with key `k`

in `h`

. Return it if it one exists, and `NULL`

if not.

`hashentry* `

**hash_search2**`(hashtable *h, void *k, ulong hash)`

as `hash_search`

assuming `h- > hash(k)`

is `hash`

.

`hashentry * `

**hash_select**`(hashtable *h, void *k, void *E, int (*select)(void *, hashentry *))`

variant of `hash_search`

, useful when entries with identical keys are inserted: among the entries attached to key `k`

, return one satisfying the selection criterion (such that `select(E,e)`

is non-zero), or `NULL`

if none exist.

`hashentry* `

**hash_remove**`(hashtable *h, void *k)`

deletes an entry `(k,v)`

with key `k`

from `h`

and return it. (Return `NULL`

if none was found.) Only the linking structures are freed, memory attached to `k`

and `v`

is not reclaimed.

`hashentry* `

**hash_remove_select**`(hashtable *h, void *k, void *E, int(*select)(void*, hashentry *))`

a variant of `hash_remove`

, useful when entries with identical keys are inserted: among the entries attached to key `k`

, return one satisfying the selection criterion (such that `select(E,e)`

is non-zero) and delete it, or `NULL`

if none exist. Only the linking structures are freed, memory attached to `k`

and `v`

is not reclaimed.

`GEN `

**hash_keys**`(hashtable *h)`

return in a `t_VECSMALL`

the keys stored in hashtable `h`

.

`GEN `

**hash_values**`(hashtable *h)`

return in a `t_VECSMALL`

the values stored in hashtable `h`

.

`void `

**hash_destroy**`(hashtable *h)`

deletes the hashtable, by removing all entries.

`void `

**hash_dbg**`(hashtable *h)`

print statistics for hashtable `h`

, allows to evaluate the attached hash function performance on actual data.

Some interesting hash functions are available:

`ulong `

**hash_str**`(const char *s)`

`ulong `

**hash_str2**`(const char *s)`

is the historical PARI string hashing function and seems to be generally inferior to `hash_str`

.

`ulong `

**hash_GEN**`(GEN x)`

A **dynamic array** is a generic way to manage stacks of data that need to grow dynamically. It allocates memory using `pari_malloc`

, and is independent of the PARI stack; it even works before the `pari_init`

call.

To create a stack of objects of type `foo`

, we proceed as follows:

```
foo *t_foo;
pari_stack s_foo;
pari_stack_init(&s_foo, sizeof(*t_foo), (void**)t_foo);
```

@3Think of `s_foo`

as the controlling interface, and `t_foo`

as the (dynamic) array tied to it. The value of `t_foo`

may be changed as you add more elements.

The following function pushes an element on the stack.

```
/* access globals t_foo and s_foo */
void push_foo(foo x)
{
long n = pari_stack_new(&s_foo);
t_foo[n] = x;
}
```

Elements are accessed naturally through the `t_foo`

pointer. For example this function swaps two elements:

```
void swapfoo(long a, long b)
{
foo x;
if (a > s_foo.n || b > s_foo.n) pari_err_BUG("swapfoo");
x = t_foo[a];
t_foo[a] = t_foo[b];
t_foo[b] = x;
}
```

Changing the address of `t_foo`

is not supported in general. In particular `realloc()`

'ed array of stacks and stack of stacks are not supported.

Let `s`

be a `pari_stack`

and `data`

the data linked to it. The following public fields are defined:

@3***** `s.alloc`

is the number of elements allocated for `data`

.

@3***** `s.n`

is the number of elements in the stack and `data[s.n-1]`

is the topmost element of the stack. `s.n`

can be changed as long as `0 <= s.n <= s.alloc`

holds.

`void `

**pari_stack_init**`(pari_stack *s, size_t size, void **data)`

links `*s`

to the data pointer `*data`

, where `size`

is the size of data element. The pointer `*data`

is set to `NULL`

, `s- > n`

and `s- > alloc`

are set to `0`

: the array is empty.

`void `

**pari_stack_alloc**`(pari_stack *s, long nb)`

makes room for `nb`

more elements, i.e. makes sure that `s.alloc >= s.n + nb`

, possibly reallocating `data`

.

`long `

**pari_stack_new**`(pari_stack *s)`

increases `s.n`

by one unit, possibly reallocating `data`

, and returns `s.n-1`

.

@3**Caveat.** The following construction is incorrect because `stack_new`

can change the value of `t_foo`

:

` t_foo[ pari_stack_new(&s_foo) ] = x;`

`void `

**pari_stack_delete**`(pari_stack *s)`

frees `data`

and resets the stack to the state immediately following `stack_init`

(`s- > n`

and `s- > alloc`

are set to `0`

).

