|John Jones on Thu, 11 Oct 2007 22:52:30 +0200|
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|Re: Functions as first-class objects|
Hi,I may be doing something stupid, but I couldn't successfully apply the patch (I tried against 2.3.2 and against cvs and parts were rejected in both cases).
But, this is a feature I wished gp had so I am glad to see it might be incorporated. Hopefully "map(function, vector)" and "select(vector, function)" can then become standard gp functions.
John Bill Allombert wrote:
Hello PARI-dev, I would like to discuss moving user functions to first-class objects, and add support for anonymous functions and closures. The attached (-p1) patch implement that. Interestingly this patch reduces the code size while adding features. The idea is to remove the distinction between variables and functions: a function would just be a variable that hold a function object (of type t_CLOSURE in my patch). This means that functions could be passed as parameter, store in local variable and returned by a function. The consequence are far-reaching, so I would really appreciate comments. I would like to keep the syntax in the spirit of GP. 1) We need new syntax to define anonymous functions: The patch adds the following syntax: * (x1,...,xn)->EXPR : create an anonymous function. * x1->EXPR is accepted as a short-hand for (x1)->EXPR * f(x1,...,xn)=EXPR is accepted as a short-hand for f=(x1,...,xn)->EXPR * (EXPR)(x1,...,xn) evaluate the expression EXPR. If the result is a function, it call it on (x1,...,xn), else it fails. Oddity: * Nullary anonymous functions are defined by ()->EXPR * The parens in (EXPR)(x1,...,xn) tend to be annoying: (%34)(5), (f(5))(6), etc. * GP does not know about tuples thought the left part of (x1,...,xn)->EXPR looks like a tuple and the patch provide no support for currying/uncurrying: x->y->x+y and (x,y)->x+y require different calling syntax. * There is no syntactic sugar for basic operations on functions like slice: x->f(x,56), composition x->f(g(x)), etc. 2) We have to print functions since they are objects now. * The patch call all function to be printed as (x1,...,xn)->EXPR even if they were defined through f(x1,...,xn)=EXPR because the latter is actually an affectation and that would break copy-paste: ? f(x)=x^4+1 %1 = (x) -> x^4+1 ? g=(x) -> x^4+1 %2 = (x) -> x^4+1 ? f(x)==g(x) %3 = 1 * Actually closures break copy-paste because they refer to 'hidden' data: ? f(x)=y->x+y %4 = (x) -> y->x+y ? f(5) %5 = (y) -> x+y ? (%5)(6) %6 = 11 ? ((y) -> x+y)(6) %7 = x + 6 3) Incompatibilities: * f(x)=x^4+1 is equivalent to f=(x)->x^4+1 which return the 'value' (x)->x^4+1 instead of void: ? f(x)=x^4+1 %1 = (x) -> x^4+1 * Calling a function without () no more evaluate it: ? f %2 = (x) -> x^4+1 4) Deficiencies * The patch does not provide any low-level operations on closures. * Built-in functions are not first-class objects, and there are no obvious way to encapsulate them in a user function, due to some prototype code which have now user functions equivalent. * While functions act as closure with respect to lexically-scoped local variables, variables values changes occuring after the function is defined are ignored. * It is not possible to define recursive anonymous functions (short of the Y combinator). Maybe we need to add a 'self' construction: ? g(f)=x->if(x,x*f(x-1),1) %17 = (f) -> x->if(x,x*f(x-1),1) ? fix=f->(x->f(y->(x(x))(y)))(x->f(y->(x(x))(y))) %18 = (f) -> (x->f(y->(x(x))(y)))(x->f(y->(x(x))(y))) ? (fix(g))(6) %19 = 720 That's all for today :) Cheers, Bill PS: I dedicate this patch to Henri Cohen for his birthday. Happy birthday, Henri!