`void * `

**pari_stack_pushp**`(pari_stack *s, void *u)`

This function assumes that `*data`

is of pointer type. Pushes the element `u`

on the stack `s`

.

`void ** `

**pari_stack_base**`(pari_stack *s)`

returns the address of `data`

, typecast to a `void **`

.

See "Label se:clean" and "Label se:unclean" for various useful constructors. Coefficients are accessed and set using `gel`

, `gcoeff`

, see "Label se:accessors". There are many internal functions to extract or manipulate subvectors or submatrices but, like the accessors above, none of them are suitable for `gerepileupto`

. Worse, there are no type verification, nor bound checking, so use at your own risk.

`GEN `

**shallowcopy**`(GEN x)`

returns a `GEN`

whose components are the components of `x`

(no copy is made). The result may now be used to compute in place without destroying `x`

. This is essentially equivalent to

```
GEN y = cgetg(lg(x), typ(x));
for (i = 1; i < lg(x); i++) y[i] = x[i];
return y;
```

except that `t_MAT`

is treated specially since shallow copies of all columns are made. The function also works for non-recursive types, but is useless in that case since it makes a deep copy. If `x`

is known to be a `t_MAT`

, you may call `RgM_shallowcopy`

directly; if `x`

is known not to be a `t_MAT`

, you may call `leafcopy`

directly.

`GEN `

**RgM_shallowcopy**`(GEN x)`

returns `shallowcopy(x)`

, where `x`

is a `t_MAT`

.

`GEN `

**shallowtrans**`(GEN x)`

returns the transpose of `x`

, *without* copying its components, i. e., it returns a `GEN`

whose components are (physically) the components of `x`

. This is the internal function underlying `gtrans`

.

`GEN `

**shallowconcat**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

concatenate `x`

and `y`

, *without* copying components, i. e., it returns a `GEN`

whose components are (physically) the components of `x`

and `y`

.

`GEN `

**shallowconcat1**`(GEN x)`

`x`

must be `t_VEC`

or `t_LIST`

, concatenate its elements from left to right. Shallow version of `gconcat1`

.

`GEN `

**shallowmatconcat**`(GEN v)`

shallow version of `matconcat`

.

`GEN `

**shallowextract**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

extract components of the vector or matrix `x`

according to the selection parameter `y`

. This is the shallow analog of `extract0(x, y, NULL)`

, see `vecextract`

.

`GEN `

**RgM_minor**`(GEN A, long i, long j)`

given a square `t_MAT`

A, return the matrix with `i`

-th row and `j`

-th column removed.

`GEN `

**vconcat**`(GEN A, GEN B)`

concatenate vertically the two `t_MAT`

`A`

and `B`

of compatible dimensions. A `NULL`

pointer is accepted for an empty matrix. See `shallowconcat`

.

`GEN `

**matslice**`(GEN A, long a, long b, long c, long d)`

returns the submatrix `A[a..b,c..d]`

. Assume `a <= b`

and `c <= d`

.

`GEN `

**row**`(GEN A, long i)`

return `A[i,]`

, the `i`

-th row of the `t_MAT`

`A`

.

`GEN `

**row_i**`(GEN A, long i, long j1, long j2)`

return part of the `i`

-th row of `t_MAT`

`A`

: `A[i,j_1]`

, `A[i,j_1+1]...,A[i,j_2]`

. Assume `j_1 <= j_2`

.

`GEN `

**rowcopy**`(GEN A, long i)`

return the row `A[i,]`

of the `t_MAT`

`A`

. This function is memory clean and suitable for `gerepileupto`

. See `row`

for the shallow equivalent.

`GEN `

**rowslice**`(GEN A, long i1, long i2)`

return the `t_MAT`

formed by the `i_1`

-th through `i_2`

-th rows of `t_MAT`

`A`

. Assume `i_1 <= i_2`

.

`GEN `

**rowsplice**`(GEN A, long i)`

return the `t_MAT`

formed from the coefficients of `t_MAT`

`A`

with `j`

-th row removed.

`GEN `

**rowpermute**`(GEN A, GEN p)`

, `p`

being a `t_VECSMALL`

representing a list `[p_1,...,p_n]`

of rows of `t_MAT`

`A`

, returns the matrix whose rows are `A[p_1,],..., A[p_n,]`

.

`GEN `

**rowslicepermute**`(GEN A, GEN p, long x1, long x2)`

, short for

` rowslice(rowpermute(A,p), x1, x2)`

(more efficient).

`GEN `

**vecslice**`(GEN A, long j1, long j2)`

, return `A[j_1],..., A[j_2]`

. If `A`

is a `t_MAT`

, these correspond to *columns* of `A`

. The object returned has the same type as `A`

(`t_VEC`

, `t_COL`

or `t_MAT`

). Assume `j_1 <= j_2`

.

`GEN `

**vecsplice**`(GEN A, long j)`

return `A`

with `j`

-th entry removed (`t_VEC`

, `t_COL`

) or `j`

-th column removed (`t_MAT`

).

`GEN `

**vecreverse**`(GEN A)`

. Returns a `GEN`

which has the same type as `A`

(`t_VEC`

, `t_COL`

or `t_MAT`

), and whose components are the `A[n],...,A[1]`

. If `A`

is a `t_MAT`

, these are the *columns* of `A`

.

`void `

**vecreverse_inplace**`(GEN A)`

as `vecreverse`

, but reverse `A`

in place.

`GEN `

**vecpermute**`(GEN A, GEN p)`

`p`

is a `t_VECSMALL`

representing a list `[p_1,...,p_n]`

of indices. Returns a `GEN`

which has the same type as `A`

(`t_VEC`

, `t_COL`

or `t_MAT`

), and whose components are `A[p_1],...,A[p_n]`

. If `A`

is a `t_MAT`

, these are the *columns* of `A`

.

`GEN `

**vecsmallpermute**`(GEN A, GEN p)`

as `vecpermute`

when `A`

is a `t_VECSMALL`

.

`GEN `

**vecslicepermute**`(GEN A, GEN p, long y1, long y2)`

short for

` vecslice(vecpermute(A,p), y1, y2)`

(more efficient).

The following convenience routines automate trivial loops of the form

` for (i = 1; i < lg(a); i++) gel(v,i) = f(gel(a,i), gel(b,i))`

for suitable `f`

:

`GEN `

**vecinv**`(GEN a)`

. Given a vector `a`

, returns the vector whose `i`

-th component is `ginv`

`(a[i])`

.

`GEN `

**vecmul**`(GEN a, GEN b)`

. Given `a`

and `b`

two vectors of the same length, returns the vector whose `i`

-th component is `gmul`

`(a[i], b[i])`

.

`GEN `

**vecdiv**`(GEN a, GEN b)`

. Given `a`

and `b`

two vectors of the same length, returns the vector whose `i`

-th component is `gdiv`

`(a[i], b[i])`

.

`GEN `

**vecpow**`(GEN a, GEN n)`

. Given `n`

a `t_INT`

, returns the vector whose `i`

-th component is `a[i]^n`

.

`GEN `

**vecmodii**`(GEN a, GEN b)`

. Assuming `a`

and `b`

are two `ZV`

of the same length, returns the vector whose `i`

-th component is `modii`

`(a[i], b[i])`

.

Note that `vecadd`

or `vecsub`

do not exist since `gadd`

and `gsub`

have the expected behavior. On the other hand, `ginv`

does not accept vector types, hence `vecinv`

.

These functions handle `t_VEC`

as an abstract container type of `GEN`

s. No specific meaning is attached to the content. They accept both `t_VEC`

and `t_COL`

as input, but `col`

functions always return `t_COL`

and `vec`

functions always return `t_VEC`

.

@3**Note.** All the functions below are shallow.

`GEN `

**const_col**`(long n, GEN x)`

returns a `t_COL`

of `n`

components equal to `x`

.

`GEN `

**const_vec**`(long n, GEN x)`

returns a `t_VEC`

of `n`

components equal to `x`

.

`int `

**vec_isconst**`(GEN v)`

Returns 1 if all the components of `v`

are equal, else returns 0.

`void `

**vec_setconst**`(GEN v, GEN x)`

`v`

a pre-existing vector. Set all its components to `x`

.

`int `

**vec_is1to1**`(GEN v)`

Returns 1 if the components of `v`

are pair-wise distinct, i.e. if `i:--->v[i]`

is a 1-to-1 mapping, else returns 0.

`GEN `

**vec_append**`(GEN V, GEN s)`

append `s`

to the vector `V`

.

`GEN `

**vec_shorten**`(GEN v, long n)`

shortens the vector `v`

to `n`

components.

`GEN `

**vec_lengthen**`(GEN v, long n)`

lengthens the vector `v`

to `n`

components. The extra components are not initialized.

`GEN `

**vec_insert**`(GEN v, long n, GEN x)`

inserts `x`

at position `n`

in the vector `v`

.

`t_VECSMALL`

These functions handle `t_VECSMALL`

as an abstract container type of small signed integers. No specific meaning is attached to the content.

`GEN `

**const_vecsmall**`(long n, long c)`

returns a `t_VECSMALL`

of `n`

components equal to `c`

.

`GEN `

**vec_to_vecsmall**`(GEN z)`

identical to `ZV_to_zv(z)`

.

`GEN `

**vecsmall_to_vec**`(GEN z)`

identical to `zv_to_ZV(z)`

.

`GEN `

**vecsmall_to_col**`(GEN z)`

identical to `zv_to_ZC(z)`

.

`GEN `

**vecsmall_copy**`(GEN x)`

makes a copy of `x`

on the stack.

`GEN `

**vecsmall_shorten**`(GEN v, long n)`

shortens the `t_VECSMALL`

`v`

to `n`

components.

`GEN `

**vecsmall_lengthen**`(GEN v, long n)`

lengthens the `t_VECSMALL`

`v`

to `n`

components. The extra components are not initialized.

`GEN `

**vecsmall_indexsort**`(GEN x)`

performs an indirect sort of the components of the `t_VECSMALL`

`x`

and return a permutation stored in a `t_VECSMALL`

.

`void `

**vecsmall_sort**`(GEN v)`

sorts the `t_VECSMALL`

`v`

in place.

`void `

**vecsmall_reverse**`(GEN v)`

as `vecreverse`

for a `t_VECSMALL`

`v`

.

`long `

**vecsmall_max**`(GEN v)`

returns the maximum of the elements of `t_VECSMALL`

`v`

, assumed non-empty.

`long `

**vecsmall_indexmax**`(GEN v)`

returns the index of the largest element of `t_VECSMALL`

`v`

, assumed non-empty.

`long `

**vecsmall_min**`(GEN v)`

returns the minimum of the elements of `t_VECSMALL`

`v`

, assumed non-empty.

`long `

**vecsmall_indexmin**`(GEN v)`

returns the index of the smallest element of `t_VECSMALL`

`v`

, assumed non-empty.

`long `

**vecsmall_isin**`(GEN v, long x)`

returns the first index `i`

such that `v[i]`

is equal to `x`

. Naive search in linear time, does not assume that `v`

is sorted.

`GEN `

**vecsmall_uniq**`(GEN v)`

given a `t_VECSMALL`

`v`

, return the vector of unique occurrences.

`GEN `

**vecsmall_uniq_sorted**`(GEN v)`

same as `vecsmall_uniq`

, but assumes `v`

sorted.

`long `

**vecsmall_duplicate**`(GEN v)`

given a `t_VECSMALL`

`v`

, return `0`

if there is no duplicates, or the index of the first duplicate (`vecsmall_duplicate([1,1])`

returns `2`

).

`long `

**vecsmall_duplicate_sorted**`(GEN v)`

same as `vecsmall_duplicate`

, but assume `v`

sorted.

`int `

**vecsmall_lexcmp**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

compares two `t_VECSMALL`

lexically.

`int `

**vecsmall_prefixcmp**`(GEN x, GEN y)`

truncate the longest `t_VECSMALL`

to the length of the shortest and compares them lexicographically.

`GEN `

**vecsmall_prepend**`(GEN V, long s)`

prepend `s`

to the `t_VECSMALL`

`V`

.

`GEN `

**vecsmall_append**`(GEN V, long s)`

append `s`

to the `t_VECSMALL`

`V`

.

`GEN `

**vecsmall_concat**`(GEN u, GEN v)`

concat the `t_VECSMALL`

`u`

and `v`

.

`long `

**vecsmall_coincidence**`(GEN u, GEN v)`

returns the numbers of indices where `u`

and `v`

agree.

`long `

**vecsmall_pack**`(GEN v, long base, long mod)`

handles the `t_VECSMALL`

`v`

as the digit of a number in base `base`

and return this number modulo `mod`

. This can be used as an hash function.

`t_VECSMALL`

These functions manipulate vectors of `t_VECSMALL`

(vecvecsmall).

`GEN `

**vecvecsmall_sort**`(GEN x)`

sorts lexicographically the components of the vector `x`

.

`GEN `

**vecvecsmall_sort_uniq**`(GEN x)`

sorts lexicographically the components of the vector `x`

, removing duplicates entries.

`GEN `

**vecvecsmall_indexsort**`(GEN x)`

performs an indirect lexicographic sorting of the components of the vector `x`

and return a permutation stored in a `t_VECSMALL`

.

`long `

**vecvecsmall_search**`(GEN x, GEN y, long flag)`

`x`

being a sorted vecvecsmall and `y`

a `t_VECSMALL`

, search `y`

inside `x`

. `flag`

has the same meaning as for `setsearch`

.

\newpage

libPARI - Functions related to the GP interpreter

`t_CLOSURE`

`void `

**closure_disassemble**`(GEN C)`

print the `t_CLOSURE`

`C`

in GP assembly format.

`GEN `

**closure_callgenall**`(GEN C, long n, ...)`

evaluate the `t_CLOSURE`

`C`

with the `n`

arguments (of type `GEN`

) following `n`

in the function call. Assumes `C`

has arity ` >= n`

.

`GEN `

**closure_callgenvec**`(GEN C, GEN args)`

evaluate the `t_CLOSURE`

`C`

with the arguments supplied in the vector `args`

. Assumes `C`

has arity ` >= lg(args)-1`

.

`GEN `

**closure_callgenvecprec**`(GEN C, GEN args, long prec)`

as `closure_callgenvec`

but set the precision locally to `prec`

.

`GEN `

**closure_callgen1**`(GEN C, GEN x)`

evaluate the `t_CLOSURE`

`C`

with argument `x`

. Assumes `C`

has arity ` >= 1`

.

`GEN `

**closure_callgen1prec**`(GEN C, GEN x, long prec)`

as `closure_callgen1`

, but set the precision locally to `prec`

.

`GEN `

**closure_callgen2**`(GEN C, GEN x, GEN y)`

evaluate the `t_CLOSURE`

`C`

with argument `x`

, `y`

. Assumes `C`

has arity ` >= 2`

.

`void `

**closure_callvoid1**`(GEN C, GEN x)`

evaluate the `t_CLOSURE`

`C`

with argument `x`

and discard the result. Assumes `C`

has arity ` >= 1`

.

The following technical functions are used to evaluate *inline* closures and closures of arity 0.

The control flow statements (break, next and return) will cause the evaluation of the closure to be interrupted; this is called below a *flow change*. When that occurs, the functions below generally return `NULL`

. The caller can then adopt three positions:

@3***** raises an exception (`closure_evalnobrk`

).

@3***** passes through (by returning NULL itself).

@3***** handles the flow change.

`GEN `

**closure_evalgen**`(GEN code)`

evaluates a closure and returns the result, or `NULL`

if a flow change occurred.

`GEN `

**closure_evalnobrk**`(GEN code)`

as `closure_evalgen`

but raise an exception if a flow change occurs. Meant for iterators where interrupting the closure is meaningless, e.g. `intnum`

or `sumnum`

.

`void `

**closure_evalvoid**`(GEN code)`

evaluates a closure whose return value is ignored. The caller has to deal with eventual flow changes by calling `loop_break`

.

The remaining functions below are for exceptional situations:

`GEN `

**closure_evalres**`(GEN code)`

evaluates a closure and returns the result. The difference with `closure_evalgen`

being that, if the flow end by a `return`

statement, the result will be the returned value instead of `NULL`

. Used by the main GP loop.

`GEN `

**closure_evalbrk**`(GEN code, long *status)`

as `closure_evalres`

but set `status`

to a non-zero value if a flow change occurred. This variant is not stack clean. Used by the break loop.

`GEN `

**closure_trapgen**`(long numerr, GEN code)`

evaluates closure, while trapping error `numerr`

. Return `(GEN)1L`

if error trapped, and the result otherwise, or `NULL`

if a flow change occurred. Used by trap.

`long `

**loop_break**`(void)`

processes an eventual flow changes inside an iterator. If this function return `1`

, the iterator should stop.

Function using the prototype code ``V'`

need to manually create and delete a lexical variable for each code ``V'`

, which will be given a number `-1, -2, ...`

.

`void `

**push_lex**`(GEN a, GEN code)`

creates a new lexical variable whose initial value is `a`

on the top of the stack. This variable get the number `-1`

, and the number of the other variables is decreased by one unit. When the first variable of a closure is created, the argument `code`

must be the closure that references this lexical variable. The argument `code`

must be `NULL`

for all subsequent variables (if any). (The closure contains the debugging data for the variable).

`void `

**pop_lex**`(long n)`

deletes the `n`

topmost lexical variables, increasing the number of other variables by `n`

. The argument `n`

must match the number of variables allocated through `push_lex`

.

`GEN `

**get_lex**`(long vn)`

get the value of the variable with number `vn`

.

`void `

**set_lex**`(long vn, GEN x)`

set the value of the variable with number `vn`

.

`GEN `

**compile_str**`(const char *s)`

returns the closure corresponding to the GP expression `s`

.

`GEN `

**closure_deriv**`(GEN code)`

returns a closure corresponding to the numerical derivative of the closure `code`

.

`GEN `

**snm_closure**`(entree *ep, GEN data)`

Let `data`

be a vector of length `m`

, `ep`

be an `entree`

pointing to a C function `f`

of arity `n+m`

, returns a `t_CLOSURE`

object `g`

of arity `n`

such that `g(x_1,...,x_n) = f(x_1,...,x_n,gel(data,1),...,gel(data,m))`

. If `data`

is `NULL`

, then `m = 0`

is assumed. This function has a low overhead since it does not copy `data`

.

`GEN `

**strtofunction**`(char *str)`

returns a closure corresponding to the built-in or install'ed function named `str`

.

`GEN `

**strtoclosure**`(char *str, long n, ...)`

returns a closure corresponding to the built-in or install'ed function named `str`

with the `n`

last parameters set to the `n`

`GEN`

s following `n`

, see `snm_closure`

. This function has an higher overhead since it copies the parameters and does more input validation.

In the example code below, `agm1`

is set to the function `x- > agm(x,1)`

and `res`

is set to `agm(2,1)`

.

```
GEN agm1 = strtoclosure("agm",1, gen_1);
GEN res = closure_callgen1(agm1, gen_2);
```

`long `

**closure_context**`(long s)`

restores the compilation context starting at frame `s+1`

, and returns the index of the topmost frame. This allow to compile expressions in the topmost lexical scope.

`void `

**closure_err**`(void)`

prints a backtrace of the last `20`

stack frames.

Two families of standard wrappers are provided to interface iterators like `intnum`

or `sumnum`

with GP.

Theses wrappers are used to implement GP functions taking inline closures as input. The object `(GEN)E`

must be an inline closure which is evaluated with the lexical variable number `-1`

set to `x`

.

`GEN `

**gp_eval**`(void *E, GEN x)`

is used for the prototype code ``E'`

.

`GEN `

**gp_evalprec**`(void *E, GEN x, long prec)`

as `gp_eval`

, but set the precision locally to `prec`

.

`long `

**gp_evalvoid**`(void *E, GEN x)`

is used for the prototype code ``I'`

. The resulting value is discarded. Return a non-zero value if a control-flow instruction request the iterator to terminate immediately.

`long `

**gp_evalbool**`(void *E, GEN x)`

returns the boolean `gp_eval(E, x)`

evaluates to (i.e. true iff the value is non-zero).

`GEN `

**gp_evalupto**`(void *E, GEN x)`

memory-safe version of `gp_eval`

, `gcopy`

-ing the result, when the evaluator returns components of previously allocated objects (e.g. member functions).

These wrappers are used to implement GP functions taking true closures as input.

`GEN `

**gp_call**`(void *E, GEN x)`

evaluates the closure `(GEN)E`

on `x`

.

`GEN `

**gp_callprec**`(void *E, GEN x, long prec)`

as `gp_call`

, but set the precision locally to `prec`

.

`GEN `

**gp_call2**`(void *E, GEN x, GEN y)`

evaluates the closure `(GEN)E`

on `(x,y)`

.

`long `

**gp_callbool**`(void *E, GEN x)`

evaluates the closure `(GEN)E`

on `x`

, returns `1`

if its result is non-zero, and `0`

otherwise.

`long `

**gp_callvoid**`(void *E, GEN x)`

evaluates the closure `(GEN)E`

on `x`

, discarding the result. Return a non-zero value if a control-flow instruction request the iterator to terminate immediately.

`entree* `

**pari_is_default**`(const char *s)`

return the `entree`

structure attached to `s`

if it is the name of a default, `NULL`

otherwise.

`GEN `

**setdefault**`(const char *s, const char *v, long flag)`

is the low-level function underlying `default0`

. If `s`

is `NULL`

, call all default setting functions with string argument `NULL`

and flag `d_ACKNOWLEDGE`

. Otherwise, check whether `s`

corresponds to a default and call the corresponding default setting function with arguments `v`

and *flag*.

We shall describe these functions below: if `v`

is `NULL`

, we only look at the default value (and possibly print or return it, depending on `flag`

); otherwise the value of the default to `v`

, possibly after some translation work. The flag is one of

@3***** `d_INITRC`

called while reading the `gprc`

: print and return `gnil`

, possibly defer until `gp`

actually starts.

@3***** `d_RETURN`

return the current value, as a `t_INT`

if possible, as a `t_STR`

otherwise.

@3***** `d_ACKNOWLEDGE`

print the current value, return `gnil`

.

@3***** `d_SILENT`

print nothing, return `gnil`

.

@3Low-level functions called by `setdefault`

:

`GEN `

**sd_TeXstyle**`(const char *v, long flag)`

`GEN `

**sd_breakloop**`(const char *v, long flag)`

`GEN `

**sd_colors**`(const char *v, long flag)`

`GEN `

**sd_compatible**`(const char *v, long flag)`

`GEN `

**sd_datadir**`(const char *v, long flag)`

`GEN `

**sd_debug**`(const char *v, long flag)`

`GEN `

**sd_debugfiles**`(const char *v, long flag)`

`GEN `

**sd_debugmem**`(const char *v, long flag)`

`GEN `

**sd_echo**`(const char *v, long flag)`

`GEN `

**sd_factor_add_primes**`(const char *v, long flag)`

`GEN `

**sd_factor_proven**`(const char *v, long flag)`

`GEN `

**sd_format**`(const char *v, long flag)`

`GEN `

**sd_graphcolormap**`(const char *v, long flag)`

`GEN `

**sd_graphcolors**`(const char *v, long flag)`

`GEN `

**sd_help**`(const char *v, long flag)`

`GEN `

**sd_histfile**`(const char *v, long flag)`

`GEN `

**sd_histsize**`(const char *v, long flag)`

`GEN `

**sd_lines**`(const char *v, long flag)`

`GEN `

**sd_linewrap**`(const char *v, long flag)`

`GEN `

**sd_log**`(const char *v, long flag)`

`GEN `

**sd_logfile**`(const char *v, long flag)`

`GEN `

**sd_nbthreads**`(const char *v, long flag)`

`GEN `

**sd_new_galois_format**`(const char *v, long flag)`

`GEN `

**sd_output**`(const char *v, long flag)`

`GEN `

**sd_parisize**`(const char *v, long flag)`

`GEN `

**sd_parisizemax**`(const char *v, long flag)`

`GEN `

**sd_path**`(const char *v, long flag)`

`GEN `

**sd_prettyprinter**`(const char *v, long flag)`

`GEN `

**sd_primelimit**`(const char *v, long flag)`

`GEN `

**sd_prompt**`(const char *v, long flag)`

`GEN `

**sd_prompt_cont**`(const char *v, long flag)`

`GEN `

**sd_psfile**`(const char *v, long flag)`

`GEN `

**sd_readline**`(const char *v, long flag)`

`GEN `

**sd_realbitprecision**`(const char *v, long flag)`

`GEN `

**sd_realprecision**`(const char *v, long flag)`

`GEN `

**sd_recover**`(const char *v, long flag)`

`GEN `

**sd_secure**`(const char *v, long flag)`

`GEN `

**sd_seriesprecision**`(const char *v, long flag)`

`GEN `

**sd_simplify**`(const char *v, long flag)`

`GEN `

**sd_sopath**`(const char *v, int flag)`

`GEN `

**sd_strictargs**`(const char *v, long flag)`

`GEN `

**sd_strictmatch**`(const char *v, long flag)`

`GEN `

**sd_timer**`(const char *v, long flag)`

`GEN `

**sd_threadsize**`(const char *v, long flag)`

`GEN `

**sd_threadsizemax**`(const char *v, long flag)`

@3Generic functions used to implement defaults: most of the above routines are implemented in terms of the following generic ones. In all routines below

@3***** `v`

and `flag`

are the arguments passed to `default`

: `v`

is a new value (or the empty string: no change), and `flag`

is one of `d_INITRC`

, `d_RETURN`

, etc.

@3***** `s`

is the name of the default being changed, used to display error messages or acknowledgements.

`GEN `

**sd_toggle**`(const char *v, long flag, const char *s, int *ptn)`

@3***** if `v`

is neither `"0"`

nor `"1"`

, an error is raised using `pari_err`

.

@3***** `ptn`

points to the current numerical value of the toggle (1 or 0), and is set to the new value (when `v`

is non-empty).

For instance, here is how the timer default is implemented internally:

```
GEN
sd_timer(const char *v, long flag)
{ return sd_toggle(v,flag,"timer", &(GP_DATA->chrono)); }
```

The exact behavior and return value depends on `flag`

:

@3***** `d_RETURN`

: returns the new toggle value, as a `GEN`

.

@3***** `d_ACKNOWLEDGE`

: prints a message indicating the new toggle value and return `gnil`

.

@3***** other cases: print nothing and return `gnil`

.

`GEN `

**sd_ulong**`(const char *v, long flag, const char *s, ulong *ptn, ulong Min, ulong Max, const char **msg)`

\hbadness 10000

@3***** `ptn`

points to the current numerical value of the toggle, and is set to the new value (when `v`

is non-empty).

@3***** `Min`

and `Max`

point to the minimum and maximum values allowed for the default.

@3***** `v`

must translate to an integer in the allowed ranger, a suffix among `k`

/`K`

(` x 10^3`

), `m`

/`M`

(` x 10^6`

), or `g`

/`G`

(` x 10^9`

) is allowed, but no arithmetic expression.

@3***** `msg`

is a \kbd[NULL]-terminated array of messages or `NULL`

(ignored). If `msg`

is not `NULL`

, `msg`

`[i]`

contains a message attached to the value `i`

of the default. The last entry in the `msg`

array is used as a message attached to all subsequent ones.

The exact behavior and return value depends on `flag`

:

@3***** `d_RETURN`

: returns the new toggle value, as a `GEN`

.

@3***** `d_ACKNOWLEDGE`

: prints a message indicating the new value, possibly a message attached to it via the `msg`

argument, and return `gnil`

.

@3***** other cases: print nothing and return `gnil`

.

`GEN `

**sd_string**`(const char *v, long flag, const char *s, char **pstr)`

***** `v`

is subjet to environment expansion, then time expansion.

@3***** `pstr`

points to the current string value, and is set to the new value (when `v`

is non-empty).

The functions in this section are used to implement `ell`

structures and analogous objects, which are vectors some of whose components are initialized to dummy values, later computed on demand. We start by initializing the structure:

`GEN `

**obj_init**`(long d, long n)`

returns an *obj* `S`

, a `t_VEC`

with `d`

regular components, accessed as `gel(S,1)`

,..., `gel(S,d)`

; together with a record of `n`

members, all initialized to `0`

. The arguments `d`

and `n`

must be non-negative.

After `S = obj_init(d, n)`

, the prototype of our other functions are of the form

` GEN obj_do(GEN S, long tag, ...)`

@3The first argument `S`

holds the structure to be managed. The second argument *tag* is the index of the struct member (from `1`

to `n`

) we operate on. We recommend to define an `enum`

and use descriptive names instead of hardcoded numbers. For instance, if `n = 3`

, after defining

` enum { TAG_p = 1, TAG_list, TAG_data };`

@3one may use `TAG_list`

or `2`

indifferently as a tag. The former being preferred, of course.

@3**Technical note.** In the current implementation, `S`

is a `t_VEC`

with `d+1`

entries. The first `d`

components are ordinary `t_GEN`

entries, which you can read or assign to in the customary way. But the last component `gel(S, d+1)`

, a `t_VEC`

of length `n`

initialized to `zerovec`

`(n)`

, must be handled in a special way: you should never access or modify its components directly, only through the API we are about to describe. Indeed, its entries are meant to contain dynamic data, which will be stored, retrieved and replaced (for instance by a value computed to a higher accuracy), while interacting safely with intermediate `gerepile`

calls. This mechanism allows to simulate C `struct`

s, in a simpler way than with general hashtables, while remaining compatible with the GP language, which knows neither structs nor hashtables. It also serialize the structure in an ordinary `GEN`

, which facilitates copies and garbage collection (use `gcopy`

or `gerepile`

), rather than having to deal with individual components of actual C `struct`

s.

`GEN `

**obj_reinit**`(GEN S)`

make a shallow copy of `S`

, re-initializing all dynamic components. This allows ``forking'' a lazy vector while avoiding both a memory leak, and storing pointers to the same data in different objects (with risks of a double free later).

`GEN `

**obj_check**`(GEN S, long tag)`

if the *tag*-component in `S`

is non empty, return it. Otherwise return `NULL`

. The `t_INT`

`0`

(initial value) is used as a sentinel to indicated an empty component.

`GEN `

**obj_insert**`(GEN S, long tag, GEN O)`

insert (a clone of) `O`

as *tag*-component of `S`

. Any previous value is deleted, and data pointing to it become invalid.

`GEN `

**obj_insert_shallow**`(GEN S, long K, GEN O)`

as `obj_insert`

, inserting `O`

as-is, not via a clone.

`GEN `

**obj_checkbuild**`(GEN S, long tag, GEN (*build)(GEN))`

if the *tag*-component of `S`

is non empty, return it. Otherwise insert (a clone of) `build(S)`

as *tag*-component in `S`

, and return it.

`GEN `

**obj_checkbuild_padicprec**`(GEN S, long tag, GEN (*build)(GEN,long), long prec)`

if the *tag*-component of `S`

is non empty *and* has relative `p`

-adic precision ` >= prec`

, return it. Otherwise insert (a clone of) `build(S, prec)`

as *tag*-component in `S`

, and return it.

`GEN `

**obj_checkbuild_realprec**`(GEN S, long tag, GEN (*build)(GEN, long), long prec)`

if the *tag*-component of `S`

is non empty *and* satisfies `gprecision`

` >= prec`

, return it. Otherwise insert (a clone of) `build(S, prec)`

as *tag*-component in `S`

, and return it.

`GEN `

**obj_checkbuild_prec**`(GEN S, long tag, GEN (*build)(GEN,long), GEN (*gpr)(GEN), long prec)`

if the *tag*-component of `S`

is non empty *and* has precision `gpr(x) >= prec`

, return it. Otherwise insert (a clone of) `build(S, prec)`

as *tag*-component in `S`

, and return it.

`void `

**obj_free**`(GEN S)`

destroys all clones stored in the `n`

tagged components, and replace them by the initial value `0`

. The regular entries of `S`

are unaffected, and `S`

remains a valid object. This is used to avoid memory leaks.